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Survey, J. W. Powell, Director).--The latest volumes of this valuable series are Nos. IX and X for the years 1892 and 1893 respectively. They have been issued under the able editorship of Mr. David T. Day, and like the earlier volumes, contain a large amount of interesting and useful data in regard to the present condition and recent growth of the mineral industries of this country.
8. Physikalische Krystallographie und Einleitung in die kryst. allographische Kenntniss der wichtigeren Substanzen ; von Paul Groth. Dritte vollständig neu bearbeitete Autlage, I und II Abtheilung, physikalische und geometrische Eigenschaften der Krystalle, 528 pp. 8vo. Leipzig, 1894 (Wm. Engelmann).Ever since the publication of the tirst edition in 1876, the Physikalische Krystallographie of Professor Groth has been the standard work in this subject for the mineralogists of all lands. In the second edition, issued in 1885, the work was rewritten throughout and much enlarged, and the same is true to even greater extent of the present third edition. The author's keen mind and long experience as a teacher have enabled him to present the subjects of crystallography and the general physics of crystals with rare clearness and system, as all know who have used the earlier editions. This is conspicuously true of the work in its present form, which contains much that is new and suggestive particularly in the discussion of the symmetry of crystals and their classification based upon this. Two parts of the third edition only have thus far appeared, but the third, upon the methods of calculation applied to crystals, instruments and methods of investigation, is promised in a few months.
9. A Manual of Microchemical Analysis ; by Professor H. BEHRENS, of the Polytechnic School in Delft, Holland, with an introductory chapter by Professor John W. JUDD of the Royal College of Science, London. 246 pp. 8vo. London and New York, 1894 (Macmillan & Co.) – Workers in Petrography and all who have occasion to use the now well developed microchemical methods will welcome this admirable volume. The original contributions of the author to this subject are weil known, but his work on Mikrochemische Methoden is not readily accessible to the English student and bence this translation made by him will be higbly appreciated. The value of the work is increased by the fact that the author's manuscript has been revised by Prof. J. W. Judd, who with the assistance of Mr. A. E. Tutton, has also seen it through the press. A brief but interesting introduction, in part historical, in part descriptive, has been added by Professor Judd.
10. Handbuch der Mineralogie; von Dr. C. HINTZE. Achte Lieferung, pp. 1121-1280. Leipzig, 1894 (Veit & Co.). The eighth part of Hintze's great work has appeared recently. It embraces the close of the Pyroxene group, the Amphibole group and the opening pages on the species beryl.
III. BOTANY. 1. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Dr. Frank, Berlin, 8vo, two volumes, pp. 669, and 431 (1892 and 1893). —Professor Frank's textbook follows the usual course of treatment, but gives great prominence to the subject of physiology. This part of his work makes the treatise of great value. The topics are fully treated and the essential matters are kept in their proper relations, so that the general result is symmetrical. The questions with which Professor Frank has specially busied himself in his original work, are discussed in an exceedingly interesting manner and with due perspective. In a few instances, it seems on the first reading, as if the author had stated some of his own conclusions in too positive a form for the requirements of a text-book for the general student, but, as above said, the treatise is symmetrical. G. L. G.
2. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Dr. K. GIESENHAGEN, Munich, 8vo, pp. 335, 1894.-The author has prepared this text-book with reference to the needs of students who are reviewing their work before examination. It is, therefore, a comprehensive volume in which the whole ground is covered in such a manner as to refresh one's memory with regard to the results of personal laboratory exercises in histology and physiology, supplementing this by sufficiently full treatment of systematic and economic botany. The newer results have been incorporated with the older in a well-proportioned and well-balanced manner, so that the work gives a clear and sound exposition of the present state of our knowledge. The author has carried his work on under the advice and with the assistance of Dr. Goebel, Professor of Botany in Munich.
