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in close order 170, in open order 340 fathoms; and at half distance 85 fathoms. *

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A feet is in natural order with the van on the right, or leading, and in order reversed when the contrary is the case.

One vessel should always be designated by signal to act as a guide, by which the movements of the other vessels are to be governed, and should wear a guide flag at the main. This, of course, applies only while the fleet is en route ; when it is manoeuvring, the vessels upon which a formation is made must necessarily be the guides.

* Mathematically stated, these distances are :

169.9+ 339.4+ 84.8+

The rate of speed of a fleet en route must be regulated by signal from the commander-in-chief; steerage-way is four knots an hour.

The commander-in-chief of a fleet may arrange and number the vessels thereof, as in his judgment may seem best.

In the following problems I have supposed the fleet to be in natural order, to be numbered from right to left, and to be heading North, simply for convenience in demonstrating.

Figs. 12, 13, 14, and 15 show the order of a fleet of twenty-four vessels, formed into three divisions of two squadrons each, in line, column, and echelon.

FIG. 12. Fleet in line, in natural order, that is, with the van squadron on the right.

This order is reversed by each vessel turning sixteen points to the right or left, so that the rear squadron takes the right.

Rear

Next
Bquadron. to Rear.
Rear Division.

Left

Right
Centre. Centre.
Centre Division,

Next

Van
to Van. Squadron.
Van Division.

FIG. 13. Fleet in column, in natural order, that is with the van squadron leading. This order is reversed by each vessel turning sixteen points, to starboard or port, so that the rear squadron leads.

41 11

Van squadron.

Next to van.

Right centre.

Rear Division. Centre Division. Van Division.

Left centre,

Next to rear.

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Rear squadron.

FIGS. 14 AND 15.

Fleet in double-echelon, in natural order, that is with the van squadron on the right. This order is reversed by each vessel turning sixteen points to starboard or port, so that the rear. squadron is on the right.

14,

424

15.

124

1. The fleet being in line, heading North, to form

it into column of vessels, from the right, preserving the original direction.

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Commander-in-chief signals:

From the right of fleet-form column of vessels fleet N.E.-right vessel N.*

Flag-ship of van division: Division N.E.right vessel * N.

Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Division N. E.

Upon the hauling down of these signals, the vessel on the right of the fleet keeps its course ; the other vessels steer N.E.; two resuming its original direction when in the wake of one, three

Right vessel's distinguishing pennant must here be displayed over compass signal N.

† Speed signals should always be made by the divisional commanders to their divisions.

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