Page images
PDF
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

TNOW came still evening on, and twilight gray
Had in her sober livery all things clad Î
Silence accompanic! ; for beast and bird,
They to their grassy couch, these to their nests
were sunk; all but the wakeful nightingale;
$he all night long her amorous descant sung;
silence was pleas'd ; now glow'd the firmament
With living sapphirs': Hesperus, that led
The starry host, rede brightest, till the moon
Rising in clouded majesty, at length
Apparent queen, unveiled her peerless light,
and c'er the dark her silver mantle threw.
Milton.
As when the moon, refulgent lamp of night !
*O'er heav'n's clear azure spreads her sacred light,
When not a breath disturbs the deep screne,
And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene ;
Around her throne the vivid planets rell,
*nd stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole,
O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed,
And tip with silver ev'ry mountain's head :
Then shine the vales, the rocks in prospect rise,
A flood of glory bursts from all the skies :
The conscious swains, rejoicing in the sight,
Eye the blue vault, and bless the useful light.
Porr's Homer.
How beautiful is night 1
A dewy freshness fills the silent air,
No mist obscures, no little cloud
Breaks the whole serene of heaven :
in full-orb’d glory the majestick moon
Rolls through the dark blue depths.
Beneath her steady ray
The descrt circle spreads,
‘Like the round ocean girded with the sky.

how beautiful is night ! Southky.

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

185

[ocr errors]

TRANSLATION.
From Murphy's Life of Johnson.
KNOW YOURSELF.

[After reviñng and enla the English Lex4. or o g ex

when scaliger, whole years of labour past, Beheld his Lexicon complete at last, And weary of his task, with wond'ring eyes, saw from words pil'd on words a fabrick rise, He curs'd the industry, inertly strong, in creeping toil that could perfia so long, And if, enrag’d he cried, Heav'n meant to shed its kcenest vengeance on the guilty head,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

For the Anthology.

The drudgery of words the damn'd would know,
Doom'd to write Lexicons in endless woe."

Yes, you had cause, great Genius, to repent ;
“You lost good days that might be better spent;
You well might grudge the hours of ling’ring pain,
And vicw your learned labours with disdain.
"To you were giv'n the large expanded mind,
"The flame of genius, and the tatte refin'd.
"Twas yours on eagle wings aloft to soar,
And amidst rolling worlds the Great First Cause
explore;
To fix the acras of recorded time,
And live in ev'ry age, in ev'ry clime ;
Record the chiefs, who propt their country's
cause;
who founded empires, and establish'd laws;
To learn whate'er the sage with virtue fraught,
Whate'er the muse of moral wisdom taught.
Theo. your quarry; these to you were

, known,
And the world's ample volume was your own.

Yet warn'd by mc, ye pigmy wits, beware,
Nor with immortal Scaliger compare.
For me, though his example strike my view,
Oh not for me his footsteps to pursue.
whether first nature, unpropitious, cold,
This clay compounded in a ruder mould ;
Or the slow current, loit’ring at my heart,
No gleam of wit or fancy can impart ;
Whate cr the cause, from me no numbers flow,
No visions warm me, and no raptures glow.

A mind like Scaliger's, superiour still,
No grief could conquer, no misfortune chill.
Though for the maze of words his native skies
He seem'd to quit, 'twas but again to rise;
To mount once more to the bright source of day,
And view the wonders of th’aetherial way.
The love of fame his gen'rous bosom fir’d ;
Each science hail'd him, and each muse inspir'd.
For him the sons of learning trim'd the bays,
And nations grew harmonious in his praise.

My task perform'd, and all my labours o'er,
For me what lot has fortune now in store?
The listless will succeeds, that worst disease,
The rack of indolence, the sluggish ease.
Care grows on care, and o'er my aching brain
Black melancholy pours her morbid train.
No kind relief, no lenitive at hand,
I seek at midnight clubs, the social band;
But midnight clubs, where wit with noise con-

pires,

Where Comus revels, and where wine inspires,
Delight no more : I seek my lonely bed,
And call on sleep to soothe my languid head.
But sleep from these sad lids flies far away;
1 mourn all night, and dread the coming day.
Exhausted, tir’d, I throw my cycs around,
'To find some vacant spot on classick ground ;
And soon, vair, hope I form a grand design ;
Languor succeeds, and all my pow'rs decline.

