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sician at Paris.' This was prior to the appearance of the Journal des Savans.

That kind of literary journals, called reviews and magazines, appears to have originated in France. The first production, of this description, was the Journal des Savans, which, according to D’Israeli, made its début on the 30th of May, 1665, and was contemporaneous with the London Gazette. It was published by Dennis de Sallo, an ecclesiastical counsellor in the parliament of Paris, in the name of the Sieur de Hedouville, his lacquey. Some suppose de Sallo adopted this method of sending it abroad in the world because he thought so humble an author as his servant would disarm criticism of its severity; or, that the scurrility of the critics would produce less effect than if directed against himself.

The Journal des Savans comprehended a variety of subjects. It contained an account of all books published in Europe; panegyrics on deceased persons of celebrity ; it announced all useful inventions, and such discoveries as were beneficial to the arts, or curious in science; chemical experiments, celestial and meteorological observations, discoveries in anatomy, and in the practice of physic; decisions of the ecclesiastical and secular tribunals; and the author intended to publish an account of the censures of the Sorbonne, &c., &c. In the course of a few years many imita

.c tions of this journal were published in different parts of Europe.

Dr. Miller, of New York, in his valuable work entitled, A Brief Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century, mentions that “in 1671, appeared the Acta Medica Hafnensia, published by M. Bartholin. To which succeeded, in 1672, Mémoires des Arts et des Sciences, established in France, by M. Dennis ; in 1682, the Acta Eruditorụm, of Leipsic, by Menkenius; in 1684, Les Nouvelles de la Republique des

? It was called the Gazette de France. - H.

Lettres, by M. Bayle, and the Bibliotheque Universelle Choisie, et Ancienne et Moderne, by Le Clerc; in 1689, the Monathlichen Unterredungen, of Germany; in 1692, the Boekzaal van Europa, by P. Rabbus, in Holland; and in 1698, the Nova Literaria Maris Balthici ; together with several others in Germany, France and Italy.” These were all of that class of periodical works which are called reviews. The first publication of this kind in England, was The History of the Works of the Learned, printed in London, in 1699; which was soon followed by Memoirs of Literature, The Present State of the Republick of Letters, The Censura Temporum, and the Bibliotheca Curiosa. These were published in England the beginning of the eighteenth century, but they were soon discontinued.

The first English literary work, bearing the name of a magazine, was published in London in the year 1731, by Edward Cave, and is continued under the title of The Gentleman's Magazine, at this time. It has acquired edit not only from its long establishment, but from its usefulness, and a considerable addition was made to its reputa on by the labors of the learned doctor Samuel Johnson.

The second performance of this description, was The London Magazine, a valuable publication, which was continued fifty years.

The Scots Magazine, is said to have been


Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century, II, 235-6. * Edward Cave, the founder and editor of The Gentleman's Magazine, which has been

" The fruitful mother of a thousand more," was the son of a shoemaker at Rugby, in Warwickshire, England; at which place he received his education in the free school. His apprenticeship he served with Collins, a printer and an alderman's deputy, in London. When he was of age, he wrote for Mist's Journal, and became the editor of a country newspaper. Through the interest of his wife, he obtained a small place in the postoffice; and some time after was promoted to the office of clerk of the franks. At length, he was enabled to purchase a small printing apparatus, with which he commenced the publication of a magazine; and, to this undertaking, he was indebted for the affluence which attended the last twenty years of his life, and the large fortune he left behind him.

the third magazine published in Great Britain. The European Magazine was established in 1782.

There are, at this time (1810), upwards of forty periodical works, denominated reviews and magazines, published in Great Britain and Ireland. Some of these reviews are regularly reprinted and republished in the United States. A list of the works of this description, which are published in the United States, will be found in the appendix.

The British Encyclopedia, with large additions, in twenty volumes, quarto, was reprinted by Thomas Dobson, of Philadelphia. It was published in half volumes, two of which came from the press annually.

The first public journals, printed in British America, made their appearance in 1704. In April of that year, the first Anglo American newspaper was printed at Boston, in Massachusetts Bay, by the postmaster, whose office was then regulated by the colonial government. At that period, I beliere, there were only four or five postmasters in all the colonies. It was not until after the expiration of fifteen yeas, that another publication of the kind issued from any press in this part of the world.

