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80 abundant in the limestone that it may practically be called a Lower Cambrian coral reef. This reef was traced for nearly thirty miles, and the same types are also known to occur in the Silver Peak range, about twenty-five miles to the eastward.
So far as known to me, this is the oldest of the Cambrian faunas known in the western portion of the United States. Just what its relations to the Olenellus fauna of central Nevada and British Columbia are I am unable at present to state, except that I believe it to be older than the Olenellus fauna of central Nevada.
It is not impossible that a fauna will be found in the lower limestone, but in the hasty reconnoissance in which I was engaged, only a portion of one day was given to the examination and measurement of the section. I hope in the future to extend the study of the White Mountain range, as Mr. Fairbanks has written me that he has discovered Fusilina cylindrica in the southern end of the range, east of Keeler, which is about fifty miles south of Tollgate Canyon. If the section is unbroken, the Middle and Upper Cambrian and Ordovician faunas should be found before reaching the Carboniferous horizon, discovered by Mr. Fairbanks.
ART. XV.-On the PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS, Dubois,*
from Java ; by 0. C. MARSH. (With Plate II.)
A RECENT discovery of great interest is recorded in the memoir here cited. In many respects, this discovery appears to be one of the most important since the Neanderthal skull was brought to light in 1857, and hence the main facts concerning it deserve early notice in this Journal. This memoir of forty pages contains a full description, with illustrations, of part of a skull, a molar tooth, and a femur, found in the later Tertiary strata of Java, and pertaining to a large anthropoid ape, which is believed to represent a new genus and family intermediate between the Simiide and Hominide. This would make it a veritable “ missing link" between the higher apes and man, the discovery of which has so long been confidently predicted by many anthropologists.
The locality of these remains was near Trinil, in the precinct Ngawi of the Madiun province, in central Java. The three specimens, the tooth, the skull, and the femur, were
* PITHECANTAROPUS ERECTUS. Eine menschenaehnliche Uebergangsform aus Java. Von Eug. Dubois, Militairarzt der niederlaendisch-ipdischen Armee. Mit zwei Tafeln und drei in den text gedruckten Figuren. 4to, Batavia, 1894.
FIGURE 3.-P. Left femur of Pithecanthropus erectus, i.
H. Left femur of man, . a, front view; b, exterior view.
found at different times, in the same horizon, and all imbedded in the same volcanic tufa. The tooth was found first, in September, 1891, in the left bank of the river Bengawan, about a meter below the water level of the river during the dry season, and twelve or fifteen meters below the plain in which the river had cut its bed. A month later, the skull was discovered, only a meter distant from the place where the tooth lay, and both apparently pertained to the same individual. In August, 1892, the left femur also was found, about fifteen meters distant from the locality where the other specimens were imbedded. Subsequent researches in the vicinity, for additional remains, were unsuccessful.
The fossils thus secured have been carefully investigated by Dr. Dubois, who regards them as representing a distinct species and genus,* and also a new family, which he names the Pithecanthropide, and distinguishes mainly by the following characters :
Brain cavity absolutely larger, and, in proportion to the size of the body, much more capacious than in the Simiidee, yet less so than in the Hominido. Capacity of the skull about two-thirds the average of that of man. Inclination of the nnchal surface of the occiput considerably greater than in the Simiide. Dentition, although somewhat specialized, still of the simian type. Femur equal in its dimensions to that of man, and like that adapted for walking in an upright position.
Of this skull, the upper portion alone is preserved, the line of fracture extending from the glabella backward irregularly to the occiput, which it divides somewhat below the upper nuchal line. The cranium seen from above is an elongated oval in outline, dolichocephalic; and is distinguished from that of other anthropoid apes by its large size and its higher arching in the coronal region, as shown below in figure 2. The greatest length from the glabella to the posterior projection of the occiput is 185mm. The greatest breadth is 130mm, and the smallest, behind the orbits, is 90mm. The cranium in its original condition must have been of somewhat larger dimensions. The upper surface of the skull is smooth, and the sutures all appear to be obliterated.
This dolichocephalic skull, with an index of 70°, is readily distinguished from that of the Orang-utan, which is decidedly brachycephalic. The absence of the characteristic cranial crests will separate it from the skull of the adult Gorilla. In its smooth upper surface and general form, it shows a resem. blance to the skull of the Chimpanzee, and still closer to that of the Gibbons (Hylobates).
* The generic name used (Pithecanthropus) has already been employed by Haeckel, in 1868, for a hypothetical form, which walked erect, and had a greater intellectual development than the anthropoid apes, but did not possess the faculty of speech.
Am. JOUR. SCI.-THIRD SERIES, VOL. XLIX, No 290.-FEB., 1895,
A figure of the present specimen and the skull of a Gibbon for comparison are shown in figure 1, Plate II. These figures and those that follow are reproduced directly, but not all successfully, from illustrations in Dr. Dubois's memoir.
FIGURE 2.- Longitudinal outlines of crania.
H. European man; P. Pithecanthropus; Ha. Hylobates agilis ;
A. Chimpanzee; Hs. Hylobates syndactylus. (After Dubois.)
The tooth, the first specimen found, is the last upper molar of the right side, and is in good preservation. It indicates a fully adult, but not very old, animal. The crown is subtriangular in form, with the corners rounded, and the narrowest portion behind. The antero-posterior diameter of the crown is 11:3mm, and the transverse diameter 15.3mm. The grinding surface of the crown is concave, and much less rugose than in existing anthropoid apes.
The femur, which is from the left side, is in fair preservation, although it was somewhat injured in removing it from the surrounding rock. It belonged to a fully adult individual. In form and dimensions, it resembles so strongly a human femur that only a careful comparison would distinguish one from the other. The bone is very long, its greatest length being 455mm. The shaft is slender and nearly straight. The general form and proportions of this femur are shown in figure 3, Plate II, with a human femur for comparison.