G. L. G. 3. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Dr. F. Pax, Leipsic, 8vo, pp. 365. - This is the ninth edition of Prantl's well-known work, already noticed in this Journal. The revision has been thorough. In the histological and physiological portions changes demanded by recent investigations have been made, and important modifications have been made throughout the systematic part. It may be remembered that the earlier editions gave a good deal of prominence to species : in this edition, only those are referred to wbich are of interest in economic botany, especially in medicine. The number of illustrations has been increased from 326 to 355. The improvement in the engravings since the first edition has been very great.
G. L. G. 4. Lehrbuch der Botanik. Dr. E. STRASBURGER, Dr. F. Noll, Dr. H. SCHENK, Dr. A. F. W. SCHIMPER, Jena, 8vo, pp. 558, 1894.-Professors Strasburger and Schim per with the two Privatdocents associated with them in botanical teaching in Bonn, have carried successfully to completion the very hazardous experiment of preparing a composite text-book. The dangers which confront such an undertaking are obvious. Each specialist is likely as we say to magnify his office, and give a disproportionate amount of space to the results which have been recently attained
in his part of the field. It is exceedingly difficult to secure under such circumstances anything which approaches careful editing. Distortions of a serious character are very likely to result. Furthermore it is very hard to avoid duplication, even when the conferences and friendly discussions have been frequent and critical. But the outcome of this experiment has been successful in a high degree. Professor Strasburger has given the subject of histology the fruits of his long and ripe experience in investigation and teaching. Within the comparatively narrow limits of 130 pages, lie has compressed without too much condensation, all the essential facts of general and special anatomy of the external parts and the internal structure. It is only when one looks over this part of the volume a second time that he begins to realize how much grain free from chaff has been made ready for the stuident. Moreover all the material has been arranged in an orderly and attractive manner. Dr. Noll has considered the subject of physiology in a comprehensive fashion, dealing with the principal phenomena presented by all the organs of flowering and flowerless plants. He has presented his facis fully, but without prolixity. The style is clear, and the illustrations like all which are given in the volume, are of a high order considered both from a scientific and a pedagogic point of view. We think he has done well to give so much prominence to the experimental side of the subject. Dr. Schenck and Professor Schimper divide the field of systematic botany between them, the former taking the Cryptogams, and the latter the flowering plants. It is enough to say that the work is satisfactory in every respect. New and admiiable figures, many of them of the highest excellence, illustrate the remarkably clear text. As might be expected, the subject of adaptive modifications, although touched but lightly, has assumed a peculiar charm at the hands of Professor Schimper. A good deal of new light is thrown on the subject and the whole of it is invested with a deep interest. Returning for a moment to the matter of illustrations, attention must be called to the beauty and accuracy of the colored figures which represent poisonous plauts. It is to be hoped that a translation into English of this admirable work will soon be in the hands of English-speaking students.
G. L. G. 5. A Student's Text- Book of Botuny ; by SYDNEY H. VINES, M.A., Professor in the University of Oxford. First Halt, 8vo, pp. 480. London, 1894.—The author has based his work on the well-known Lehrbuch der Botanik, of PRANTL, which, as will be seen in another notice, has reached its ninth edition in Germany. But the changes which he has made, are so numerous as to transform this into a new treatise; the metamorphosis is almost complete. A great deal of new matter designed for the advanced student has been skillfully interwoven, bringing the whole well up to the most advanced knowledge of minute details. It is to be remembered that there are scores of trained workers now engaged in minute investigations in different parts of the field covered by this volume, and that the results of their investigations are swelling the periodical literature of the science at a startling rate. It is indeed high praise to confess that a symmetrical résumé like this is fairly abreast of the times.
One feels inclined to criticise the free use of the new terminology adopted and in part suggested by Professor Vines, although there can be little doubt of the utility of the introduction in an advanced work of this sort of the new terms which are employed so generally in monographs; the work serves as an excellent technical dictionary. But we own that we should have been glad to see from Professor Vines, whose scholarship would have carried great weight, a reform in the terminology. Our language has, of course, lost its plasticity, and few new terms can be constructed out of English stems and roots; we are driven back to Greek for our materials and these serve every purpose; but it seems as if the new terms demanded by the advance of knowledge could be framed with some regard to euphony. Perhaps no one in English-speaking countries is so well prepared as Professor Vines to undertake this task, and perhaps he will take it in hand wben he thinks the time is ripe.