On the 21st day of December, 1719, the second AngloAmerican newspaper was published in Boston; and, on the following day, December 22, the third paper appeared, which was printed in the city of Philadelphia.

In 1725, a newspaper was first printed in New York; and after that time, gazettes were gradually introduced into the other colonies on the continent, and into the West Indies.

There are now, 1810, more newspapers published in the United States, than in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.'

See further on, a calculation of the newspapers printed in the United States, and those published in Great Britain and Ireland. See also Ap. pendiz.




In 1754,' four newspapers only were printed in New England, these were all published in Boston, and, usually, on a small sheet; they were published weekly, and the average number of copies did not exceed six hundred from each press. No paper had then been issued in Connecticut, or New Hampshire. Some years before, one was printed for a short time in Rhode Island, but had been discontinued for want of encouragement. Vermont as a state did not exist, and the country which now composes it was then a wilderness. In 1775, a period of only twenty-one years, more copies of a newspaper were issued weekly from the village press at Worcester, Massachusetts, than were printed in all New England, in 1754; and one paper now published contains as much matter as did all the four published in Boston, in the year last mentioned.

At the beginning of 1775, there were five newspapers published in Boston, one at Salem, and one at Newburyport, making seven in Massachusetts. There was, at that time, one published at Portsmouth; and no other in New Hampshire. One was printed at Newport, and one at Providence, making two in Rhode Island. At New London there was one, at New Haven one, one at Hartford and one in Norwich; in all four in Connecticut; and fourteen in New England. In the province of New York, four papers were then published; three in the city, and one in Albany. In Pennsylvania there were, on the first of January, 1775, six; three in English and one in German, in Philadelphia, one in German, at Germantown; and one in English and German, at Lancaster. Before the

* In 1748, five newspapers were printed in Boston, but one of them was discontinued in 1750; a provisional stamp act closed the publication of two more in 1755 ; but they were afterwards replaced by others.

* With all deference to Mr. Thomas's knowledge of what was done in his own time, it still seems hardly probable that the paper begun in Albany in 1771, could have been continued longer than 1773. No copies of it have been discovered here later than the early part of 1772.- M.

end of January, 1775, three newspapers, in English, were added to the number from the presses in Philadelphia, making nine in Pennsylvania. In Maryland, two; one at Annapolis, and one at Baltimore. In Virginia, there were but two, and both of these at Williamsburg. One was printed at Wilmington, and one in Newbern, in North Carolina; three at Charleston, South Carolina; and one at Savannah, in Georgia. Making thirty-seven newspapers in all the British colonies, which are now comprised in the United States. To these may be added one at Halifax, in Nova Scotia ; and one in Canada, at Quebec.

In 1800,' there were at least one hundred and fifty publications of this kind printed in the United States of America, and since that time, the number has increased to three hundred and sixty.” Those published beforė 1775 were weekly papers. Soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, daily papers were printed at Philadelphia, New York, &c., and there are now, 1810, more than twenty published, daily, in the United States.

It was common for printers of newspapers to subjoin to their titles“ Containing the freshest Advices both Foreign and Domestic ;” but gazettes and journals are now chiefly filled with political essays. News do not appear to be always


'In 1796, a small paper, half a sheet medium, 4to, entitled The Nero World, was published at Philadelphia every morning and evening, Sunday excepted, by the ingenious Samuel H. Smith, afterwards the able editor of The National Intelligencer, published at Washington. The novelty of two papers a day, from the same press, soon ceased; it continued but a few months. This paper was printed from two forms, on the same sheet, each form having a title; one for the morning, and the other for the evening; the sheet was then divided, and one half of it given to the customers in the forenoon, and the other in the afternoon.

* It may be remarked that this number of newspapers, which seemed to be worthy of notice at the time Mr. Thomas wrote, in 1810, is only about one-third as great as that which ceased to exist in the year 1872 ; 80 rapidly do newspapers now come forth, and soon after disappear from want of adequate support.- M.

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