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Athyris incrassatus Hall ----- X X

lamellosa L'Eveille ---

planosulcata Phillips. Camarophoria subtrigona Meek

and Worthen..........
Chonetes illinoisensis Worthen..
Derbyia keokuk Hall.
Eumetria verneuilana Hall .....
Orthis burlingtonensis Hall..

dubia Hall.....
swallori Hall.

- X X Productus burlingtonensis Hall

cora D'Orbigny...... laevicostus White.. marginicinctus Pront. punctatus Martin...

setigerus Hall. Rhynchonella mutata Hall.... Spirifer biplicatus Hall

forbesi Norwood and Pratten
grimesi Hall .-
keokuk Hall ..
lineata Martin.
lineatoides Swallow.
logani Hall ..
marionensis Shumard
neglectus Hali.......
pseudolinea ta Hall
suborbicularis Hall ....
tenuicostatus Hall .....

sp. .......... Strophomena analoga Phillip Syringothyris carteri Hall....

plenus Hall

tertus Hall.. Terebratula burlingtonensis

sacculus Martin ..
Metoptoma umbella Meek and

Phanerotinus paradoxus Win-

chell ................. Platyceras acutirostris Hall ...

equilatera Hall..........
fisurella Hall....

quincyense McChesneyPleurotomaria montezuma Wor

then ......... Straparollus latus Hall Aviculopecten magna Swallow .. Conocardium indianense Miller ?

meekanum Hall ?... Entolium circulus Shumard ....x!

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Myalina keokuk Worthen -----
Actinocrinus multiradiatus Shu-

mard ....
verrucosus Hall ...
Agaricocrinus americanus Roe-

mer ........ planoconvexus Hall -----Batocrinus biturbinatus Hall ..

nashville Troost.........
pyriformis Shumard ...
subtractus White ----...

trochiscus Meek and Worthen Cyathocrinus iowensis Owen and

Shumard ....... Dichocrinus striatus Owen and

Shumard -----Dorycrinus cornigerus Hall.....

parvus Shumard ... Eretmocrinus originarius Wachs

muth ..... Eucladocrinus pleurovimineus

White ----Granatocrinus granulosus Meek

and Worthen .. Pentremites conoideus Hall ... Physetocrinus ventricosus Hall.. Platycrinus saffordi Troost ..... Synbathocrinus swallovi Hall .. Amplexus fragilis White and

St. John... Hadrophyllum glans White...Palæacis obtusus Meek and

Worthen..-.-. Syringopora harveyi White .... Zaphrentis centralis Worthen ..

varsoviensis Worthen ..... Phillipsia bufo Meek and Wor

then . ...-..-------...

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Conclusion. The facts described in the preceding paper, it is believed, satisfactorily establish the following points.

1. There is a succession of faunas in the limestones about Springfield.

2. The faunas of the lower part of the section may be corre. lated with the Burlington faunas of Iowa, and those of the upper part with the Keokuk faunas.

3. The whole series of sub-faunas is continuous, and the whole series of rocks should be designated by a single name. The Osage Group* is the earliest name suggested for this series of strata.

* H. S. Williams, 1891. Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 80, p. 109.

4. In the life-history of several species, including brachiopods, a gasteropod, and a coral, the maximum development of the species, both in size and in numbers, is attained at very nearly the same time.

5. Spirifer logani is the genetic successor of Spirifer grimesi.

New Haven, Conn., Jan. 11th, 1895.

ART. XIX.Distribution of the Echinoderms of North

eastern America ; by A. E. VERRILL. (Brief Contributions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale College, No. LIX.)

[Continued from page 141.]