* See Scaliger's epigram on the same subjećt, communicated, without doubt, by Dr. Johnson, Gent. Mag. 1748, p. 8.

WRITTEN AT SUNSET.
wet with the tears, which evening weeps,
The closing flower conceals her breast,
Secure the vernal warbler sleeps,
The voice of love and joy supprest.

Ere long shall night assume her sway,
Reposing nature on her arm
Blot the last purple flush of day,
Dissolve the twilight's lingering charm.

And thus the transient joys of life
Fade on Attention’s sober eye,
Till vext no more with various strife
$Man learns to slumber or to dic.

H------, April, 1806.
f And learn with equal ease, to sleep or die.
Mason.
-

SONG.

DoRINDA's sparkling wit and eyes,
United, cast too ficree a light,

which blazes high, but quickly dies,
Pains not the heart, but hurts the sight.

Love is a calmer, gentler joy,
Smooth are his looks, and soft his pace ;
Her Cupid is a black-guard boy,
‘That runs his link full in your face.
- Dorset.

[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Librum tuum legi & quan diligentissime potul annotavi, Quae commutanda, quae eximenda, ar

bitrarer. , Nam ego dicere verum assuevi. maxime laudari merentur.—Pliny.

Neque ulli patientius reprehenduntur quam qui

--

ARTICLE 1. [Concluded.]

Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. I. 1805. 4to. pp. 564.

PART II.

I. Observations usion an hysiothesis for solving the fihenomena of light, with incidental observations, tending to shew the heterogeneousness of light, and of the electrick fluid, by their intermirture, or union, with each other. By James Bowdoin, Esquire, President of the .Mmerican Academy of Arts and Sciences.

The celebrated Dr. Franklin observed, that he was much in the dark about light. And it must be acknowledged, that, notwithstanding the great progress we have made in opticks, many difficulties still remain relative to the nature of light, or the manner in which vision is produced. It is well known, that modern philosophers have proposed two hypotheses for the purpose of explaining this point. In one, adopted by Huygens, Euler, and some others, an extremely subtile, elastick fluid is supposed to penetrate all bodies, and to fill all space; and vibrations,being excited in it by the action of luminous bodies, are propagated to the eye, and produce in that organ the sensation of vision in the same manner, as pulsations of air produce in the organ of hearing the sensation of sound. According to the other

PHYsic AL PAPERs.

hypothesis, maintained by Sir Isaac Newton and others, light consists of particles of matter, extremely minute, which being projected or thrown off from luminous bodies in every direction by a repulsive force, and reflected by opaque bodies, produce the sensation of vision by impulse on the eye. The hypothesis, on which the author of this Memoir remarks, is

contained in some queries, propos

ed by Dr Franklin, and is in substance the same as the former of the two preceding ; to which the observations may be considered as objections, or arguments in favor of the other. In one part of the reasoning in form of queries relative to the production of light in various instances by motion, on supposition that the hypothesis of vibration is true, more seems to be assumed than is granted in the hypothesis. It does not appear to be inferable from Dr. Franklin's statement, nor from any other, that we recollect to have seen, that every kind and degree of motion in the elastick fluid is supposed or admitted to be productive of the sensation of vision ; nor does this seem to be a necessary consequence. In the theory of sound, though the vibratory agency of the air is clearly ascertained, yet it is not supposed that every kind and degree of motion in the air produces the sensation of sound. The author's ideas respecting the heterogeneousness of light and *

of the electrick fluid may be well learned from the following extract, it being noted, that he uses fire in it as synomimous with light. “Electricity and fire differ in many respect... and in some they agree ; as hath been shewn in Dr. Franklin's letters on electricity. So far as they agree in their effects, their nature may be presumed to be alike : or rather, from that agreement and similitude of effects, I think it may be inferred, that they are mixt with, and generally do accompany each other ; and that each produces its own effect at the time of their joint operation. The effects of electricity, similar to those of fire, being produced by the fire mixt with it ; and the effects of fire, resembling those of electricity, being produced by the clectricity mixt with that : the compound taking its name from the predominant principle.” Is it not more probable that

one fluid, operating in different modes and circumstances, produces those different effects :

