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from the river at the present time. This lake, possessing elevated banks, similar to those of the river, has been lately occupied and improved. The Catahoolabayau is the third navigable stream : during the time of the inundation there is an excellent communication by the lake of that name, and from thence, by large creeks, to the Red river. The country around the point of union of these three rivers is altogether alluvial, but the place of *Mr. Hebrard's residence is no longer subject to inundation. There is no doubt, that as the country augments in population and riches, this place will become the site of a commercial inland town, which will keep pace with the progress and prosperity of the country. One of the Indian mounts here is of a considerable elevation, with a species of rampart surrounding a large space, which was, no doubt, the position of a fortified town. While here, Mr. Dunbar met with an American, who pretended to have been up the Arkansa river three hundred leagues. The navigation of this river, he says, is good to that distance, for boats drawing three or fur feet water. Implicit faith, perhaps, ought not to be given to his relation, respecting the quantity of silver he pretends to have collected there. He says he has found silver on the Washita, thirty leagues above the hot springs, so rich, that three pounds of it yielded one pound of silver, and that this was found in a cave. He asserts, also, that the ore of the mine upon the little Missouri was carried to Kentucky, by a person of the name of Boon, where it was found to yield largely in silver. This man says he has been up the Red river likewise, and that there is a great rapid just below the raft, or natural bridge, and several others above it : that the Caddo nation is about fifty leagues above the raft, and near to their village commences the country of the great prairies, which extend four or five hundred miles to the west of the sand mountains, as they are termed. These great plains reach far beyond the Red river to the south, and northward over the Arkansa river, and among the numerous branches of the Missouri. He confirms the account of the beauty and fertility of the western country. On the morning of the 25th Mr. Dunbar set out, on horseback, from the Catahoola to Natchez. The rain which had fallen on the preceding days rendered the roads wet and muddy, and it was two in the afternoon before he reached the Bayau Crocodile, which is considered half way between the Black river and the Mississippi. It is one of the numerous creeks in the low grounds which assist in venting the waters of the inundation. On the margins of the water courses the lands are highest, and produce canes ; they fall off, in the rear, into cypress swamps and lakes. The waters of the Mississippi were rising, and it was with some difficulty that they reached a house near Concord that evening. This settlement was begun since the cession of Louisiana to the United States, by citizens of the Mississippi ter+itory, who have established their residence altogether upon newly acquired lands, taken up under the authority of the Spanish commandant, and have gone to the expense of improvement, either in the names of themselves or others, before the 20th of December, 1803, hoping thereby to hold their new possessions under the sanction of the law. Exclusive of the few actual residents on the banks of the Mississippi, there are two very handsome lakes in the interiour, on the banks of which similar settlements have been made. He crossed at the ferry, and at midAlay of the 26th reached his own house. Dr. Hunter, and the remainder of the party, followed Mr. Dunbar down the Washita with the boat in which they had ascended the river, and, ascending the Mississippi, reached St. Catharine's landing on the morning of £he 31st January, 1805.
Common names of some of the trees, shrubs, and filants growing in the vicinity of the Washita. THRze kinds of white oak, four kinds of red oak, black oak, three kinds. of hickory, one of which has an oblong nut, white and good, chinkapin, three kinds of ash, one of which is the prickly, three kinds of elm,two kinds of maple, two kinds of pine, red cedar, sweetgum, black gum, linden, two kinds of iron wood, growing on high and low lands, sycamore, box elder, holly, sweet bay, laurel, magnolia acuminata, black walnut, filbert, buckeye, dogwood, three kinds of locust, the three-thorned and honey locust, hazle, beech ; wild lumb, the fruit red but not good ; bois d’arc (bow wood) called also bois ł. (yellow wood) a famous yellow dye : three kinds of hawthorn, with rries, red, scarlet, and black; lote tree, for Indian arrows ; bois de carbane, a small growth, and proper for hoops; two kinds of osier, myrtle, tooth-ache tree, and magnolia. A vine, bearing large good black grapes in bunches, black grape, hill grape, yellow grape, muscadine, or fox grape, and a variety of other vines. The saw briar, single rose briar, and china root briar, wild goose berry, with a dark red fruit, three kinds of whortle berry, wild pomegranate, passion flower, two sorts of sumach, winter's berry, winter's green, a small red farinaceous berry like a haw, on a plant one inch high, which grows under the snow, and is eaten by the Indians; the silk plant, wild endive, wild olive, pink root, snake root, wild mint of three kinds, coloquintida (bitter apple) growing along the river side, clover, sheep's clover, life everlasting, wild $iquorice, marygold, missletoe, thistle, wild hemp, bull rush, dittany, white and red poppy, yellow jessamine, poke, fern, capillaire, honeysuckle, mosses, petu to make ropes with, wormwood, hops, ipecacuanha, persicaria, Indian turnip, wild carrot, wild onion, ginger, wild cabbage, and bastard indigo.
