Sol-gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-gel Processing

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C. Jeffrey Brinker, George W. Scherer
Academic Press, 1990 - Science - 908 pages
Sol-Gel Science presents the physical and chemical principles of the sol-gel process at a level suitable for graduate students and practitioners in the field. This book defines sol-gel rather broadly as the preparation of ceramic materials by preparation of a sol, gelation of the sol, and removal of the solvent. The sol may be produced from inorganic or organic precursors (e.g., nitrates or alkoxides) and may consist of dense oxide particles of polymeric clusters. Brinker expands the definition of ceramics to include organically modified materials, often called ORMOSILs or CERAMERs. The emphasis of the author' treatment is on the science, rather than the technology, of sol-gel processing. Although a chapter on applications is included, more detailed discussion is available in proceedings of conferences and in the recent collection of articles, Sol-Gel Technology for thin films, Fibers, Preforms, Electronics, and Specialty Shapes (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988), edited by professor Lisa Klein.

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Contents

Nonsilicates
21
Silicates
97
Paniculate Sols and Gels
235
Copyright

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About the author (1990)

C. Jeffrey Brinker is widely recognized for his pioneering work in sol-gel chemistry - the formation of ceramic materials from molecular precursors. His initial efforts addressed the processing of highly refractory glasses like fused silica at remarkably low temperatures - less than half that of conventional melt-processing. He then turned his attention to the preparation of porous materials useful for a wide range of applications including antireflective coatings, sensors, membranes, adsorbents, and thermal and acoustic insulation. Through exploitation of the scaling relationships of mass and size of fractal objects, he devised a fractal engineering approach to tailor the porosity and pore size of these materials. This early work culminated in the publication of Sol-Gel Science in 1990 (with co-author George Scherer), a book that remains the most highly cited reference in this rapidly growing field.

From 1974 to 1985, Professor George W. Scherer was at Corning Glass Works, where his research included optical fiber fabrication, viscous sintering, and viscoelastic stress analysis. The latter work was the subject of his first book, Relaxation in Glass and Composites (Wiley, 1986). From 1985 through 1995, he was a member of the Central Research Department of the DuPont Company, where his work dealt principally with sol-gel processing, and especially with drying. In collaboration with Jeff Brinker of Sandia National Labs, he wrote a book entitled Sol-Gel Science (Academic Press, 1990). He is a fellow of the American Ceramic Society and a member of the Materials Research Society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Concrete Institute, and RILEM. In 1997 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. In February, 1996, he became a full professor in the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at Princeton University, and a member of the Princeton Materials Institute (now, PRISM). His research involves mechanisms of deterioration of concrete and stone, particularly by crystallization of ice and salts in the pores.

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