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between the Snake Indians, and those in this neighborhood, amounting in total with ourselves to 33 persons. By means of the interpreters and Indians, we shall be enabled to converse with all the Indians that we shall probably meet with on the Missouri. I have forwarded to the secretary at war my public accounts, rendered up to the present day. They have been much longer delayed than I had any idea they would have been, when we departed from the Illinois; but this delay, under the circumstances which I was compelled to act, has been unavoid. able. The provision peroque and her crew, could not have been dismissed in time to have returned to St. Louis last fall, without evidently, in my opinion, hazarding the fate of the enterprize in which I am engaged ; and I therefore did not hesitate to prefer the censure that I may have incurred by the detention of these papers, to that of risking in any degree the success of the expedition. To me the detention of these papers has formed a serious source of disquiet and anxiety; and the recollection of your particular charge to me on this subject, has made it still more poignant. I am fully aware of the inconvenience whish must have arisen to the war department, from the want of these vouchers, previous to the last session of congress, but how to avert it was out of my power to devise. From this place we shall send the barge and crew early to-morrow morning, with orders to proceed as expeditiously as possible to St. Louis ; by her we send our dispatches, which I trust will get safe to hand. Her crew consists of ten able bodied men, well armed and provided with a sufficient stock of provision to last them to St. Louis. I have but little doubt but they will be fired on by the Siouxs; but they have pledged themselves to us that they will not yield while there is a man of them living. Our baggage is all embarked on board six small canoes, and two peroques; we shall set out at the same moment that we dispatch the barge. One, or perhaps both of these peroques, we shall leave at the falls of the Missouri, from whence we intend continuing our voyage in the canoes, and a peroque of skins, the frame of which was prepared at Harper's ferry. This peroque is now in a situation which will enable us to prepare it in the course of a few hours. As our vessels are now small, and the current of the river much more moderate, we calculate upon travelling at the rate of 20 or 25 miles per day, as far as the falls of the Missouri. Beyond this point, or the first range of rocky mountains, situated about 100 miles further, any calculation with respect to our daily progress, can be little more than bare conjecture. The circumstance of the Snake Indians possessing large quantities of horses, is much in our favour, as by means of horses the transportation of our baggage will be rendered easy and expeditious over land, from the Missouri to the Columbia river. Should this river not prove naviga. ble where we first meet with it, our present intention is, to continue our march by land down the river, until it becomes so, or to the Pacific ocean. The map, which has been forwarded to the secretary of war, will give you the idea ... we entertain of the connection of these rivers, which has been formed from the corresponding testimony of a number of Indians, who have visited that country, and who have been separately and carefully examined on that subject, and we therefore think it entitled to some degree of confidence. Since our arrival at this place, we have subsisted principally on meat, with which our guns have supplied us amply, and have thus been enabled to reserve the parched meal, portable soup, and a considerable proportion of pork and flour, which we had intended for the more difficult parts of our voyage. If Indian information can be credited, the vast quantity of game with which the country abounds through which we are to pass, leaves us but little to apprehend from the want of food. We do not calculate on completing our voyage within the present year, but expect to reach the Pacific ocean, and return as far as the head of the Missouri, or perhaps to this place, before winter. You may therefore expect me to meet you at Monticello in September, 1806. On our return we shall probably pass down the Yellow Stone river, which, from Indian information, waters one of the fairest portions of this continent.
Vol. III. Appendix. F
I can see no material or probable obstruction to our progress, and enterta;, therefore, the most sanguine hopes of complete success. As to myself, individually, I never enjoyed a more perfect state of good health than I have since we commenced our voyage. My inestimable friend and companion, captain Clarke, has also enjoyed good health generally. At this moment every individual of the party is in good health and excellent spirits, zealously attached to the enterprize, and anxious to proceed; not a whisper of discontent or murmur is to be heard among them; but all in unison act with the most perfect harmony. With such men I have every thing to hope, and but little to fear. Be so good as to present my most affectionate regard to all my friends, and be assured of the sincere and unalterable attachment of Your most obedient servant, MERIWETHER LEWIS, Capt. of 1st U. S. regiment of infantry. Tii : J EFFERSoN, President of the United States. ** --We very much regret, that it is not in our flower to insert the communication from Cafttains Lewis & Clark; it is extremely long and ts guite as unintelligible without the assistance of a mafi : besides it would be very uninteresting to almost every reader, and therefore we shall froceed to the documents from Dr. Srbeer and Mr. Dunbar, which are mentioned in the President’s message. These may gratify a variety of readers, besides the student of geography, and may assict the makers of masis in correcting the boundaries, divisions, &c. of the firovince of Louisiana.
