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1ditor introduces an extract from one of these documents in the following manner.
* Since the departure of Mr. Magruder from this place, a communication was inclosed to the editor. for him, from which the following is extracted. Some parts of the communication will, doubtless, be considered interesting. ** The French were the first nation of white people that ever were known among the Northwestern Indians. When the British and French commenced a war against each other in North America, the North-western Indians joined the French, and o. of the Six Nations joined the British. My-knowledge of the actions that were fought between them, is derived from the old Indians, that I have conversed with on that subject, and is not to be relied on. After the British got possession of this country from the French, a Tawway chief, by the name of Potacock, renewed the war against the British, and took all the posts that were occupied by them on the lakes and their waters, in one day, (Detroit excepted,) by stratagem. After this, in 1774,the war broke out between the North-Western Indians and the whites. The principal ačtion that was fought between the parties, was at the mouth of the Great Kanhaway—there were 3oo Shawances and Delawares, and a few Miaminics, Wyandots and Mingoes, commanded by the celebrated Shawanee chief, called Comstock. This was the war that ended at the treaty of Greenville. Although at different times, individual nations would treat, or pretend to do so, with the Americans; it was only a temporary thing; for it frequently happened, that while a party of Indians were treating with the Whites, some of their own people would be killing the very people that their own chiefs were treating with. The Indians that opposed general Sullivan were the combined forces of the six nations. Their numbers and by whom commanded, I do not know. The Indians that defeated general Crawford at Sandusky, were the Wyandots, Delawares, 8hawances, and a few of the six nations, or Senacas-Powtowottomics and Ottoways, said to be 8oo in number. I never heard who commanded them. As the Indians always keep the number of their killed and wounded as much a secret as possible, I thall not undertake to say what numbers were killed and wounded at cither of the actions above mentioned. Bowman's carpaign was against the shawanees on the Little Miami River. I am not acquainted with any of the particulars of the attion that took place between him and those Indians; also my
knowledge of the different campaigns carried a .
gainst the Shawances, on Mad River and Big Miawni, by general Clarkc, is not to be depended on. When general Harmar arrived at the Miami Towa, he sent Col. Joun Harden in search of the indians, with a body of men, when he met 35o Miamics, on the head of Eel River, commanded by the celebrated Miami chief, the Little Turtle -an action took place-the whitcs were defeat
cd-the Indians had one man, killed and two wounded. The Indians that fought the troops under the command of Col. Harden, in the Miami town, were the 3oo above mentioned, commanded by the same chief. Also abody of $oo Indians, composed of Shawanees, Delawares, Chippeways, Pottowotomies and Ottoways—the Shawanees commanded by their own chicf, Blue Jacket; the Delawares by Buckingeheles; the Ottoways and Chippeways, by Agashewah, anottoway chief. The Indians say they had 15 killed, and 15 wounded. General Scott's campaign was against the weas Town on the Wabash, where he met with little or no opposition; as the warriors of the Weas expeded that Geneeral Scott was going against the Miami Town, and had all left their own village to meet him. At that place 8 men and 2 women were killed by the troops under Gen. Scott. At the weas, the number of women and children he took prisoners, I do not remember. Gen. Wilkinson's campaign was against the Fel River Town, where there were but a few women and children, and ten old men and three young ones, who made no defence, Four men were killed, with one woman. The number of women and children taken, I do not recollect. in the autumn of 1790 an army of Indians, composed of Miammics, Delawares, Shawanees, and a few Pottowottomies, 3oo in number, commanded by the Little Turtle, attacked Dunlap's Station, on the Big Miammi River. This post was commanded by licutenant Kingsbury. The Indians had to killed, and the same number wounded. There were 1133 Indians that defeated Gen. St. Clair, in 1791. The number of different tribes is not remembered. It was composed of Miammies, Pottowottomies, Ottowics, Chippeways, Wyandots, Delawares, Shawances, and a few Mingoes and Cherokees. Each nation was commanded by their own chief, all of whom appeared to be governed by the Little Turtle, who made the arrangement for the actions, and commenced the attack with the Miammics, who were under his immediate command. They had 3o killed, and died with their wounds, the day of the action, and it is believed 5o wounded. In the autumn of 1792 an army of 300 Indians, under the cominand of the Little Turtle, com posed of Miammies, Delawares, Shawanees, and a few Pottowottomies, attacked Col. John Adair, under the walls of Furt St. Clair, where they had two men killed. The 30th June, 1794, an army of 1450 Indians, cornposed of Ottoways, Chippeways, Miammics and Wyandots, Pottowottomies, shawanecs, Delawares, with a number of French and other white men, in the British interest, attacked Fort Recovery. The Indians were commanded by the Bear chief, an Ottoway, 'I he white anch. attached to the Indian army, it is said, were commanded by Foot and M'Kee, both British officers. The garrison was commanded by captain Gibson, of the 4th sublegion. "I he indians. have told me repeatedly, that they had between 40 and 5o killed, and upwards of 103 wounded , a number of whom died. This was the severett
The close of May was remarkable for a cloudless atmosphere, and regular east winds. Vegetation began to suffer from want of moisture. June commenced with pleasant showers, which have since fallen every few days, though not in sufficient abundance to saturate the soil. The winds have been almost equally from the south-west and east, and sometimes from the north-east and north-west. No remarkable atmospherick phenomena succeeded the eclipse on the 16th, unless that the winds have been rather more violent than ordinary.