coxsm UNICATION To Bo TH HOUSES OF CONGRESS, AT THE Com MENCEMENT of THE SEco ND SEssion of THE NIN TH cox Cress, DEcEMBER 2, 1806.
To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, in Congress assembled. IT would have given me, Fellow Citizens, great satisfaction to announce, in the moment of your meeting, that the difficulties in our foo relations, existing at the time of your separation, had been amicably and justly terminated. I lost no time in taking those measures which were most likely to bring them to such a termination, by special missions, charged with such powers and instructions as, in the event of failure, could leave no imputation on either our moderation or forbearance. The delays, which
have since taken place in our negociations with the British Government, ap
pear to have proceeded from causes which do not forbid the expectation that, during the course of the session, I may be enabled to lay before you their final issue. What will be that of the negociations for settling our differences with Spain, nothing which has taken place, at the date of the last dispatches, enables us to pronounce. On the western side of the Mississippi she advanced in considerable force, and took post at the settlement of Bayau Pierre, on the Red river. This village was originally settled by France, was held by her as long as she held Louisiana, and was delivered to Spain only as a part of Louisiana. Being small, insulated, and distant, it was not observed at the moment of re-delivery to France and the United States, that —- aaaa-...-a lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll ... I AMERICAN STATE PAPERS, 83
she continued a guard of half a dozen men, which had been stationed there.
titled, a similar appropriation for a further provision of them is recommended for the ensuing year. . A further appropriation will also be necessary for repairing fortifications already established, and the erection of such other works as may have real effect in obstructing the approach of an enemy to our sea-port towns, or their remaining before them, In a country whose constitution is derived from the will of the people, directly expressed by their free suffrages; where the principal executive functionaries, and those of the legislature, are renewed by them at short periods ; where, under the characters of jurors, they exercise in person the #." portion of the judiciary powers; where the laws are consequently so ormed and administered as so bear with equal weight and favour on all, restraining no man in the pursuits of honest industry, and securing to every one the property which that acquires, it would not be supposed that any safeguards could be needed against insurrection, or enterprize, on the publick peace or authority. The laws, however, aware that these should not be trusted to moral restraints only, have wisely provided punishment for these crimes when committed. But would it not be salutary to give also the means of preventing their commission Where an enterprize is meditated by private individuals, against a foreign nation, in amity with the United States, powers of prevention, to a certain extent, are given by the laws. Would they not be as reasonable, and useful, where the enterprize preparing is against the United States —While adverting to this branch of law, it is proper to observe, that, in enterprizes meditated against foreign nations, the ordinary process of binding to the observance of the peace and good behaviour, could it be extended to acts to be done out of the jurisdiction of the United States, would be effectual in some cases where the offender is able to keep out of sight every indication of his purpose which could draw on him the exercise of the powers now given by law. The states on the coast of Barbary seem generally disposed at present to respect our peace and friendship. With Tunis alone, some uncertainty resnains. Persuaded that it is our interest to maintain our peace with them on equal terms, or not at all, I propose to send in due time a reinforcement into the Mediterrancan, unless previous information shall shew it to be unnecessary. We continue to receive proofs of the growing attachment of our Indian neighbours,and of their disposition to place all their interests under the patronage of the United States. These dispositions are inspired by their confidence in our justice and in the sincere concern we feel for their welfare. And as long as we discharge these high and honourable functions with the integrity and good faith which alone can entitle us to their continuance, we may expect to reap the just reward in their peace and friendship. The expedition of Messrs. Lewis, and Clarke, for exploring the river Missouri, and the best communication from that to the Pacifick Ocean, has had all the success which could have been expected. They have traced the Missouri nearly to its source, descended the Columbia to the Pacifick Ocean, ascertained with accuracy the geography of that interesting communication across our continent, learnt the character of the country, of its commerce and inhabitants, and it is but justice to say that Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, and their brave companions, have, by this arduous service, deserved well of their country. The attempt to explore the Red River, under the direction of Mr. Freeman, though conducted with a zeal and prudence meriting entire approbation, has not been equally successful. After proceeding up about six hundred miles nearly as far as the French settlements had extended, while the country was in their possession, our geographers were obliged to return without completing their work.
