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CONTENTS

THE SECOND VOLUME.

PART I.

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

OF THE HOLT LAND.

Chapter 1. Historical Geography of the Holy Land. Page

I. Names 13,14

II. Boundaries 14

ill. Inhabitants before the Conquest of Canaan by the

Israelites 15

IV. Division by Joshua.—Allotments of the Twelve

Tribes 16,17

V. The Kingdom under David and Solomon . . 17

VI. The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel . . . ib.

VTI. Divisions in the Time of Jesus Christ . . . 17,18

VIII. Account of the City of Jerusalem.:

1. Names 18,19

2. Situation 19

3. Fortifications and Walls .... 19, 20

4. State of the City before the fatal War of the

Jews with the Romans .... 20

5. Remarkable Buildings .... 21

6. Notice of the successive Captures of the City ib.

7. Sketch of its present State . . . . 21, 22

IX. Later Divisions of Palestine:—

1. Under the Romans 22

2. In the Time of the Crusades ... ib.

3. Modern Divisions under the Turkish Govern-

ment ib

Chapter II. Physical Geography of the Holy Land.

8ection I. Climate, .Seasons, and Physical Jlppear-

ance of the Country.

I. Climate 23

II. Seasons ib.

1. Seed-time ib.

2. Winter 23,24

3. The Cold Season, or Winter Solstice . . 24

4. Harvest ib.

5. Summer ib.

6. The Hot Season.—Heavy Dews . . 24, 25

■ II. Rivers, Lakes, Wells, and Fountains.—Cisterns and

Pools of Solomon 25-29

IV Mountains 29-31

V. Valleys . 31,32

VI. Caverns 32

VII. Plains 33

VIII. Deserts 34

Horrors and Dangers of Travelling in the Great

Desert of Arabia 34,35

Section II. On the Fertility and Productions of the

Holy Land.

I. Fertility of the Holy Land 35

II. Its Productions:—

1. Vegetables 35-37

2. Cattle 37

3. Mines t'6.

III. Testimonies of Ancient and Modern Authors to its

Fertility and Populousness . . . . 37,38

IV. Calamities with which this Country was visited:—

1. The Plague 38

2. Earthquakes ib.

3. Whirlwinds . ib.

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POLITICAL ANTIO.UITIES OP THE JEWS.

Chapter I. Different Forms of Government, and

Political State of the Hebrews, or Jews, from the

Patriarchal Times to the Babylonian Captivity.

I. Patriarchal Government 40

II. Government under Moses,—a Theocracy; its Na-

ture and Design 41

1. Heads, or Princes of Tribes and Families 41,42

2. Jcthronian Prefects, or Judges appointed by'

Moses 42

3. The Senate, or Council of Seventy Assessors ib.

4. Scribes ib.

ni. Government of the Judges ib

IV. Regal Government instituted . . . . 42,43

1. Functions and Privileges of the Kings 43,44

2. Inauguration of the Kings .... 44

3. Chief Distinctions of Majesty . . to

4. Scriptural Allusions to the Courts of Sove-

reigns and Princes explained . . . 45,4G

V. Revenues of the Kings of Israel .... 46

VI. Magistrates under the Monarchy . • . 46,4"

VII. Officers of the Palace 47

VIII. The Royal Harem ib.

IX. Promulgation of Laws 47,48

X. The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel founded . 48

Schism between the Twelve Tribes; its latent

Causes ib.

XI. Reasons why the Kingdom of Judah subsisted

longer than that of Israel 49

XH. State of the Hebrews during the Babylonish Cap-

tivity 49,50

Chapter II. Political State of the Jews, from their

Return from the Babylonish Captivity to the Sub-

version of their Civil and Ecclesiastical Polity.

Section I. Political Stale of the Jeitis under the Mdc-

cabees, and the Sovereigns of the llerodian Family.

I. Brief Account of the Maccabees .... 50

II. Sovereigns of the Herodian Family :—

1. Herod the Great—St. Matthew's Narrative

of his Murder of the Infants at Bethlehem

confirmed 50,51

2. Archelaus 51

3. Herod Antipas 52

4. Philip ib.

5. Herod Agrippa to

6. Agrippa,Junior ib.

7. Bernice and Drusilla t'6.

Section II. Political State of the Jews under the
Roman Procurators, to the Subversion of their
Civil and Ecclesiastical IJolity.

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PAGE

Chapter III. Courts of Judicature, Legal Proceed-

ings, and Criminal Law of the Jews.

Siction I. Jewish Courts of Judicature and Legal

Proceedings.