The month of June is commonly considered here to be the healthiest month of the year ; and the present has so well verified that opinion, as that we have scarcely any disease to record ; for the only
prevalent disorder has been a mild typhoid sever. A few cases of cynanche maligna have appeared. Vaccination under the hands of the Boston physicians has flourished uncommonly during this month and the two preceding. From the data we can obtain, it seems proable that never before had there been so great a number of cases, during the same space of time. No accident has occurred to impede the progress of this practice. We would however hint the necessity of constant watchfulness, lest any imperfect cases should cscape attention. -Statement of Diseases, from June 20 to July 20. THE winds of the month past have been principally from the westward. The south-west has prevailed most : next, the northwest ; and the pure west more than usual. Many small showers of rain have fallen ; and the temperature of the atmosphere has been for the most part moderate. Derangements of the stomach and intestines have been more common than any other complaints. They have generally appeared with the symptoms of colick, and yield: ed readily to medicine. Some of them have been more obstinate, and seemed to produce, or at least to precede, an invasion of fever, This last, of which there has been a number of cases, was of a mild character. A very few instances of typhus gravior have occurred. This is the moment which demands the vigilance of the police to prevent, as far as their powers can do so, the generation or introduction of malignant diseases. Some instances of acute rheumatism have been seen this month. Many cases of vaccination exist in Boston.
I observed in your publication, some months ago, a description of the falls of Niagara. Of the view of that wonderful cataract, more justly than of a perusal of Homer or of Milton, may it be said, decies refetita hlacebit. If therefore you think a second picture worth looking at, you may publish the following. But that you might not turn with disgust, as from an old subject, I have transcribed from my journal an account of two other curiosities in the remote part of New-York.
JAug. 25. We had from our host at Onondaga a very copious description of the salt springs, distant only six miles from the Western turnpike, and, altho’ the road was unpleasant, we did not regret following his advice to visit them. These springs are on the border of Onondaga lake, and at present above its level ; but they are sometimes covered with the fresh water of the lake. Yet the works are not often retarded by the freshes, as the specifick gravity and strong saline virtue is not diminished, unless the wind blows very hard. We know, that in rivers, as the tide rises, the fresh water often floats above. These springs may perhaps be found in any part of
Vol. III. No. 8. 3B
the marsh, but there are only six pits sunk. From these are made ninety-two thousand bushels of salt yearly, that pay a duty of four cents per bushel, as the propriety of the soil is claimed by the state ; but we may suppose, that no small Quantity is carried off, without satisfying that trifling requisition. Almost every thing here is conducted without system ; for the government of the state will dispose of the soil only in leases, never exceeding seven years. This may indeed prevent monopoly ; but it also restrains the employment of capital, and diminishes the utility of the gift of nature. The water is raised from the pits by pumps, which have heretofore been worked by men; but this year has so far enlightened the overseers, as to induce them to construct machinery for raising the water to be moved by a horse. From these pumps spouts run to the boiling houses on the bank, about seven or eight feet above the marsh ; but as the wood in the immediate vicinity is nearly exhausted, an aqueduct carries this precious fluid two miles along the borders of this fresh water lake. We were told that no Glauber salts could be obtained from the water ; but this is the fault of the
in the operation of boiling, with the valuable contents of their ovens. This sediment is collected in a ladle put into the bottom of the kettle, or adheres to the sides; from which it must be removed by an axe before it acquires the thickness of three inches, or it will burst the stoutest of them. The workmen here are miserably poor, commonly selling their salt on the spot at not more than one fourth of a dollar per bushel ; and they say ardent liquors are absolutely requisite for their support, for the subterranean blowers at the forges of Vulcan never SWeat Imore. -Aug. 27. We turned once more from the great road to visit the sulphur springs, distant about fourteen miles from Geneva. This spot in a Popish country would be called the outlet of hell. These springs are discoverable by the nose, at some seasons, for a mile round ; but we were not favoured with the fragrance, more than a quarter of that distance. The road within two or three miles in each direction is as bad, as rocks, stumps, prominent branches and roots of trees, with ruts on the side and holes in the middle, can make. Bridges of large logs, commonly called gridiron bridges, occasionally intervene to make us regret, that we could no knger be permitted to pass thro’ the mud. The springs are very numerous, bursting out in every part of the hill, down which, united, they pour a river of sulphur, running over rocks of sulphur, cloathed with sulphureous moss. This is indeed the appearance, for every thing is
*...* soon covered with the slimy matter, deposited by the water ; and the virtue, or rather vice of this fluid is so great, as to turn silver black in five minutes. In the bed of the stream are petrefactions, of which the most curious, being leaves and mosses, are torn off with difficulty, and are seldom brought away whole. From one of the springs, nearest the road, the water, which is clear and very cold, is conveyed to the bathing-house. Its taste is disagreeable, but horses drink it with avidity. I think Dr. Morse has said the same for the Ballstown and Saratoga waters; but, though true of the principal spring at the latter place, every body assured me it was incorrect, as to the former. The soil of this hill is very soft,so that one may thrustastick as far into it, as into the clay pit of a marsh. To the depth of two feet nothing but brimstone is found, partially mixed with fibres of vegetables, and roots of trees, “fit to be the mast of some great admiral.” Had this place been known to Milton before his blindness, how would his inexhaustible imagination have exulted in the copiousness of description it might have yielded. But the palace of Satan is well situated at present, though it might have found a better scite.
There stood a hill not far, whose grisly
top Belch'd fire and rolling smoke, the rest
entire Shone with a glossy scurf, undoubted
sign, That in his womb was hid metallick ore, The work of sulphur.
The accommodations (we must use that word) are not worth the name. A log house is the chief, which contains two rooms ; but the owner is building another house