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--- * ... * mistake, said to be used for shiptunnels, instead of trennels, -> AcADEMIcs, paragr. 3. For three sects of Ac Apemies, read three sects of Ac ADEMic Rs. AcADEMY.Yaval ; a reference is here made to AcADEMY, where (as is observed in an English Review) nothing further is said about Naval Academies. AcADEMY qf Arts in New-York. We are here told of a valuable collection called the Piratnessi & [and] Cascography. Is this the true name, of should it be Piranesian Calcografthy P AccrlERATIon, col. 4th, line 8th, from the bottom, for S #: s : read so : *. This errour is also copied from the English edition. Achill EUM in ancient geography is misplaced, as is also AcHILLEU’s or AQUILEUs. AcRE (of land) col. 2. for era of France, read area of France. ADDITIon in Algebra contains a typographical error of some im
AD libitum is used in musick, not for “a shiacere,” but for a fiacere. AëRoPho BIA for raffing read wrafishing / &c. &c. AèRosTATIon, fractice of col.2. In this article there is a gross errour in the calculation of the force of ascension of balloons of different diameters. This error also is copied from Rees’ edition, into which it was admitted from Hutton’s Math. Dictionary. "Near the bottom of the same column there is an errour copied also from the Eng, edit. It stands thus: “ between 1; and 13 of it.” It should be, “between 1; and $.” Among the omissions we should have mentioned the following articles: AcAM-See Mcham and .4kem.
cf every seaman, that there was not a chart of the extensive shores 4f Mew-England, usion which he could rest the safety of his shift. We rejoice that the remark has hardly gone from us, before the grounds of this complaint are in part removed, by the present admirable chart of one of the most difficult tracts of our coast. But
our joy is a little damped by the
reflexion, that a work of this kind does not appear under the sanction of government, as part of a general survey of our extensive territory. It is certainly among the wonders of this wonderful age, that a government, whose stability is believed to rest on the diffusion of knowledge ; whose wealth may be said to spring almost wholly from commerce ; whose strength and security in a great measure depend upon its sea-faring citizens; we say, it is a little extraordinary, that a government of this nature should be so insensible to the claims of a large proportion of its citizens, and so indifferent to its own honour, as to suffer enterprizing individuals to snatch from it the only kind of applause which it should be ambitious to obtain ; we mean that applause which is the sure consequence of promoting useful national works ; among which maps and charts, with a commercial people, hold the first rank. But we repress complaint, and enter upon our subject. The chart before us, as has been observed in the title, comprehends four of the harbours of Massachusetts, of which the port of Salem is the most important. The number of vessels belonging to that port, many of which being employed in the East India trade are of a large burthen, and the numerous shoals and rocks in its harbour, rendered a correct chart of it peculiarly necessary. But the
4-9 a. necessity of this publication, and the great care with which it has been made, will best appear by the following extracts from the “ Directions” which accompany the chart. *
The only chart (says Mr. Bowditch) of the entrance of the harbours of Salen, Marblehead, Beverly, and Manchester, is that published from the survey taken by Ho 1.3, AND and his assistants, just before the American revolutionary war. That period was particularly unfavourable for obtaining an accurate survey of the sea-coast, as the Americans were generally opposed to its being done at that time, fearing that it would give the British the great advantage of being able safely to enter with their armed ships into any of our harbours. In consequence of this, Holland received but little assistance from our pilots, in exploring the sunken ledges and shoals off our harbours; and as it was almost impossible to discover them without such assistance, they were generally omitted by him. This deficiency renders those charts in a great degree useless, though they are accurate as respects the bearings and distances of the islands and the coast.
