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Medium of Intercommunication



"When found, make a note of."-CAPTAIN CUTTLE.










NOTES: Simon de Swanland and Edward II., 1-The
Burghal Hidage, 2-Cromwelliana, 3-The King's Palace,
Fordwich, 4-Aviation in 1811-The Taxi-Aero-Serjeants'
Inn Dinner in 1839, 5-The Farmer's Creed-"Jacobite"
"Jacobin"-Boleyn Family in Ireland, 6.
QUERIES:-Dr. F. E. Sankey: Dr. Woolley-Mummy used
Mabuse-Skeat on Derivations-St. Columb and Stratton

as Paint Backseat" - "Bast" Henry VII. and Accounts, 7-Bristol Board-Guild of Clothiers-Military Executions-Authors Wanted - Hugh Family-Major Benjamin Woodward, S-Son and Mother-Belly and the Body-John Owen-French Thunderstorm-"Franklin days"-Fire of London-Ripon Forger, 9-Apophthegms for School Museum-Dean Merivale on PerseveranceRiddle-Robert Blincoe-Lord Falmouth's Charters-St. Lugidio--Port Henderson, 10.

REPLIES:-Bishop Ken, 10-The British Critic,' 11Royal Jubilees-Queen Victoria's Great-Grandmother Envy, eldest-born of hell "—" Orgeat," 12-"Schicksal und eigene Schuld"-"Souchy"- Mistress K. AshleyTemple Organ, 13-'Churches of Yorkshire Wee Wee German Lairdie,' 14-Authors Wanted-Colour of SheepSir W. Ashton-Murderous London Boatman-St. Patrick: St. George, 16-Forbes of Skellater-Milton-B and G in Domesday "O. K."-Peter the Great's Portrait-Pigtails in the British Army, 17-Swammerdam on Insects-Royal Society Rarities-Commonwealth Churches-Blue RodButtyvant, 18.

NOTES ON BOOKS:-' Records of the English Bible'The Cornhill.'

Booksellers' Catalogues.

OBITUARY:-Rev. W. J. Loftie.

Notices to Correspondents.




IN the Middlesex manor of Harefield lies a district known in the thirteenth century as Swanland, and in due course its lady, Margaret de Swanland, married John Newde gate, lord of Harefield, a fact that accounts for the preservation of some highly interesting documents among the Harefield title-deeds.

Simon de Swanland, a successful merchant, draper, and citizen of London, flourished in the reigns of Edward I.-III., and would seem to have been an adherent of Edward II. throughout his career. It is to him Edward sends during his temporary success over his enemies, and it is to him that the royal treasure is entrusted in time of misfortune. It is so seldom that an opportunity occurs of finding the privy doings of early kings that I cannot keep thinking that these, so far as I am aware, unpublished documents

should have a general interest. I have added notes of other deeds which throw light upon the early formation of merchant companies.

1. The first of the series would perhaps be suitably described as letters of association of the merchant Simon with two other drapers, Ralph de Walecote and Henry Darcy, in 1312.

2. The second is a letter from William de Melton, Archbishop of York, to Simon, requesting him to obtain certain articles for the King's Wardrobe.

3. The third may be described as a dissolution of the company, with a statement of their respective gains, in 1318.

4. This is a statement of profit and loss between Simon and John de Swanland, 1319. 5. Lastly, there is an acquittance for the surrender of the royal goods placed in Simon's charge, 1327.

The following are abstracts of the documents referred to :

1. Indenture of partnership between Simon de Swanland, Ralph de Walecote, and Henry Darcy, drapers, agreed upon at Christmas ("la feste de Noel ", 6 Edward II. (1312). Wherein they agree a compaignez ensemble pour marchander de dras et dautres choses pour leur commun profit " to the end of three years following, Simon to find 400l., Ralph 3001., and Henry 627., binding themselves to risk "tous perieux de meer, de feu, de prise le Roy, et de Robberie," and to share the gains as follows. Henry de Melton (who joined as co-partner) and Henry auront le tierce denier du gaign," and Simon and Ralph a similar share. Should any of the company wish to retire, six months' warning is to be given, and he must share all the losses. Each party affixed his seal.

