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victim to it at the age of forty-two years. He was well acquainted with his business, enterprising, and amiable in his manners. After his decease, his widow, Ann Greenleaf, pubļished both the semi-weekly and daily paper for a time; but eventually sold her establishment to James Cheetham, who altered the title of both papers. The one published semi-weekly was now called, The American WatchTower, and the daily paper bore the title of The American Citizen. Cheetham was born and brought up in England. He was not bred to printing, but he was a very able editor, and a distinguished writer. Occasionally the vigor and pungency of his style remind his readers of the productions of the renowned Junius."

The New York Chronicle.

I have not been able to ascertain, accurately, when this paper first made its appearance, or when it was discontinued; but it was published by Alexander and James Robertson, and commenced either in 1768 or 1769.

Not long after the close of the year 1770, the printers of the Chronicle removed to Albany, and the publication of it ceased.

Rivington's New-York Gazetteer ; or The Connec

ticut, New-Jersey, Hudson's River, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser. This Gazette commenced its career April 22, 1773, on a large medium sheet, folio. It was printed weekly, on Thursday; and when it had been established one year, this im

He died 19th September, 1810, aged 37, and the Citizen was discontinued in November following.- M.

print followed the title, “Printed at his E VER OPEN and uninfluenced press, fronting Hanover-Square.” A large cut of a ship under sail was at first introduced into the title, under which were the words Woronkork Packet. This cut soon gave place to one of a smaller size. In November, 1774, the ship was removed and the king's arms took the place of it. In August, 1775, the words“ Ever open and uninfluencedwere omitted in the imprint.

The Gazetteer was patronized in all the principal towns by the advocates of the British administration who approved the measures adopted toward the colonies; and it undoubtedly had some support from “his Majesty's government.” The paper obtained an extensive circulation, but eventually paid very little respect to “the majesty of the people;" and, in consequence, the paper and its publisher soon became obnoxious to the whigs.

Rivington continued the Gazetteer until November 27, 1775; on which day a number of armed men from Connecticut entered the city, on horseback, and beset his habitation, broke into his printing house, destroyed his press, threw his types into heaps, and carried away a large quantity of them, which they melted and formed into bullets. A stop was thus put to the Gazetteer.'

Soon after this event, Rivington went to England, where he supplied himself with a new printing apparatus, and was appointed king's printer for New York. After the British gained possession of the city, he returned; and, on October 4, 1777, recommenced the publication of his Gazette under the original title; but in two weeks he exchanged that title for the following, Rivington's New York Loyal Gazette ; and on the 13th of December following, he called his paper The Royal Gazette. Imprint, “ Published by James Rivington, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.” The

For an account of this affair, see New York Hist. Collections, p. 301.- M.


Royal Gazette was numbered as a continuation of the Gazetteer, and Loyal Gazette, and was published on Wednesdays and Saturdays; printed on a sheet of royal size, with the royal arms in the title.

Rivington could not consistently have given the Royal Gazette the motto selected by our brethren, the printers of the (Boston) Independent Chronicle — “ Truth its Guide, , and Liberty its Object.This Gazette was, by some, called

, The Brussels Gazette of America; but it commonly went by the name of Rivington's lying Gazette. Even the royalists censured Rivington for his disregard to truth. During the war, a captain of militia at Horseneck, with about thirty men, marched to Kingsbridge, and there attacked a house within the British lines, which was garrisoned by refugees, and took most of them prisoners. Rivington published an account of this transaction which greatly exaggerated the affair in favor of the refugees; he observed that a large detachment of rebels attacked the house, which was bravely defended by a refugee colonel, a major, a quartermaster, and fifteen privates; and that after they were taken and carried off, another party of refugee dragoons, seventy-three in number, pursued the rebels, killed twenty-three of them, took forty prisoners, and would have taken the whole rebel force, bad not the refugee horse“ been jaded to a stand still.Several times did Rivington apologize for mistakes made in paragraphs which he himself had manufactured for his Gazette.

The following appeared in the Royal Gazette of July 10, 1782, when there was a prospect of peace.

To the Public.— The publisher of this paper, sensible that his zeal for the success of his Majesty's arms, his sanguine wishes for the good of his country, and his friendship for individuals, have at times led him to credit and circu

A paper published at Brussels many years since, which was notorious for falsehood.

late paragraphs without investigating the facts so closely as his duty to the Public demanded; trusting to their feelings, and depending on their generosity, he begs them to look over past errors, and depend on future correctness. From henceforth he will neither expect nor solicit their favors longer than his endeavors shall stamp the same degree of authenticity and credit on the Royal Gazette (of New York) as all Europe allow to the Royal Gazette of London.” See Appendix K.

During the war, a newspaper was published daily in the city of New York under the following arrangement: Rivington's Royal Gazette on Wednesday and Saturday, Gaine's Gazette or Mercury on Monday, Robertson's, Mills & Hick's Royal American Gazette, on Thursday - and Lewis's New York Mercury and General Advertiser on Friday. These papers were all published under the sanction of the British commander in chief; but none of the printers assumed the title of “ Printers to the King” except Rivington, who had an appointment.

When the war ended, Rivington discarded from his paper the appendages of royalty. The arms of Great Britain no longer appeared. It was no more The Royal, or a Loyal Gazette, but a plain republican newspaper, entitled Rivington's New York Gazette and Universal Advertiser. It was, however, considered as a wolf in sheep's clothing, and, not meeting with support, the publication of it terminated, and the editorial labors of Rivington ended, in the year 1783. Few men, perhaps, were better qualified than the editor of the Royal Gazette to publish a newspaper.

It has been remarked (page 309, vol. I), that for some time Rivington conducted his paper with as much impartiality as most of the editors of that period; and it may be added, that no newspaper in the colonies was better printed, or was more copiously furnished with foreign intelligence. In October, 1773, Rivington informed his readers that each impression of his weekly Gazetteer, amounted to 3,600 copies.

The Constitutional Gazette, Was first issued from the press of John Anderson, in August, 1775; the publication of which was on Mondays and Thursdays, and continued but a few months. It was printed on a half sheet, quarto, of crown paper. It seems to have borrowed its title from a political paper published in New Jersey ten years before; but it resembled that paper in the name only.

The New York Packet, and the American Advertiser.

The publication of this paper commenced the first week in January, 1776. It was printed Thursdays, on a sheet of royal folio, with a new long primer type. Imprint: “Printed by Samuel Loudon, in Water-Street, between the Coffee House and the Old Slip.”

I take notice of this paper, although it originated after the war began, because it was the last establíshed in the city before the declaration of independence. Loudon died at Middletown Point, New Jersey, February 24, 1813, in the ninetieth year of his age.

During the war it was published at Fishkill; after the return of peace it was again printed in the city; it was finally changed to a daily paper, and continued several years.

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