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A Help-Book for Teachers

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EMMA MILLER BOLENIUS
Author of The Boys' and Girls' Readers,Teaching Literature in the

Grammar Grades and High School,The Teaching of Oral

English," and " Everyday English Composition" books

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COPYRIGHT, 1923

BY EMMA MILLER BOLENIUS

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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:. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following publishers and
authorg for use of copyrighted material:

To the Milton Bradley Company for stories from Emilie Pouls-
son's In the Child's World, Jane L. Hoxie's Kindergarten Story Book,
and Maud Lindsay's Mother Stories, and for a song from Eleanor
Smith's Songs for Little Children; to A. S. Barnes and Company for
words and music of a song from Crawford's Dramatic Games and
Dances for Little Children; to Lothrop, Lee, and Shepard Company
for songs from Emilie Poulsson's Finger Plays; to A. Flanagan Com-
pany for a story from Flora J. Cooke's Nature Myths; to Frederick A.
Stokes and Company for a poem from Gelett Burgess's Goops and
How to Be Them; to Houghton Mifflin Company for poems by
Phoebe Cary, Thomas Bailey Aldrich, and Henry Wadsworth Long-
fellow, and stories by Frances Olcott and Horace Scudder; to The
Youth's Companion for a story by Eudora Bumstead; to The Outlook
for a story by Mary Loomis Gaylord; and to the Century Company
for a story by A. S. Hayes published in St. Nicholas Magazine.

The Riverside Press
CAMBRIDGE : MASSACHUSETTS

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

To the Teacher

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\HIS course in first-grade reading has its roots in the author's love of

children and her keen interest in classroom problems. She has endeavored to approach the matter of primary reading both from the standpoint of the latest investigations in primary reading and also through the eyes of the child himself. She has also kept in mind the handicaps of environment, lack of experience of many teachers, over-large classes, and other features that play such a strong part in determining the success or failure of a teacher's work. This course, therefore, is built primarily for the child. It is built secondarily to aid the teacher to do well a task that in itself is tremendous — that of giving the child control of the process that is basal in all of his other school work.

The recent investigations in the field of primary reading — and of all school reading - have been most significant. The author has made a careful study of the latest thought on primary reading as given in reports, investigations, courses of study, surveys, and books by experts. Moreover there is not a suggestion in this book that has not been“ tried out" or submitted to the approval of expert teachers of primary reading.

Attention is directed to the following features of the course:

1. The motivation of the reading exercises. Reading is made such

a pleasure in the child's mind that he is eager to learn to read more. 2. The correlation of first-grade activities with reading. Number work,

hand work, language, rhythm, etc. - all these are woven with the reading. In fact the whole day is made to revolve around the reading

exercises. 3. The transmutation of seat work into a profitable reading exercise,

by utilizing the child's most dominant trait, using his hands. 4. The practical sifting of children into good, medium, and poor, by

means of diagnostic exercises and tests, to economize the teacher's time and effort in the application of the sort of drill that suits both the children and the defect. Hence recognition of individual

differences. 5. A system of reinforcement, whereby vocabulary is repeated very

many times under agreeable circumstances. 6. The use of the play spirit in reading by means of many varied games.

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7. Progressive exercises in silent reading, beginning with the first week. 8. A happy blending of thought getting and word mastery. 9. The definite progression along simple lines made plain by clearly

stated objectives and detailed lessons. 10. Fresh material blended with the best of the old, all being supple

mented by supervised reading from other primers and first readers, the object being that these books may serve to guide — really guide - the child in pursuing his reading along supplementary lines and build in him a love of the best books.

The course aims to prepare children to attack the problems of the second grade with the assurance that strong reading ability always gives. For, after all, reading is the basis of primary work, and the best teacher is she who most expeditiously and happily teaches her children to read well.

The author wishes to thank the many superintendents and teachers who gave largely of their time and effort in the making of this course. Their assistance in going over the manuscripts and trying out material with pupils of various types of schools has been invaluable in adapting the work to actual schoolroom conditions and requirements. Especially does she wish to express appreciation to Superintendent Thomas Gordon Bennett, of Queen Anne's County, Maryland, and his teachers, Miss Mary E. Cockey, Mrs. Lola P. Brown, Mrs. Barbara Harley, and Mrs. Elizabeth Rapp; to Miss Eleanor A. Parker, of Boston, Massachusetts, and to Miss E. May Baker, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Without Houghton Mifflin Company's wealth of copyright material, it would have been impossible to construct this series. The editor feels deeply grateful to them, not only for the rich content of the readers, but also for their untiring editorial coöperation; and to The Riverside Press for their exceptionally fine coöperation in making the typography of the books meet the new standards of experts in primary methods and eye-hygiene.

The Manual itself is intended to be a Help-Book for teachers. The author has tried to inject into it her personal enthusiasm, for she well realizes that the young or inexperienced teacher may be carried on in her work, if a Manual can but seem like a real person standing at her shoulder with guidance. Do not expect a pedantic work in this volume. It has been made as human as possible; for teachers are human, children are human, and reading should be the most human of all the studies in the curriculum.

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