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20. The fleet being in line, heading N., to form it into double columns from the right of divisions, on ⚫any course from N. to W.

To form the columns to the N.W.

1st Method.

The fleet is first formed into column of vessels from the right to the N.E, or from the left to the S.W., then into line to the N.W., upon general signal N. W., and finally into double columns from the right of divisions, as in 4, Figs. 23 and 24.

2d Method.

The fleet is first formed into columns of vessels from the right of divisions (as in 18, Fig. 48) to the N.W., and then into double columns, as in 28, Fig. 57.

It is evident that the fleet can be formed into triple columns, columns of fours, etc., etc., from the right of divisions, on any course from N. to W., and into double column, triple column, etc., etc., from the left of divisions, on any course from N. to E., according to the same principles.

21. The fleet being in line, heading N., to change front to the right, on any course from N. to E.

To change front to N.E.

1st Method.*

The fleet is first formed into column of vessels from the right to the S.E., or from the left to the N.W., and then into line again to the N.E., upon general signal N.E.

2d Method.

FIG. 51.

240

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24

* Whenever the angle of the new course with the old exceeds six points, this is the shortest method, and I think it always preferable. See note to manœuvre 12.

The commander-in-chief signals:

Fleet wheel to N. E.

Flag-ships of divisions signal: Division N.N.E. All the fleet alter course together to N.N.E.; one, the pivot-vessel, under steerage-way, twentyfour at full speed, and the other vessels * under such steam as will enable them to keep on a line between one and twenty-four. When the pivotvessel finds her consorts bearing from her on a line perpendicular to the given course (N.W. is the bearing in this case), she hoists compass signal N.E., when all come together to this course.

It is evident that the fleet can change front to the left, on any course from N. to W., according to the same principles, twenty-four being the pivot-vessel in this case.

22. The fleet being in line, in natural order, heading N., to change front to the rear, turning to starboard, and preserving the same order, that is, with the van squadron on the right.

The fleet is first formed into column of vessels to the right, upon general signal E., as in 10, Fig.

* Or these vessels may preserve full speed, each one slowing to steerage-way, as she comes upon the bearing N.W., and hoisting the position pennant as a guide to the next vessel on her left.

35, then direction changed to W., as in 56, Fig. 87 (see note to 70), and afterward into line, heading S., upon general signal S.

It is evident that the fleet can be turned to port, and after changing its direction, be again formed into line, heading S., with the van squadron on the right, by the signals: W.-head of fleet E.-S.

23. The fleet being in line, heading N., to change front to the rear, turning to starboard, in reversed order, that is, with the van squadron on the left.

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The commander-in-chief makes general signal E., which is repeated by the divisional commanders, when the fleet is formed into column of vessels heading E., from which it is thrown into line, heading S., upon general signal S.

It is evident that the fleet can be turned to port, and then formed into line, heading S., with the van squadron on the left, by the signals W. and S.

24. The fleet being in line, to form it into column

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The fleet should be first faced to the rear, and then formed into column as by the preceding methods, or it may be thrown into column to the right or left, at right-angles to the original direction, as in 10, Fig. 35; and then change direction to the course signalled by the commander-inchief, as by 56, Fig. 87.

And it must be borne in mind that the right or left of a fleet in line is its actual right or left on a line of bearing perpendicular to the course. If, therefore, the signal be made, From the right of fleet, form column of vessels, number one will be the first to move forward if the fleet be in natural order, but number twenty-four if the fleet be in reversed order.

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