G. L. G. 6. Practical Physiology of Plants ; by FRANCIS DARWIN, F.R.S. and E. HAMILTON Acton, M.A., Cambridge, 1894, 8vo, pp. 321.- This is an outline of directions for experimenting. Explicit directions are given for conducting, generally with simple apparatus, the more conclusive experiments in nearly all parts of the field. As is quite proper, the character of the results are seldom announced; the student must find out for himself. In Detmer's Practicum and in the work of Oels, the student is generally helped towards his result by a brief statement of what he may expect to discover if he is successful, and this is a good plan for a certain class of students. But there is no question that the method used by Mr. Darwin and Mr. Acton is pedagogically correct, and is capable of giving excellent results. The only drawback to physiological experimenting at the hands of students, who are simultaneously pursuing other subjects, is the great amount of time which is generally consumed while plants are growing or reacting, and the consequent difficulty of arranging hours so as to make a close economy of time. The student should receive some hints as to what he might be getting ready for the next study while he is patiently waiting for something to happen to the plants which he has in hand, just as in the chemical and physical laboratory he is taught to keep many things going at the same time. It seems, on first reading, that the authors have arranged the work admirably in order to secure the greatest economy of every moment. This we are putting to a practical test.
G. L. G. 7. A practical Flora for Schools and Colleges ; by O. R. Willis, New York, 8vo, pp. 349, 1894.-After a very brief statement of the subdivision of the subject of Botany, Professor Willis begins with an analytical key to the natural orders, and thence passes to a description of certain orders. It is not easy to see the principle which guided bim in the choice of subjects; in fact, it seems as if hardly any principle at all had been followed, but leaving this aside, it must be stated that a great amount of useful material has been brought together, and in such form as to be readily utilizable by a teacher. The work is a convenient handbook of Economic Botany. There are some unfortunate omissions, but, on the whole, there is a larger mass of well-arranged facts made ready for the hand of the teacher than we remember to have seen in any English treatise on the subject. The name of the valuable work seems to us a misnomer. Certainly it does not suggest to instructors that in these pages they can find the information regarding useful plants, in search of which they range through cyclopedias of every sort.
G. L. G. 8. Pflanzen- Teratologie, systematisch geordnet. Dr. O. PENZIG, Genoa, 1890, and 1894.—The first volume of Prosessor Penzig's masterly work, comprising the polypetalous dicotyledons, was published four years ago; the concluding volume, in which are considered all the other groups of plants in which monstrosities have been thus far detected, was finished in June of this year, and has just been issued. The minuteness of Professor Penzig's search for recorded cases of monstrosities is shown by references to some of the most obscure sources, such as local journals and the like, and his care in stating the appearances of the distortions has been such as to place in the hands of the reader exact and yet much abbreviated descriptions which can be safely used in generalizations. On the part of the author there has been no attempt to state theoretical views in connection with the special cases, except where such treatment appears absolutely necessary; but he gives, in a clearly written preface to the second volume, a sound and clear exposition of modern speculations in regard to this interesting subject. With this treatise and with the philosophical work of Dr. Masters, the student of this subject is wellequipped.
G. L. G. 9. Practical Botany for Beginners ; by F. O. BOWER, F.R.S., Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow, London, 1894, 8vo, pp. 275.— With the caution given in the preface, this laboratory manual, an abridgement of the larger Course of Practical Instruction in Botany, can be recommended without reserve. The caution is worth heeding in many quarters. “Type-teaching in Biological Sciences appears at present to be inevitable in elementary classes; it lies chiefly with the teacher to avoid the evils which are apt to arise from it. In order to use this book with proper effect, his knowledge should extend far beyond the area of the work here specifically described, and the larger edition may help him towards this end. By grasping every opportunity of comparison of the type selected with allied forms which show differences of detail, he will then be able to guide the pupil to distinguish essentials from secondary details, and to check the dangerous tendency of beginners towards generalization from too limited an area of lact.”
G. L. G.