M 1stro Ricar, sketches of The sever AL INDIAN TRIBES IN Leu1s.IANA, south of THE ARKANSA River, AND BET ween THE MIssissipri AND River Grand,
CADDOQUES, live about 35 miles west of the main branch of Red river, on a bayau or creek, called by them Sodo, which is navigable for peroques only within about six miles of their village, and that only in the rainy season. They are distant from Natchitoches about 120 miles, the nearest route by land, and in nearly a north west direction. They have lived where they now do only five years. The first year they moved there the small pox got amongst them and destroyed nearly one half of them ; it was in the winter season, and they practised plunging into the creek on the first appearance of the eruption, and died in a few hours. Two years ago they had the measles, of which several more of them died. They formerly lived on the south bank of the river, by the course of the river 375 miles higher up, at a beautiful prairie, which has a clear lake of good water in the middle of it, surrounded by a pleasant and fertile country, which had been the residence of their ancestors from time immemorial.
They have a traditionary tale which not only the Caddos, but half a dozen other smaller nations believe in, who claim the honour of being descendants of the same family: they say, when all the world was drowned by a flood that inundated the whole country, the great spirit placed on an eminence, near this lake, one family of Caddogues, who alone were saved ; from that family all the Indians originated.
The French, for many years before Louisiana was transferred to Spain, had, at this place, a fort and some soldiers : several French families were likewise settled in the vicinity, where they had erected a good flour mill with burr stones brought from France. These French families continued there till about 55 years ago, when they moved down and settled at Campti, on the Red river, about 20 miles above Natchitoches, where they now live ; and the Indians left it about 14 years ago, on account of a dreadful sickness that visited then. They settled on the river nearly opposite where they now live, on a low place, but were driven thence on account of its overflowing, occasioned by a jam of timber choaking the river at a point below them. The whole number, of what they call warriors of the ancient Caddonation, is now reduced to about 100, who are looked upon somewhat like knights of Malta, or some distinguished military order. They are brave, despise danger or death, and boast that they have never shed white man's blood. Besides these, there are of old men and strangers who live amongst them, nearly the same number, but there are 40 or 50 more women than men. This nation has great influence over the Yattassees, Nandakoes, Nabadaches, Inies or Yachies, Nagogdoches, Keychies, Adaize and Natchitoches, who all speak the Caddo lan. guage, look up to them as their fathers, visit and intermarry among them, and join them in all their wars. The Caddogues complain of the Choctaws encroaching upon their country; call them lazy, thievish, &c. There has been a misunderstanding between them for several years, and small hunting parties kill one another when they meet. The Caddos raise corn, beans, pumpkins, &c. but the land on which they now live is prairie, of a white clay soil, very flat: their crops are subject to injury either by too wet or too dry a season. They have horses, but few of any other domestic animal, except dogs; most of them have guns and some have rifles : they and all the other Indians that we have any knowledge of, are at war with the Osages. The country, generally, round the Caddos is hilly, not very rich ; growth a mixture of oak, hickory and pine, interspersed with prairies, which are very rich generally, and fit for cultivation. There are creeks and springs of good water frequent. YATTASSEES, live on Bayau Pierre, (or stony creek) which falls into Red river, western division, abeut 50 miles above Natchitoches. Their village is in a large prairie about halfway between the Caddoques and Natchitoches, surrounded by a settlement of French families. The Spanish government,at present, exercise jurisdiction over this settlement, where they keep a ard of a non-commissioned officer and eight soldiers. A few months ago, the Caddo chief with a few of his young men were coming to this place to trade, and came that way which is the usual road. The Spanish officer of the guard threatened to stop them from trading with the Americans, and told the chief if he returned that way with the goods he should take them from him : The chief and his party were very angry, and threatened to kill the whole guard, and told them that that road had been always theirs, and that if the Spaniards attempted to prevent their using it as their ancestors had always done, he would soon make it a bloody road. He came here, purchased the goods he wanted, and might have returned another way and avoided the Spanish guard, and was advised to do so; but he said he would pass by them, and let them attempt to stop him if they dared. The guard said nothing to him as he returned. This settlement, till some few years ago, used to belong to the district of Natchitoches, and the rights to their lands given by the government of Louisiana, before it was ceded to Spain. Its now being under the government of Taxus, was only an agreement between the commandant of Natchitoches and the commandant of Nagogdoches. The French formerly had a station and factory there, and another on the Sabine river, nearly one hundred miles north west from the Bayau Pierre settlement. The Yattassees now say the French used to be their people and now the Americans. But of the ancient Yattassees there are but eight men remaining,and twenty-five women, besides children; but a number of men of other nations have intermarried with them and live together. I paid a visit at their village last summer; there were about forty men of them altogether: their original language differs from any other; but now, alt speak Caddo. They live on rich,
