Sol-gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-gel Processing
C. Jeffrey Brinker, George W. Scherer
Academic Press, 1990 - Science - 908 pages
Sol-Gel Science presents the physical and chemical principles of the sol-gel process at a level suitable for graduate students and practitioners in the field. This book defines sol-gel rather broadly as the preparation of ceramic materials by preparation of a sol, gelation of the sol, and removal of the solvent. The sol may be produced from inorganic or organic precursors (e.g., nitrates or alkoxides) and may consist of dense oxide particles of polymeric clusters. Brinker expands the definition of ceramics to include organically modified materials, often called ORMOSILs or CERAMERs. The emphasis of the author' treatment is on the science, rather than the technology, of sol-gel processing. Although a chapter on applications is included, more detailed discussion is available in proceedings of conferences and in the recent collection of articles, Sol-Gel Technology for thin films, Fibers, Preforms, Electronics, and Specialty Shapes (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1988), edited by professor Lisa Klein.
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Paniculate Sols and Gels
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29Si NMR acid acid-catalyzed adsorbed adsorption aggregation alcohol alkoxide amorphous aqueous base-catalyzed behavior Better Ceramics boehmite bonds C.J. Brinker capillary pressure Ceramics Ceramics Through Chemistry Chapter Chem chemical clusters colloidal composition concentration condensation reactions coordination crystallization D.E. Clark D.R. Ulrich Wiley decreases dehydroxylation densification density diffusion discussed drying energy ethanol evaporation fibers film fractal dimension G.W. Scherer gel point gelation glass groups growth heating hydrogen bonded hydrolysis hydrolysis and condensation hydrolyzed hydroxyl increases indicates interface isotherm kinetics L.L. Hench ligands materials metal modulus molecules monomers Non-Cryst nucleophilic occurs oxide particles percolation Phys polymeric polymers pore liquid porosity porous precursors prepared radius Raman refractive index region sample shown in Fig shrinkage silanol silica gels silicon siloxane sintering solid phase solution solvent species spectra strain stress structure surface area temperature TMOS viscosity volume xerogels Yoldas