From the time of Holland's survey, till the year 1794, nothing was done towards obtaining a more accurate chart. In that year a general survey of the state was ordered by the legislature ; but it is to be regretted that this survey was not directed to be made in a manner calculated to ensure accuracy in the execution of it. Instead of appointing one or more competent persons to make the whole survey, and providing the best instruments for the purpose, the swrvey was entrusted to the several towns ; in consequence of which, the responsibility, which an object of such magnitude demanded, was divided among so many different surveyors (not to mention other sources of errour, as the variety of instruments, &c.) that the baudable intentions of the legislature were very imperfectly carried into execution ; and the map, formed from from these different and discordant surveys, was such as was to have been expected.
Mr. Bowditch then observes, that in pursuance of this order of the legislature, a survey of the town of Sasem was undertaken by the late Capt. John Gibaut, whom Mr. B. assisted ; but the time allowed for completing it was so short, that few of the ledges and shoals were satisfactorily explored ; so that the survey proved almost useless for nautical purposes. He then says that in 1804 and 1805, he undertook, with the assistance of Mr. George Burchmore and Mr. William Ropes 3d, to complete the survey of Capt. Gibaut ; but upon examination, it was found so imperfect, that “it became necessary to make a new chart from observations taken with more precision ; and
To do this (says he) an excellent theodosite, made by Adams, furnished with a telescope and cross wires, was procured to measure the angles and a good chain to measure the distances. With these instruments, the bearings and distances of the shore from Gale's point in Manchester, to Phillip' point in Lynn (the two extremities of this survey) were carefully ascertained ; and the necessary observations were taken for fixing with accuracy the situation of the islands. Soundings were taken throughout the whole extent of the survey, particularly round the dangerous lodges and shoals, several of which were explored, that were hardly known by our best pilots, as Archer's Pock, Chappel’s Lege, Motin's rocło, the Rising States Ledge, john's Ledge, Misery Leo'ge, Pilgrim. Ledge, House Ledge, and others; most of which were so little known, that names had not been given to them i, and during the whole time employed on the survey, which was above eighty days, from two to fee persons were hired to assist in sounding and measuring. From these observations the new chart was plotted off, and an accurate engraving of it made, &c.
He further informs us, that “the leading marks for avoiding the ledges were not taken from the chart, but were determined by sailing and sounding round them ; so that on this account the direc
have been employed on shore in
adjusting the various admeasurements, and plotting off the whole chart. Nothing but an ardent love of science, united with an ardent love of country, we should think, could carry an unaided individual through so laborious and expensive an undertaking. . . . " In a work of such uncommon merit as the present we have thought it a duty which we owe to the science of our country, to be more than usually particular in our examination ; and in forming our opinion of the great accuracy of this work, we have not rested solely on the presumption arising from the extraordinary degree of labour bestowed upon it, (which from Mr. B's character, we have no doubt is faithfully detailed in the extracts above quoted) but we have done all that could be done by persons not minutely acquainted with the several harbours laid down in it ; we have employed considerable time, and with great satisfaction, in examining it by the side of Holland's chart of the coast, which is the best extant. Upon comparing the two, we have been
astonished at the deficiencies of Holland's, in the very part which was most important to mariners— the ledges, shoals and soundings, many of which were wholly omitted. Among the omissions, we observe the very long tract of foul ground in the vicinity of Baker's island. The shoal ground, called the Middle Ground, which the “ Directions” inform us is a mile in length, and in which we see soundings marked of no more than five Jeet, does not appear in Holland's chart. Nor do we there find any of the numerous and dangerous ledges between Coney island and Peach's faint, and between the Great Misery and West Beach.Bowditch's Ledge, Misery Ledge, Gale's Ledge, the Whale's Back, and others are not laid down in it. Satan, or Black Rock, which is laid down by B. as an island is omitted by Holland. We venture to say all these are deficiencies in Holland's chart, because we do not find them there, and we do find them in Mr. Bowditch's ; and we presume this gentieman has not laid down any shoal that does not exist ; it is more likely that there may be some inconsiderable ones which even his great assiduity has not discovered ; though, when we consider how very minute Mr. B. has been in the work before "us, we cannot believe there is a single omission of importance to navigators. He informs us indeed in the “ Directions,” that he explored several shoals and ledges “ that were hardly known to our best pilots,” and many “which were so little known, that names had not been given to them.” These are some of the principal advantages, in our opinion, which this beautiful chart has over the best hitherto published ; and they are advantages, which, we feel confident,
will ensure to the able author an
ample indemnity for the time and
expense he has bestowed upon it, and will reflect credit upon the
science of our country.