Family SOLASTERIDÆ Perrier. SOT ASTER ENDECA Forbes. Asterias endecu Retzius, K. Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. iv, p. 237, 1783; Gmelin,

Syst. Nat., p. 3162. Solaster endeca Forbes, Mem. Wero. Soc.. vol. viii, p. 121, 1839; Hist British Starfishes, p. 109. fig., 1841; Müll, and Trosch., Syst., p. 26; Stimpson, lavert. Grand Manan, p. 14, 1853; Verrill, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vol. X. p. 345; A. Agassiz, N. Amer. Starfishes. p. 112, pl. 17, figs. 1-5, 1877; Perrier, Stellerides du Mus., in Arch. Zool. Exper., vol. iv. p 359, 1875; Duncan and Sladen. Echin. Arctic Sea, p. 40, pl. 3, figs. 5–8, 1881; Danielssen and Koren. Norske Nordhavs-Exp.. vol. xi, p. 50, pl. 9, fig. 13, 1884; Sladen, Voy. Challenger, vol. xxx, p. 452, 1889. B. range, 0 to 150 fath., in the cold areas. Taken at numerous stations, in 25 to 100 fath., from Newfoundland to Cape Cod. Common in the Bay of Fundy from low water to 80 fath., and off Cape Cod, 26 to 50 fath. Taken on all the fishing Banks off Nova Scotia in 40 to 150 fath. It occurs on the coasts of Greenland and Northern Europe. Probably circumpolar.

The dorsal surface is closely covered with small pseudopax. illæ, with finer spinules than in any of the following species.

This species is allied to S. Stimpsoni Ver., 1879, from the N. W. coast of America. S. subarcuatus Sl., from the Southern Indian Ocean, S. lat. 52° 04', in 150 fath ; and S. torulatus Si., from north of the Kermadec Is., in 250 fath., are also closely related. SOLASTER SYRTENSIS Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xvii, p. 271, 1894. B. range, 45 to 101 fath., in the cold areas.

Taken by the U. S. Fish Comm. off Cape Cod (Sta. 264), in 80 fath.; and off Cape Sable, N. S., in 101 fath. (Sta. 85, 86, 1877). Several specimens, received from the Gloucester fishermen, were taken on the fishing Banks from George's to Banquereau, N. S., in 45 to 80 fath.

This species is easily distinguished by the even spinulation of its dorsal surface, the pseudopaxillæ being crowded and larger than in S. endeca. The rays are usually nine.

It appears to be allied to S. paxillatus Sl., from south of Japan, in 345 fath., and to S. Stimpsoni V., 1879.

Solaster abyssicola Verrill, this Journal, vol. xxix, p. 152, 1885; Expl. by the

Albatross in 1883, in Ann. Rep. U. S. Fish Comm., p. 541, [39], 1885.

B. range, 943 to 1537 fath. Taken at several stations from N. lat. 39°05' 30" to 35° 45' 30".

This species is reinarkable for the large number of papulæ, of rather large size, between the dorsal plates; they are longer than the spinules when expanded. The actinal plates bear stellate paxillæ, similar to those of the back. It most frequently has eight rays; sometimes seven or nine.

This appears to be allied to S. regularis Si., from west of Patagonia, in 175 fath.


Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xvii, p. 273, 1894.

B. range, 841 to 1081 fath. Taken at several stations from N. lat. 40° 53' 30'' to 35° 45' 23'', by the U. S. Fish Comm.

Easily distinguished by the rather small and well separated dorsal pseudopaxillæ, with few small papulæ between them ; by the actinal plates having small groups, mostly of two to four small spines; and by the small number of the transverse adambulacral spines. It usually has nine rays; sometimes ten.

This Journal, vol. xvii. p. 473, 1879; Expl. by the Albatross in 1883, in Anp.

Report U. S. Fish Comm , vol. xi, p. 541, pl. 13, fig. 50b, pl. 19, figs. 50, 50a,

B. range, 120 to 325 fath., in the cold areas. Taken by the U. S. Fish Comm. at a few stations between N. lat. 44° 28'50" and 40°04'. It was brought by the Gloucester fishermen from several of the Banks off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, from N. lat. 45° 25' to George's Bank; taken mostly in 170 to 300 fath.

