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the first object of editors, and, of course, "containing the freshest advices,” &c., is too often out of the question.

For many years after the establishment of newspapers on this continent, very few advertisements appeared in them. This was the case with those that were early printed in Europe. In the first newspapers, advertisements were not separated by lines from the news, &c., and were not even begun with a two line letter; when two line letters were introduced, it was some time before one advertisement was separated from another by a line, or rule as it is termed by printers. After it became usual to separate advertisements, some printers used lines of metal rules ; others lines of flowers irregularly placed. I have seen in some New York papers, great primer flowers between advertisements. At length, it became customary to “set off advertisements,” and from using types not larger than those with which the news were printed, types of the size of French canon have often been used for names, especially of those who advertised English goods.

In the troublesome times, occasioned by the stamp act in 1765, some of the more opulent and cautious printers, when the act was to take place, put their papers in mourning, and, for a few weeks, omitted to publish them; others not so timid, but doubtful of the consequence of publish

, ing newspapers without stamps, omitted the titles, or altered them, as an evasion; for instance the Pennsylvania Gazette, and some other papers, were headed “Remarkable Occurrences, &c.”— other printers, particularly those in Boston, continued their papers without any alteration in title or imprint.

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EXPLANATION

OF THE

INDIAN GAZETTE,

GIVING AN ACCOUNT OF ONE OF THEIR EXPEDITIONS.

The following divisions explain those on the plate referred to by the nambors.

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1. Each of these figures represents 2. They departed from Montthe number ten. They all signify, real — represented by the bird, just that 18 times 10, or 180 American taking wing from the top of a Indians took up the hatchet, or de- mountain. The moon, and the clared war, in favor of the French ; buck, show the time to have been which is represented by the hatchet in the first quarter of the buckmoon, placed over the arms of France. answering to July.

3. They went by water-signified 4. Then they came on shore, and by the canoe. The number of huts, traveled seven days by land — repre such as they raise to pass the night sented by the foot, and the seven in, shows they were 21 days on their huts. . passage.

5. When they arrived near the 6. After which, they surprised habitations of their enemies, at sun their enemies, in number 12 times rise — shewn by the sun being to the 10, or 120. The man asleep shows eastward of them, beginning,' as how they surprised them, and the they think, its daily course; there hole in the top of the building is they lay in wait three days — repre- supposed to signify that they broke sented by the hand pointing and the into some of their habitations in three huts.

that manner.

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7. They killed with the club 8. They lost nine of their own eleven of their enemies, and took men in the action - represented by five prisoners — the former repre- the nine heads within the bow, sented by the club, and the eleven which is the emblem of honor heads; the latter by the figures on among the Americans ; but had the little pedestals.

none taken prisoners - & circumstance they lay great weight on, shown by all the pedestals being empty.

9. The heads of the arrows, point- 10. The heads of the arrows, all ing opposite ways, represent the pointing the same way, signify the battle.

flight of the enemy.

MASSACHUSETTS.

BOSTON. There was not a newspaper published in the English colonies, throughout the extensive continent of North America, until the 24th of April, 1704.

John Campbell, a Scotchman, who was a bookseller and postmaster in Boston, was the first who began and established a publication of this kind. It was entitled,

N. E.

Namb. 1. The Boston News-Letter.

Published by Authority.” From Monday April 17, to Monday April 24, 1704. It is printed on half a sheet of pot paper, with a small pica type, folio. The first page is filled with an extract

"" The first attempt to set up a newspaper in North America, so far as can be ascertained, was made at Boston in 1690. Only one copy of this sheet is known to be in existence, that being in the state paper office in London." See an entire copy of this, by Samuel A. Green, M.D., in the Phidorical Magazine for August, 1857. The authorities objected to it. They called it a pamphlot. Felt's Annals of Salem (1849), vol. II, p. 14. If this can be claimed as a newspaper, may also the sheet printed by Samuel Green in 1889, the placard mentioned in the New Hamp. Hist. soa. Olith, 1, 262? This was issued at the time Dr. Increase Mather was in Igland, endeavoring to procure a new charter for the colony of Massachusetts. It was entitled The Presont state of the Noro English Afairs, and was published to prevent false reports. Among the notes to a repript of the first number of the Boston News Lettor, we are informed that Campbell was accustomed to write news letters. Nine of these dated 1708, have been published by the Massachusetts Historical Society, in their Proceedings, 1867, p. 485.- M.

