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22.

Holland was in those days the principal seat of a free press, and there were several important journals edited there, both literary and political.

27. Toleranz=religiöse Duldsamkeit.

31. Instead of the indicative aufhielt, the subj. hätte aufhalten können would be more usual (and perhaps more correct) after the preceding negative clause.

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The Seven Years' War, 1756–63, carried on by Frederick alone against the combined forces of Austria, Germany, France, Russia, and Sweden. England assisted Frederick with subsidies, though not with troops.

8. A reference to a famous saying of Frederick the Great, that a king was merely the first servant of the state.'

9. eroberungslustig=nach Eroberungen begierig. 14. Energie=Thatfraft.

15. die Wetter is frequently used in the sense of the sing. das lagewitter. Thus Goethe says:

Ihr Wetter, Sturm und Regen, verschont das Heil'ge Holz! 17. This is an absolute construction, in which the verb is omitted. The noun sein Werkzeug should be considered as the accus. governed by some such word as haltend understood.

19. In ordinary writing we should say die schon früher erprobte (i. e. bewährte) Gewalt.

mochte= es war wohl möglich, daß er seinen Staat noch rettete.

We say both Destreich and Desterreich. The latter is the original form, the name meaning 'the eastern realm.'

24. The battle of Collin took place on June 18, 1757. Frederick was defeated by the Austrians under Daun (Carlyle xvIII. 4).

29. zumuthen is generally used of raising an unreasonable demand. 31. die Defensive = der Vertheidigungsfrieg.

20.

22.

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1. brechen is here used in the sense of the compound lusbrechen. 8. Dispositionen = Aufstellungen des Heeres.

9. The spelling ñilfe is more correct than Hülfe. The latter is, however, more common.

10.

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Schlachtenherr is an unusual compound; 'lord in battle.' 15. allein should be translated as an adverb : 'merely by force of numbers.'

17. Mitgefühl is a German rendering of the foreign term Sym. pathie.

das Staunen= der Gegenstand des Staunens. For the sympathy and admiration caused by Frederick's victories and defeats, we may also refer to the recollections of Goethe in his Autobiography: see Goethe's Boyhood as edited in the Pitt Press Series, p. 34 sq.

23. “ The Oblique Order, schräge Stellung, is an old plan prac. tised by Epaminondas, and revived by Friedrich-who has tried it in almost all his battles more or less, from Hohenfriedberg forward to Prag, Kolin, Rossbach,” etc. Carlyle XVIII. 10, where all the techni. calities of this position are explained.

25. Frederick's cavalry was the most excellent in the world, though it had only been newly created. It is evident that the participial expression neu geschaffen should be translated like a sentence beginning with obgleich or obschon.

26. Furie = wilde Wuth. This word is technically employed of furious fighting; comp. Schiller, Wallenstein's Lager : Die Kriegsfurie ist an der Donau los.

27. For Haufen see n. on Kohlrausch, p. I, 3.

28. More commonly we should add the indefinite article: als ein reuer Fortschritt.

30. Taktif = die Kunst der Aufstellung in der Schlacht.–Strategie (from Greek otpatnyós, 'a leader ') = die Führung.

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4. Analogously to the expression employed in the next line, we might here use die Minderzahl.

5. auch geschlagen = selbst wenn sie geschlagen wurde.

6. geheilt, sc. hatte. The omission of the auxiliary verb in a de. pendent clause is admissible only in poetry or a rhetorical passage.

Lineartaktit is a compound not registered by Sanders, who quotes Linientaftif from Rüstow, a military writer who may be trusted as a safe authority in technical matters.

We should understand : wie sehr ihn die Tausende von Karren. beengten.

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:

13. The sing. der Soldat is used as a collective term instead of the plural.

15. Rozbadis a small village about eight miles to the south of the town of Merseburg ; it was there that Frederick obtained a splendid victory over the French army combined with the Imperial troops, Nov. 5, 1757. Carlyle xvIII. 8. The "admirable march' to Silesia is related by Carlyle in the ninth chapter of the same book.

19. Wirthe means here die Quartiergeber (those upon whom the soldiers were quartered).

der Brauch is a less usual and more dignified expression than Gewohnheit.

24. Colberg is a small fortified town in the district of Köslin, near the river Persante and on the Baltic. Comp. Carlyle, XVIII. 13, “Though Colberg is the paltriest crow's nest, according to all engineers, and is defended only by 700 militia...Palmbach (the Russian general) could make nothing of it,” and again xx. 7 (in 1761) where the 'third siege of Colberg' is narrated.

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26. Volfskrieg denotes here a war carried on by the people at large, not by regular soldiers. Elsewhere it also bears the sense of a national

war.

27. felbstkräftig = in eigener Kraft.

28. Heimsuchen is often employed in the sense of visiting with punishment,' hence Heimsuchung, “a visitation,' an affliction.'