2. Letter from William, Archbishop of York, to his beloved Simon de Swanland, citizen of London, enjoining him to strict secrecy, "et que vous ne le monstrez a nul homme ne femme du mounde tant que nous avoins parle. Voillez saver que nous avoins certeins noveles de notre seigneur lege Edward de Karn(arvon) quil est en vie et en bone sainte de corps et en seur....a sa volente demeign par quoi nous sumes plus joyous.' The writer sends a draft for 2001. of gold, and requests Simon to search out two "demi-draps of divers colour, "bon drap et prouve vesture

et bon pelur de menever par vi. garmentz et iij. chaperons de menever pour les chaperons et deux coverletes de divers colours de la plus large assiz ove les tapitz," two girdles and two pouches, 20 ells and also to of linen cloth (linge de lak "); request his shoemaker to add "vi. peir de solers et peir de botes," and to make a truss of them en un fardel come les mercers menont lour mercerie." The writer will send a horse with a trusty brother, Sir William de Clyf, to carry them away. The bond is payable at Kawood eight days after the Feast of Purification next. He makes this request trusting that Simon will do all he asks for his honour and profit, and will also deliver to the bearer of the cloths a robe and 1


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and charge the expense to the writer. Dated at separate hidages must be remedied, if the manor of Kawood the morrow of St. Hillary. possible, by emendations of the latter. 3. An agreement between the three merchants Only two such emendations appear to be Simon de Swanland, Rauf de Walecote, and Henry Darcy for the dissolution of their company. required: (1) Tisbury and Shaftesbury are. Dated London, the 4 day after....12 Edward II. here considered as the members of Wilton, 4. Indenture between Simon de Swanland and or substitutes for it; and (2) at Bath "M John de Swanland dated the Feast of St. Botulf, hides and xxii hund' hides' has been 13 Edward II.....viiili. iiis. vid. Gain of two altered to "M hides and xii hund' hides," years next following, ccxxli. Item, gain of the the latter being, in comparison with the xvi., xvii., xviii. years, ccciijli. vs. viijd.; of year other, xix., ccxili. viiis. viiid.; the year of grace M'CCCXVI, easy phrase. The remaining account the day of St. Peter in the Chair, ccclvli. figures have MS. authority. The details vis. Total, m'dec. iiij xli. vis. iiijd. Of which sum may be seen in Maitland's 'Domesday Book the said Simon laid out in the purchase of a shop and Beyond' and Mr. Chadwick's Angloand in parcel accounts, the Feast of St. Peter Saxon Institutions.' The county figures above said, m'dexili. viq.; and there remained due to Simon clxixli. iijs. ixq. This indenture certifies are from Maitland. that John de Swanland lost in his partnership with Burghal Hidage. Simon, in arrears and debts, cccxxxviili. ixd.

5. Indenture witnessing that Sire Nicholas de Hungate, clerk, received of Symon de Swanlund, merchant of London, the goods of which he had charge: "Lun euere et lavacre chase dorre, un chaperon de meisme la suite. Item i. orfiller de saye neu tredes oyseaux dor. Item iiij. aunes de tarse ove deux gemels de Reye dor ove un pece de meisme la suite. Item demy garmentez de velvet vert ove le Reye....ove la chaperon de mesme la suite. Item i. pece de velvett i. ann. Item ij. garmentez of velvett de le Reyes de velvet vert. Item i. chape dor que la bordure argent de perles blanches divers.... [erased]. Item ij. bibles bon et bels lun covere de Roug quire, lautre de quire tanner. Item le sisme livre de....vel et bien gloses covere de quir vert. Item i. Registre covere de quire rouge. Item deux coffres bien garnisez par trusser ove divers choses de deutz. Item viii. Reye dor a livere le Count de Chestre pur chivacres....Item i. chalice bon et bel dargera dessez que poyse iiij. mercs et deux pichers dargent meisme la suite. Item i. coupe dargent ove le pie et le covercle ove troys braunches de gleyns dorrez....deviz le covercle des armes dangleterre et de France ove Item i. encensq ewere du meisme la suite. dargent que poyse xvi. souz. Item iiij. mazers ....le trois suite leiz. ove soreles et dargent dorrez. Item un coverla vert ove iij. tapiz de meisme, a suite. Item i. quilt poynt novel long et leez covere de sendall vermaill. Item i. pece de bele napery et contient cynkaunt et trois aunes. Item i. messal covere de noyr quir. Item i. neyr falding. In witness of which Sir Nicholas and Symon have interchanged their seals. Given in London "le xxix. jour de Marc.,' 1. Edward III.