*At the time this paper was first published, and for many years after-. wards, there were licensers of the press. “Published by Authority,” I pregume means nothing more than this; what appeared in the publication was not disapproved by the licensers.

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from The London Flying Post, respecting the pretender, who. styled himself James VIII of Scotland, sending popish missionaries from France into Scotland, &c., by which the kingdoms of England and Scotland were endangered. The queen's speech to both houses of parliament on that occasion, a few articles under the Boston head, four short paragraphs of marine intelligence from New York, Philadelphia, and New London, and one advertisement, form its whole contents. The advertisement is from Campbell, the proprietor of the paper, and is as follows:

“ This News Letter is to be continued Weekly; and all Persons who have any Houses, Lands, Tenements, Farmes, Ships, Vessels, Goods, Wares or Merchandizes, &c., to be Sold or Lett; or Servants Runaway; or Goods Stoll or Lost, may have the same Inserted at a Reasonable Rate; from Twelve Pence to Five Shillings, and not to exceed: Who may agree with Nicholas Boone for the same at his Shop next door to Major Davis's, Apothecary in Boston. near the Old Meeting House.

“All Persons in Town and Country may have said NewsLetter Weekly upon reasonable tearms, agreeing with John Campbell Post Master for the same.” The imprint is “Boston : Printed by B. Green. Sold by Nicholas Boone at his Shop near the Old Meeting-House." Green was Campbell's printer, and Boone was for some weeks his publisher.

No. 2, is a whole sheet of pot, folio, three pages of which are printed, and one is blank. Campbell's advertisement is again inserted, and a single new one is added.

In No. 4, Campbell desires those who wish to have advertisements inserted in the News-Letter, to apply to him.

Boone's name is left out of the imprint of No. 5, and “ Sold at the Post Office” is inserted.

From No. 2, to No. 6, the News-Letter is contained on half of a pot sheet; and very few advertisements appear,

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some weeks not any. From No. 6 to No. 192, it is printed on a half sheet of foolscap. No. 192 contains only two short advertisements; and for years after it was but seldom supplied with more than two, and, often, with not one new advertisement in the week.

In No. 71, Campbell inserted the following notice.

“At the Desire of several Gentlemen, Merchants and others, who are willing to Contribute towards' supporting this Publick Print of Intelligence, the Undertaker has begun where it was left off, in hopes of others following their good Example, whereby it may be carryed on at least another year: And therefore all Persons in Town and Country, who have a mind to encourage the same, may have said News Letters every week by the year upon reasonable Terms, agreeing with John Campbell Postmaster of Boston for the same.”

It does not appear that Campbell had discontinued the paper, and his real meaning where he says he “has begun where he left off," cannot now be well understood. No. 71, is dated August 24, 1705. It is evident from his advertisements in the course of this públication, that he “ labored hard to get it along,” that he had but subscribers, and that he did not receive much encouragement from advertising customers.

Bartholomew Green printed the News-Letter for Campbell until November 3, 1707. No. 176, November 10, 1707, is “printed by John Allen, in Pudding Lane near the PostOffice, and there to be Sold."

In No. 190, Campbell informs “all who have a mind to encourage this Letter of Intelligence,” to agree with him, “Post Master of New England, at Boston.”

In No. 210, four years after the first publication, Campbell inserted the following advertisement. “This being the last day of the fourth Quarter of this Letter of Intelligence: All persons in Town and Country, who have not

Very few

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