very useful additions have also been made to our knowledge of the Mississippi, by Lieutenant Pike, who has ascended it to its source, and whose journal and map, giving the details of his journey, will shortly be ready for communication to both houses of congress. Those of Messrs. Lewis, Clarke and Freeman, will require further ting to be digested and prepared. These important surveys, in addition to those before possessed, furnish materials for commencing an accurate map of the Mississippi and its western waters. Some principal rivers however remain still to be explored, towards which the authorisation of congress, by moderate appropriations, will be requisite. i congratulate you, fellow-citizens, on the approach of the period at which you may interpose your authority constitutionally, to withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights, which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, and which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country, have long been eager to proscribe. Although no law you may pass can take prohibitory effect till the first day of the year one-thousand eight hundred and eight, yet the intervening period is not too long to prevent, by timely notice, expeditions, which cannot be completed before that day. . The receipts at the treasury, during the year ending on the 30th day of Sept. last, have amounted to near fifteen millions of dollars: which have enabled us, after meeting the current demands, to pay two millions seven hundred thousand dollars of the American claims, in part of the price of Louisiana ; to pay, of the funded debt, upwards of three millions of principal, and nearly four of interest, and in addition to reimburse, in the course of the present month, near two millions of five and a half per cent. stock. These payments and reimbursements of the funded debt, with those which have been made in the four years and a half preceding, will, at the close of the present year, have extinguished upwards of 23 millions of principal. The duties composing the Mediterranean fund will cease, by law, at the end of the present session. Considering, however, that they are levied chiefly on luxuries, and that we have an impost of salt, a necessary of life, the free use of which otherwise is so important, I recommend to your consideration the suppression of the duties on salt, and the continuation of the Mediterranean fund, instead thereof, for a short time, after which that also will become unnecessary for any purpose now within contemplation. When both of these branches of revenue shall, in this way, be relinquished, there will still, ere long, be an accumulation of monies in the treasury, beyond the instalments of publick debt which we are permitted by contract to pay. They cannot then, without a modification, assented to by the publick creditors, be applied to the extinguishment of this debt, and the comFlete liberation of our revenues, the most desirable of all objects. Nor, if our peace continues, will they be wanting for any other existing purpose. The question, therefore, now comes forward, to what other objects shall. these surplusses be appropriated, and the whole surplus of impost, after the entire discharge of the publick debt, and during those intervals when the purposes of war shall not call for them Shall we suppress the impost, and give that advantage to foreign over domestisk manufactures On a few articles, of more general and necessary use, the suppression, in due season, wilt doubtless be right ; but the great mass of the articles, on which impost is paid, are foreign luxuries, purchased by those only who are rich enough afford themselves the use of them.—Their patriotism would certainly prefor its continuance and application to the great purposes of the publick education, roads, rivers, canals, and such other objects of publick improvement as it may be thought proper to add to the constitutional enumeration of fed-. .