land, raise plenty of corn, beans, pumpkins, tobacco, &c. have horses, cattle, hogs and poultry. NAN1)AKOES, live on the Sabine river, 60 or 70 miles to the westward of the Yattassees, near where the French formerly had a station and fac. tory. Their language is Caddo: about forty men only of them remaining. A few years ago they suffered very much by the small pox. They consider themselves the same as Caddos, with whom they intermarry, and are, occasionally, visiting one another in the greatest harmony: have the same nanners, customs and attachments. ADAIZE, live about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yattassees, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which communicates with the division of Red river that passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near where their ancestors have lived from time immemorial. They being the nearest nation to the old Spanish fort, or Mission of Adaize, that place was named after them, being about 20 miles from them, to the south. There are now about 20 men of them remaining, but more women. Their language differs from all other, and is so difficult to speak or understand, that no nation can speak ten words of it; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them French, to whom they were always attached, and joined them against the Natchez Indians. After the massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards occupied the post of Adaize, their o took much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman Catholic reigion, but, I am informed, were totally unsuccessful ALICHE (commonly pronounced Eyeish) live near Nacogdoches, but are almost extinct, as a nation, not being more than 25 souls of them remaining : four years ago the small pox destroyed the greater part of them. They were, some years ago, a considerable nation, and lived on a bayau which bears their name, which the road from Natchitoch to Nacogdoches crosses, about 12 miles west of Sabine river, on which a few French and American families are settled. Their native language is spoken by no other nation, but they speak and understand Caddo, with whom they are in amity, often visiting one another. KEYES, or KEYCHIES, live on the east bank of Trinity river, a small distance above where the road from Natchitoches to St. Antoine crosses it. There are of them 60 men ; have their peculiar native language, but mostly now speak Caddo; intermarry with them, and live together in much harmony, formerly having lived near them, on the head waters of the Sabine. They plant corn and some other vegetables. 1NIES, or TACHIES (called indifferently by both names.) From the latter name the name of the province of Tachus or Taxus is derived. The Inies live about 25 miles west of Natchitoches, on a small river a branch of Sabine, called the Naches. They are, like all their neighbors, diminishing ; but have now 80 men. Their ancestors, for a long time, lived where they now do. Their language the same as that of the Caddos, with whom they are in great amity. These Indians have a good character, live on excellent land, and raise corn to sell. NABEDACHES, live on the west side of the same river, about fifteen miles above them; have about the same number of men ; speak the same language ; live on the best of land ; raise corn in plenty ; have the same manners, customs and attachments, BEDIES, are on the Trinity river, about 60 miles to the southward of Nacogdoches ; have 100 men ; are good hunters for deer, which are very large and plenty about them; plant, and make good crops of corn; language differs from all other, but speak Caddo; are a peaceable, quiet people, and have an excellent character for their honesty and punctuality. ACCOKESAWS. Their ancient town and principal place of residence is on the west side of Colerado or Rio Rouge, about 200 miles south west of Nacogdoches, but often change their place of residence for a season ; being near the bay make great use of fish, oysters, &c. kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is univer. saily said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, dness of water, and beauty of surface ; have a language peculiar to them: telves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand; number about 80 men. 30 or 40 years ago the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms of the country. MAYES, live on a large creek called St. Gabriel, on the bay of St. Bernard, near the mouth of Gaudaloupe river : are estimated at 200 men; never at peace with the Spaniards, towards whom they are said to possess a fixed hatred, but profess great friendship for the French, to whom they have been strongly attacked since Mons. de Salle landed in their neighborhood. The place where there is a talk of the Spaniards opening a new port, and making a settlement, is near them ; where the party, with the governor of St. Antoine, who were there last fall to examine it, say they found the remains of a French block house ; some of the cannon now at Labahie are said to have been * from that place, and known by the engravings now to be seen on lein. The French speak highly of these Indians for their extreme kindness and hospitality to all Frenchinen who have been amongst them : have a language of their own, but speak Attakapa, which is the language of their neighbors the Carankouas : they have likewise a way of conversing by signs. CARANKOLAS, live on an island, or peninsula, in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about ten miles, and five in breadth; the soil is extremely rich and pleasant; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of ceal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong, thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoaly coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal there is emitted a gummy substance the Spainards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collectby them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing ; it has
the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disa
greeable smell. . These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons de. Salle and his party were in their neighborhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but I have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information; in a short time expect to be well informed. They speak the Attakapa language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, I presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them, for nature is every where the same. Last summer an old Spaniard came to me from Labahie, a journey of about 500 miles, to have a barbed arrow taken out of his shoulder, that one of these Indians had shot in it. I found it under his shoulder-blade, near nine inches, and had to cut a new place to get at the point of it, in order to get it out the contrary way from that in which it had entered: it was made of a piece of an iron hoop, with wings like a fluke and an inche. CANCES, are a very numerous nation, consisting of a great many different tribes, occupying different parts of the country, from the bay of St. Bernard, cross river Grand, towards La Vera Cruz. They are not friendly to the Spaniards, and generally kill them when they have an opportunity. They are attached to the French ; are good hunters, principally using the bow. They are very particular in their dress, which is made of neatly dressed leather; the women wear a long loose robe, resembling that of a Franciscan friar; nothing but their heads and feet are to be seen. The dress of the men is straight leather leggings, resembling pantaloons, and a leather hunting shirt or frock. No estimate can be made of their number. Thirty or forty years ago the Spaniards used to make slaves of them when they could take them ; a considerable number of them were brought to Natchitoches and sold to the French inhabitants at 40 or 50 dollars a head, and a number of them are still living here, but are now free. About 20 years ago an order came from the king of Spain that no more Indians should be made slaves, and those that were enslaved should be emancipated ; after which some of the women who had been servants in good families, and taught spin