It is proper for us in works o
this kind to speak particularly of
the execution of the engraver's part ; and it is with great satisfaction we can assure the publick, that it has been finely engraved by Messrs. Hooker and Fairman, at Salem, and, we presume, under the inspection of Mr. Bowditch; for he informs us in the “Directions,” that the engraving is correct : It is printed on English superfine imperial wove paper. It would give us pleasure also, if we could with truth say that the “Directions” were printed in a style suitable to the elegance of the Chart. The tysie is good, though rather too small ; in the paper, however, we perceive a little of the odour of what has heretofore been called Salem economy, but what, in this instance, must be denomined Mewburyfort economy, for there, it seems, the “Directions” were printed. We cannot entertain the suspicion, (if we may judge from the liberality which appears in the paper and engraving of the chart) that Mr. Bowditch is chargeable with the parsimony apparent in the “Directions.” We ought to observe also, that excelleut as the engraving of the chart is, the skill of Messrs. IIooker and Fairman doubtless appears to less advantage than it would in a map, which asfords a greater field for a display of their art. This chart is constructed on a scale of about three inches to a mile. Such is the admirable work, which Mr. Bowditch offers to his countrymen, and particularly to the sea-faring portion of his fellow* * * * , , or 1. . . . . citizens; and it will doubtless be received with the same marked preference which his other nautical publications have found in the community. - - 4
"For our part, we hope the applause which the work deserves, and will assuredly find, will not be the only consequence of its publication. The imperfection of our present maps and charts is well known to those who have it in their flower, and, if we may judge from their well intended efforts, are solicitous, to remove this discredit from our country...we mean the legislature of this state. They well know that we have many unexplored harbours, especially in the eastern parts of our coast, a
thorough knowledge of some one
of which might, by saving only a single ship, be the means of proserving many lives, and perhaps secure property enough to pay the expense of a general survey; at least, it would lessen the hazards to which our vessels are exposed
upon the coast during inclement
and stormy seasons. We should think indeed, if the legislature should not order such a survey, that some of our liberal underwriters, who are certainly deeply interested, would gladly contribute to the expense of it. But we do hope, that the present publication, by showing us how much can be #. by the ability and enterprize of an 'unassisted individual, will stimulate those who can command the resources of the state, we mean of Old Massachusetts, (for we sincerely hope that she will have the honour of leading the way among her sister states, as one of her natives has done among his fellow citizens) to order a correct survey to be made of our whole coast, and even of the whole
te, under the direction of one
The mumbers of Phocion, which were originally sublished in the Charleston Courier, in 1806, on the subject of .Veutral Rights. ... Charleston,Courier Office.fi/.70, * . . . . * . . . . . . . to ".... i. . . . . * This pamphleti is written with ability, and the arguments and reflections are those of a statesman, The author condemns that purblind policy, which extends only to objects that may be seen and felt, and maintains “ that our nation't! measures ought not to be predicated upon a fluctuating state. of things, or to look merely to present circumstances, but should be bottomed on steady and permar nent principles.” . . . In considering the right of neur, trals to interfere in the colonial commerce of belligerents, he examines the subject under two aspects, 1, as to the direct intercourse. between the mother country and her colony; 2dly, as to the indirect. intercourse, by * an intermediate voyage to a port of the neutral.
The denial of direct intercourse,
he contends, is an antient principle, not only enforced during the war. of 1756, but universally deemed a part of the Law of Nations ; and he proves that Mr. Jefferson in his Notes, and Mr. Madison in his commentaries on the commercial resolutions of 1794, warmly advocated that principle, which