I. Seat of Justice !54

II. Inferior Tribunals il.

П1. Appeals.—Constitution of the Sanhédrin or Great

Council 54,55

IV. Time of Trials. — Form of Legal Proceedings

among the Jews ....... 55

1. Citation of the Parties .... ii.

2, 3. Form of Pleading in Civil and Criminal

Cases 56

4. Witnesses.—Oaths il.

5. The Lot, in what Cases used judicially . ii.

6. Forms of Acquittal ..... ii.

7. Summary Justice sometimes clamorously de-

manded 56,57

V. Executions of Sentences, by whom and in what

manner performed . .... 57

Ssction II. Of the Roman Judicature, Manner of

Trial, Treatment of Prisoners, and other Tribu-

nal» mentioned in the New Testament.

I. Judicial Proceedings of the Romans . . . 57,58

II. Privileges and Treatment of Roman Citizens when

Prisoners 58,59

III. Appeals to the Imperial Tribunal .... 59

IV. The Roman Method of fettering and confining

Prisoners 59,60

V. The Roman Tribunals 60

VI. Other Tribunals mentioned in the New Testa-

ment :—

1. The Areopagus at Athens . . . . 60,61

2. The Assembly at Ephesus .... 61

Section III. On the Criminal Law of the Jews.

$1. Crimes Against God:

1. Idolatry -, 61

2. Blasphemy 62

3. Falsely prophesying ..... ii.

4. Divination ....... ib.

5. Perjury ..... . . il.

II. Crimes Against Parents And Magistrates . il.

Ill Crimes Against Property :—

1. Theft C2

2. Manslealing 63

3. The Crime of denying any Thing taken in

trust or found ii.

4. Regulations concerning Debtors . . . il.

IV. Crimes Against The Person:

1. Murder 6S

2. Homicide ii.

3. Corporeal Injuries ...... 63, 64

4. Crimes of Lust ...... 64

V. Crimes Of Malice il.

Section IV. On the Punishments mentioned in the

Scriptures.

Design of Punishments.—Classification of Jewish

Punishments 64

I. Punishments, Not Capital:

1. Scourging ....... 64,65

2. Retaliation 65,66

3. Restitution.—Pecuniary Fines ... 65

4. Offerings in the Nature of Punishment . il.

5. Imprisonment.—Oriental Mode of treating

Prisoners 65,66

6. Banishment 66

7. Depriving them of Sight .... il.

8. Cutting or plucking otf the Hair . . ii.

9. Excommunication il.

П. Capital Punishments:

1. Slaying wiih the Sword .... 67

Office of the Goel il.

2. Slotting ii.

3. Burning to Death 68

4. Decapitation ...... ii.

5. Precipitation ...... ii.

6. Drowning ....... ii.

7. Bruising in a Mortar ..... ii.

8. Dichotomy, or Culling asunder . . . il.

9. Tuf.!7i>.»-,uo5, or Beating to Death ... ii.

10. Exposing to Wild Beasts .... ii.

11. Crucifixion 69

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III. Nurture of Children 163,164

IV. Power of the Father over his Children Disposi-

tion of his Property 164

V. Adoption 164,165

Chapter V. On the Condition of Slaves and of Ser-

vants, and the Customs relating to them, mentioned

or alluded to in the New Testament.

I. Slaves, how acquired 165

II. Their Condition among the Hebrews . . 165,166

III. And among other Nations 166,' 167

IV. Of hired Servants.—Customs relating to them,

and to Slaves, alluded to in the New Testa-

ment ,. . . 167

V. Different Kinds of Slaves or Servants mentioned

in the Scriptures 167 168

Chapter VI. Domestic Customs and Usages of the

Jews.

I. Forms of Salutation and Politeness.—Reverence to

rr « SuPeriorB 168,169

II. Mode of receiving Guests or Visitors . . . 169, 170

III. Conversation and Bathing '170

IV. Food and Entertainments 171-173

V. Mode of Travelling 173

VI. Hospitality, a Sacred Duty among the Jews . . ib

Account of the Tessera? Hospitales of the Greeks

and Romans .... ... 173 174

Chapter VII. On the Occupations, Literature, Stu-

dies, and Sciences of the Hebrews.

Section I. Rural and Domestic Economy of the

Jews.

I. Management Op Cattle by the Jews.—Various

Animals reared by them ..... 174-176

II. Laws of Moses respecting Agriculture . . 176

III. Manures known and used by the Jews . . . 176,177

IV. Their Mode of Ploughing, Sowing, and Reap-

ing 177

V. Different Ways of ihreshing out Com . . . 178

VI. Vineyards, and the Culture of the Vine and Olive-

Gardens 178-180

VII. Allusions in the Scriptures to the Rural and Domes-

tic Economy of the Jews 180

Section II. On the Arts cultivated by the Hebrews

or Jews.

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