Most of the specimens are larger than the original type figured, and have a broader and more tumid disk, with wider and more swollen rays, which are usually nine. The dorsal pseudopaxillæ are rather large, stout, and stellate, giving the back a rather coarsely spinulose appearance. The adambulacral and actinal spines are long and tapered.

This is allied to S. Dawsoni Ver. (1879), from the N. W. coast of America, in 8 to 15 fath.

spinune, stont, anlly nine., with wideo


Asterias papposa. Fabricius, Fauna Grönlandica, p. 369, 1780.
Solaster papposus Forbes, Mem. Wern. Soc., vol. viii, p. 121, 1839; Brit. Star-

fishes, p. 112, fig., 1841; Stimpson, Invert. Grand Manan, p. 15, 1853; Müll. and Trosch., Syst., p. 26, 1842; Perrier, Stellerides du Mus., p. 94;

Danielssen and Koren, op. cit., p. 48, pl. 9, fig. 12, 1884. Crossaster papposus Müll. and Trosch., Wieg. Arch., vol. iv, part 1, p. 183, 1840 ; Verrill, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. x, p. 345, 1866; A. Agassiz. North Amer. Starfishes, pp. 99, 112, pl. 12, figs. 1-5, 1877 ; Duncan and Sladen, op. cit., p. 36, pl. 3, figs. 1-4, 1881; Sladen, Voy. Challenger, vol. xxx, p. 444.

B. range, 0 to 179 fath. Taken by the Gloucester fishermen at numerous localities on all the fishing Banks, from off Newfoundland, N. lat. 49° 20' 30" to George's, in 40 to 125 fathoms; and by the U. S. Fish. Comm., from N. lat. 46° 58' to 40° 09'. It is common in the Bay of Fundy, from extreme low-water mark to 60 fathoms on hard bottoms; less common and smaller in Casco Bay and Massachusetts Bay, 10 to 50 fath. It is found in the Arctic Ocean and on the northern coasts of Europe.

A closely related species (S. penicellatus Sl.) occurs in the S. Atlantic, S. lat. 37° 25' 30" to 46° 43', in 110 to 140 fath. Another allied form occurs on the N.W. coast of America. CROSSASTER HELIANTHUS Verrill. Proc. Nat. Mus., vol. xvii, p. 274, 1894.

B. range, 100 to 150 fath., near George's Bank. LOPHASTER FURCIFER Verrill. Solaster furciser Duben and Koren, K. Vet. Akad. Förhandl., p. 243, pl. 6, figs.

9-10, 1844; Thomson, Depths of the Sea, pp. 119, 456, figs. 14, 75, 1873;

Danielssen and Koren, op. cit., p. 47, pl. 8, fig. 12; pl. 9, figs. 9-11, 1884. Lophaster furcifer Verrill, this Journal, vol. xvi, p. 214, 1878; Duncan and

Sladen, op. cit., p. 43, pl. 3, figs. 9-12, 1881; Verrill, Expl. by the Albatross, p. 541, pl. 16, figs. 49, 49", 1885; Sladen, Voyage Challenger, vol. xxx, p. 459, 1889.

B. range, 111 to 640 fath. Taken at several stations from N. lat. 47° 40' to 40° 01'; also in the Gulf of Maine in 150 fath., 1872. It is also European and Arctic (N. lat. 81° 41').

An allied 5-rayed species (L. radians Perrier) occurs in the West Indies.

Another closely related species (L. stellans Sl.) occurs off the W. coast of S. America, in 40 to 1325 fath.

Family PTERASTERIDÆ. PTERASTER PULVILLUS M. Sars. Pteraster pulvillus Sars, Overs. Norges Echinod., p. 62, pl. 6, figs. 14-16, pls. 7,

8, 1861; Verrill, this Journal, vol. xvi, p. 371, 1878.

B. range, 20 to 111 fath. Rare. N. lat. 46° 50' to Gulf of Maine, off Isles of Shoals, N. H. Bay of Fundy, 20 fath. Banks off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. It occurs also off the northern coasts of Europe and in the Arctic Ocean.


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