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8. Frederick is compared to a lion who defends himself gallantly, but will be overpowered at last in spite of all his bravery, as he is completely surrounded with enemies.

9. Parteigänger, ‘a partisan,' is not exactly a dignified expression when applied to Frederick II. The word properly denotes a condottiere and should not be loosely employed to denote a 'champion,' which might be more correctly expressed by Vorkämpfer.

15. Germany was at that time divided into more than 300 different territories !

16. Ich feße mich gegen etwas is said after the analogy of the phrase sich gegen etwas (or Iemand) stellen, which is employed of game standing at bay; in the present passage the usual phrase would be sich widerseßen.

22. Herzensfreude, .heartfelt joy.'—Das Reich is the German Empire exclusive of Prussia and Austria.

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2. Turednoth = Totesgefahr. The noun Noth is often used in a rhetorical style as a synonym of Gefahr.

3. wunde Soldaten is less usual than verwundete Soldaten.—For the fact referred to, comp. the ballad Der Choral von Leuthen in the collection edited in the Pitt Press Series.

4. We do not remember a particular occasion on which Frederick the Great is reported to have doffed his hat to one of his regiments.

9. Gleim, one of the best-known poets of that time, was born on Apr. 2, 1719, and died Febr. 18, 1803. He wrote Preußische Kriegslieder cines Grenadiers, one of which we have reproduced in the appendix of the present volume. Gleim followed Prince Wilhelm von Schwedt as secretary, and was subsequently attached to Prince Leopold von Dessau in the same quality.

Lessing (Gotthold Ephraim), one of the principal writers of German literature, born on Jan. 22, 1729, became secretary to the General von Tauentzien at Breslau in 1760, and in 1770 was appointed keeper of the Duke of Brunswick's Library at Wolfenbüttel. He died at Brunswick, Feb. 15, 1781.-Ewald von Kleist was born March 3, 1715, and died Aug. 24, 1759, at Frankfort-on-Oder, in consequence of the wounds he had received in the battle of Kunersdorf, Aug. 12, 1759. One of his patriotic poems on the Prussian army will be found in the appendix of the present volume.

17. Der kleine Mann means the ordinary citizen in moderate circumstances.-Eigenes Leiten, his personal suffering, persönliche Verluste.

Ravensperg is part of Westphalia; the country became Prussian in 1666; the capital of it is the well-known manufacturing town of Bielefeld.

fahnenflüchtig werden is a German rendering of the foreign term resertiren. In the next line, Ausreißer (“runaway') is again identical in meaning with Deserteur.

27. The common expression is Antheil an etwas nehmen.

28. Die Mütlimänner are the men who met in the Rütli (a mountainmeadow not far from Brunnen in the canton of Schwytz) in order to form a “solemn league and covenant' against the Austrian oppressors of their country. The rebellion broke out on New-year's day, 1308; the Austrian governors were expelled from the country and their castles destroyed. The independence of the confederacy of the Swiss cantons

20.

21.

of the German Empire was not however recognised until the West. phalian peace, 1648.

30. erleuchtet, instead of the foreign term illuminirt.

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4.

William Pitt, subsequently Earl of Chatham, born at Boconnock in Cornwall, Nov. 15, 1708, died May 11, 1778.—Aliirten= Verbündeten.

The French term Clique is always used in a contemptuous sense. 6. mit etwas laut werden is an unusual expression instead of etwas laut werden lassen. There is also the phrase (sich) etwas verlauten lassen.

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Der Enthusiasmus is a Greek word (évôovolaoubs) which may be rendered in German by Begeisterung.–Pietät = liebevolle Anhänglichkeit.

12. Philip Kadert, one of the best-known painters of the 18th century, born at Prenzlau on Sept. 15, 1737, was appointed painter to the king of Naples in 1786, and died near Florence, April 28, 1807. His life has been written by Goethe.

14. Früchten=Obst.—The plural sie is somewhat negligently employed after the sing. der Magistrat, which should be considered as a collective.

18. Emden, a sea-trading town, on the Dollart, not far from the river Ems, became Prussian in 1744, Dutch in 1806, French in 1809, Prussian again in 1814, Hanoverian in 1815, and once more Prussian in 1866.—Mogador or Suêra is one of the principal ports in Morocco, on the Atlantic.

19. Die Lösung is less usual than das Lösegeld. 26. vor andern=mehr als andere.

29. Der Landsmann, “compatriot,' should be carefully distinguished from der Landmann, 'peasant.'

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4. Das deutsche Wesen is considered as a jewel which gains by the setting (Fassung).

9. Die Flügel regen is said of the young bird first attempting to use its wings.

16. Ein gespannter Blid, an eager look.

19. The author means to say that Frederick felt he liad done all human energy could do.

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