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THE BURGHAL HIDAGE. THE following comparison of the figures of the Burghal Hidage with the hidages of the corresponding counties as recorded in Domesday Book may be of interest. It is based on the assumption that the total recorded in the MSS. (27,170 hides) for the main portion of the burghs is correct, so that the discrepancy between it and the sum of the


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2074 1830

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Pilton with Barnstaple

Bath (3200)

Oxford and Wallingford
Buckingham and

Eashing and Southwark

Recorded Total



Somerset 2936
Gloucester 2388

Grand Total 27,621

The hidages assigned to the various burghs no doubt correspond, as Mr. Chadwick points out in his book, with levies of men and munitions made on the surrounding districts for the defence of the several burghs. The excess in the Domesday total is almost accounted for in Buckinghamshire, where the omission of Newport Hundred (350 hides), as being north of Watling Street, would remove most of the surplus. The placing of Twinham (Christchurch) in the middle of the Wiltshire and Dorset burghs proves that if the county boundaries had not puncthen been defined, they were tiliously observed by the framers of this scheme. It is obviously a Wessex scheme

of defence, and the attack was expected supplementary part of our table; if so, it to come by water, on the south coast or by gives a limit for the main portion. the Bristol Channel. In such an emergency | In 893-4 the Danish host crossed over there seems nothing arbitrary in supposing from Boulogne and landed in Kent, just that inland Berkshire might be assigned to outside the protected district; but Wessex, support Sussex and Hampshire, or that though attacked at various points, was preGloucestershire might join in defending served from devastation. Those whose Bath, Malmesbury, and Cricklade, which duty it was to defend the burghs" are lay as near to it as to the bulk of Somerset mentioned in the Chronicle's' record of and Wiltshire. The eastern and western those trying years. The host at length parts of the Burghal Hidage show a division made a rapid march up the Thames valley fairly equal, for Sussex and Oxford (first and to the upper waters of the Severn, but that last sections above) have 14,100 hides, and seems to have been the only part in which Dorset, Devon, &c., 13,070. they were able to break through the defence. In view of all these occurrences, it is tempting to suppose that the defence schemeof the Burghal Hidage was drawn up by Alfred between 878 and 886; that it was

2400 hides.

The concluding figures of the Hidage, after the Wessex total, indicate that a similar plan was contemplated for other parts of England. They are: "Astsexum 30 (? 3000), Worcester 1200, Warwick 4 and The Worcester figures agree with the Domesday Book hidage of the county, and prove that Gloucester was not then associated with it; those for Warwick show that a wider area than the county (D.B. 1300 hides) must have been summoned to aid it-possibly Staffordshire and part of Shropshire. On the other hand, the East Saxon figures are much below the hidage of that province. Kent and Cornwall are entirely outside the plan; the former probably retained its own administration.

The A.-S. Chronicle' has several indications that the scheme belongs substantially to Alfred's time. Thus in 878 the king and his band constructed a fort at Athelney, from which he made attacks on the Danes, being assisted by the men of Somerset adjacent to that fort. The Burghal Hidage is an obvious development of this germ into a defence of Wessex as a whole. In the same year Alfred overcame Guthrun, and made the treaty by which Watling Street became the boundary between his kingdom and the Danes. The shortage of the Buckinghamshire hides above noticed shows that the treaty was in force at the time this table was compiled. It is reasonable to suppose that Alfred's first care was to organize the government of Wessex and make plans for its defence. On the land side there was no further trouble, but, in accordance with the indications of the Burghal Hidage, the king seems to have dreaded attacks by sea. Maturing his plans he was able in 882 to sail out with his own ships and fight four Danish vessels, gaining a complete victory. In 886 he repaired London, and all the English outside the Danelagh submitted to him. This may explain the inclusion of the East Saxons, Worcester, and Warwick in the

tested by the invasion of 893-4; and that,
proving effective, it was placed on record
for future use. On the other hand, if the
fortification of Buckingham in 918 was the
first employment of that place as a burgh,
this table cannot, of course, be earlier than
that year.
What the Chronicle' says is
that in the year named Edward the Elder
made both burghs there, on either side of the
river. In the 'Hidage' another name is
given with Buckingham. But in 918 the-
supplementary part of the table ought to
have included the numerous burghs which
Ethelfleda had been erecting all over Mercia..
On the whole, the earlier date seems more
list was used as a "working document" in
probable. The hypothesis that the original
Wessex will account for some difficulties.

It is observable that, if the entry "Buckingham 1500 hides " is a later interpolation, there is no need to regard the hidage of Tisbury and Shaftesbury as involved in that of Wilton; but the total will be reduced to 27,070, while the symmetry of the table, and its correspondence with the Domesday Book hidages, will be greatly impaired


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