II. Observations on light, and the waste of m:atter in the sun and frt stars, occasioned by the Aconstant efflux of light from them ; with a conjecture, hrafiosed by way of query, and suggestàng a mean, by which their several systems might be fireserved from the disorder and final ruin, £o which they seem liable by that waste of matter, and by the law of gravitation. By James Bowdoin, Esquire, President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Franklin had made some Aobjections to the Newtonian doctrine of light on the ground, that there most consequently be a moinentum or force in the particles

of light, and a waste in the matter of the sun, which do not accord with experience and observation. Mr. Bowdoin endeavours to remove these objections. Accordingly the “Observations on Light” in the former part are calculated to show, that the inference relative to the motion or momentum of light is not just, and of course the objection, raised on it, unfounded. In the other part, after some good observations on the waste of matter in the sun by emission of light, the hypothesis is introduced, which is announced with so much modesty and caution in the title. The author,apparently well apprized of the difficulty of supporting it with evidence, merely proposes it as a query, or .." of consideration. That wonderful phenomenon, the ring of Saturn, which appears to the planet like a vast, surrounding, luminous arch, suggested the idea of conjecturing that a hollow sphere or orb might encompass the several systems, which compose the visible heavens. This surrounding orb is supposed to be fitted by its structure, and the properties of gravity, repulsion of light, &c. with which it is furnished to stop the rays of light, reflect them to the source, whence they emanated, and thus prevent loss or waste of any matter within it, and preserve the magnitude of the sun and stars; and also to serve as a counterbalance to the mutual gravities of the systems and bodies, inclosed by it, thus contributing to the preservation of their relative distances, and the prolongation of their regular motions. The following remark shows, that the author was not insensible to the weight of objections. “To this hypothesis objections may be made, and such as might prove it to be, like many an one which has preceded it, a mere philosophical reverie.”

III. Observations tending to frowe, by finanomena and scrifiture, the eristence of an orb, which surrounds the whole visible, material system ; and which may be necessary to fireserve it from the ruin, to which, without such a counterbalance, it seems liable by that universal firinciple in matter, gravitation. By James Bowdoin, Esq. President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In this Memoir is adduced the evidence, on which the author depends to support his hypothesis of an all-surrounding orb. “The evidence is—phoenomena and scripture. “The phoenomena are—the luminous girdle in the blue expanse, called the Milky Way ; other luminous appearances in it; and the expanse itself.” ... With respect to the Milky Way, objection is made to the opinion, that its appearance is occasioned by the blended light of stars; and it is observed, “the phoenomenon strikes us, as it may be supposed, such a luminous girdle would strike, if its light were reflected from the concave surface of a far distant orb; to which, on the hypothesis assumed, it had been proPelled from the numerous systems which the orb enfolds.” o o Quotations are given from Ferguson and Smith, containing some observations on the milky way, and descriptions of some whitish spots or luminous appearances in the heavens. And it is observed, “From these phoenomena it seems not improbable, that the Milky Way, and those lucid spots, are parts of a concave body or orb, of the same nature with some of the other heavenly bodies; and whose

light transmitted to us, exhibits those phoenomena, according to the laws and circumstances, which regulate it.” Sir Isaac Newton's explanation of “ the blue concave expanse, which surrounds, and appears to limit visible nature,” is considered as unsatisfactory. The opinion rehatively to this phenomenon, entertained by this author, and his ground for supporting it, may be seen in the following extract. “Nature is simple and uniform: in its operations. From the same cause follow like effects; and these indicate the same cause. Bodies of every kind, through the medium of light, produce their respective phoenomena, and these demonstrate the reality of those bodies. “From these principles we infer the reality of those terrestrial bo. dies, which, by reason of their situation and distance, can only be the objects of sight: and from the same principles we also infer the reality of the heavenly bodies, the planets, and fixed stars. If this, last inference be just, is it not equally just to infer, from the same principles, the reality of the blue circumambient expanse : that is, that it is a real concave body, encompassing all visible nature ?” After the statement of such evidence in favour of an orb surrounding the visible universe, as seems to him to be deducible from natural phoenomena, farther light is sought in the sacred scriptures. His own words express his sentiments on the propriety of recurring to this source of information. “In regard to the subject in hand, there seems to be a happy coincidence between phoenomena and scripture ; and therefore in further evidence of such an orb, and in evidence of several other orbs similar, and concentrick to it,

« PreviousContinue »