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when in the wake of two, and so on to the last vessel.
The commander-in-chief signals :
From the right of fleet, form column of vessels fleet N. E.-right vessel N.
Flag-ship of van division : Division N.E.right vessel N.; and comes into column as in the 1st method.
Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Division E.-right vessel N.E.
Upon the hauling down of these signals, the vessel on the right of the fleet keeps its course; the vessels on the right of the centre and rear divisions steer N.E., the other vessels E., those of the van division resuming their original direction when in the wake of one, while those of the centre and rear divisions steer N.E. when in the wake of nine and seventeen, respectively, and come into column as before.
From the right of fleet, form column of vessels-fleet E.-right vessel* N.
Flag-ship of van division: Division E-right vessel N.
Flag-ships of centre and rear divisions signal: Division E.
Upon the hauling down of these signals, the vessel on the right of the fleet keeps its course; the other vessels steer E.; two resuming its original direction, when in the wake of one; three when in the wake of two, and so on to the last vessel.
It is evident that the fleet can be formed into column, from the left, preserving the original direction, according to the same principles.
When the commander-in-chief desires to leave it optional with the divisional commanders to
Speed signals should always be made by the divisional commanders to their divisions.
come into column either by obliquing or taking the two sides of the triangle, he omits signalling the course to the fleet thus:
From the right of fleet, form column of vesselsright vessel N.*
NOTE TO IST METHOD (FIG. 16).-In close order, the distance between the right and left vessels of a fleet of twentyfour vessels, in line, is 2,760 fathoms; it follows, then, that the left vessel steering N.E., and thus making an angle of 45° with the course, will traverse 3,903 fathoms and strike the perpendicular to the line described by the right vessel, moving N., at a distance of 2,760 fathoms from A, the point of departure of that vessel when, if both vessels have proceeded at the same rate of speed, the distance between the van and the rear will be but 1,143 fathoms, whereas it should be 2,760 fathoms (see Table A), to insure which distance the right vessel should have made 5,520 fathoms. Now 5,520 : 3,903 :: 10 : 7.07-therefore the speed of the left vessel should be but Loths of that of the right. Again, the second vessel, 120 fathoms from the first, will traverse 169.7 fathoms, and strike the perpendicular at a distance of 120 fathoms from A, when the first vessel should be 120 fathoms ahead of her, and have made 240 fathoms. But 240 : 169.7 :: 10: 7.07--therefore, the speed of the second vessel must also be juths of that of the right vessel; and so with the other vessels, each one resuming her speed when she comes N., in the wake of the leading or guide vessel.
This seems self-evident, and yet an eminent French tac
* This paragraph applies to the succeeding problems also. tician, in forming column in this way, directs the leader of the column to “slow” thus :
“Lorsque l'evolution est dessinée, la tete de la ligne diminue de vitesse pour accélérer le mouvement des vaisseaux de queue.”—“Tactiqe supplémentaire a l'usage d'une Flotte Cuirassée." By Vice-Amiral Cte. BOUËT-WILLAUMEZ, Commandant-en-Chef l'escadre d'evolutions. )--Evolution No. 5.
The annexed table shows the rate of speed for each _ point of obliquity from the course, supposing the speed of the leader (or leaders, since it is evident that the same reasoning applies whatever may be the front of the column; a double column, for instance, being simply two “columns;" a triple column being three "columns of vessels,” etc.) of the column to be ten knots an hour, from which every captain-the speed of the leader of the column being known can readily deduce that of his own vessel. For instance, let the line, heading N. and steaming 15 knots an hour, be ordered to form column, from the right, preserving the original direction, and the course signalled by the divisional commanders to the obliquing vessels be N.N.E. Then 10:15:: 7.6: 11.4; and we have for the obliquing vessels 11 knots and to an hour.
Angle of Obliquity
in Degrees and
Parts of a Degree.
Angle of Obliquity in
Speed of Speed of
Tenths. in Knots.
50 371 301 # point N. & E. 11 15 00 1 point N. by E... 16 52 30 14 points N. by E. } E. 22 30 00 2 points N. N. E 28 07 30 24 points N. N. E. } E. 33 45 00 3 points N. E. by N. 39 22 30 34 points N. E. I N... 45 00 00
4 points N. E. 50 37 30 45 points N. E. & E. 56 15 00 5 points N. E. by E.. 61 52 30 58 point N. E. by E. } E. 67 30 00 6 points E. N. E. 73 07 30 64 points E. N. E. I E.. 78 45 00 7 points. E. by N... 84 22 30 77 points E. IN.
9.2 8.5 8.0 7.6 7.4 7.? 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.6 8.0 8.5 9.2
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
When the commander-in-chief desires to form the column in the shortest possible time, without regard to the positions of the vessels in it, he haş but to make general signal full speed. It will sometimes happen, however, that vessels coming into column thus will interfere with each other, when the junior officer must slow down until his superior has passed him.