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calcem antiqua dicebant); it is the linea of Horace in 'mors uitima linea rerum est' (Greek ypajuń). With our passage cf. Cat. m. 83 nec vero

velim quasi decurso spatio ad carceres a calce revocari. 30 ut dicitur : as above 97, p. 58, 1. 3 ; cf. n. on 19, 1. 15.

§ 102. res humanae : 'human possessions'; cf. 17, p. 32, l. 33 ut amicitiam omnibus rebus humanis anteponatis.

fragiles caducaeque : 20, p. 34, 1. 7 caduca et incerta. 32 sublata : for the singular cf. adulescentis in l. 25, also n. on 14, 1. 24.

P. 60. 1 omnis... iucunditas: cf. 47, p. 43, 1. i solem e mundo tollere videntur qui amicitiam e vita tollunt.

mihi: 'for me', 'in my view'; cf. sibi in 11, l. 21. 2 vivit...vivet: cf. § 13. 4 in manibus habui : "had at hand'. A somewhat different use from

that in 96, 1. 20. Cf. Caes. B. G. 2, 19, 7 incredibili celeritate ad flumen decucurrerunt ut paene uno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine et iam in manibus nostris hostes viderentur. 5 nemo etc.: 'no one will either purpose or hope to undertake (literally

no one will undertake in thought or in hope) tasks more than ordinarily great without thinking that he must ever keep before him a remembrance and a vivid impression of that illustrious man'.

§ 103. 8 fortuna aut natura: the distinction between good things given by

fortune and good things given by nature is involved in S$ 20, 22. 9 de re publica : but in 20, p. 34, 1. 2 consensio is followed by the geni

tive instead of the ablative with de. So here rerum consilium=de

rebus. II plena : Cic. generally uses plenus with the genitive, not the ablative.

numquam... ne quidem: cf. n. on 48, l. 25 non plus. 12 quod quidem senserim : an instance of the subjunctive used to express

a limitation or restriction. See Roby § 1692; also cf. 11, 1. 18. 13 idem victus: “the same style of living, which indeed we had in com

mon'. For isque cf. n. on 7, 1. 11. 14 militia: with this whole passage cf. 15, l. 7 Scipione quocum mihi coniuncta cura de re publica et de privata fuit et militia communis.

peregrinationes : we hear much of Scipio's travels (Rep. 3, 48; 6, II ; Acad. 2, 5) but it is only here mentioned that Laelius accompanied

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15 rusticationes: cf. De Or. 2, 22 Laelium semper fere cum Scipione solz

tum rusticari eosque incredibiliter repuerascere esse solitos cum rus ex urbe tamquam e vinclis evolavissent.


§ 104. nam: n. on 45, 1, 17.

de studiis etc.: about our devotion to the constant acquisition of knowledge and instruction'. For cognoscendi aliquid cf. n. on 5, 1. 21. In 86, 1. 30 cognitio and doctrina come together as cognoscendi and

discendi do here. 18 recordatio et memoria : these two words thus frequently come toge

ther, as in Tusc. 5, 88; Brut. 9; De Or. I, 228; Tac. dial. I and in De Or. 1, 4 even memoriae recordatio. Memoria indicates the fact that a past event is present to the mind; recordatio properly means the process of summoning back past impressions; cogitatio is substituted for it below, l. 21 cogitatione et memoria.

occidisset : the singular verb as in 14, 1. 24 adesset.
possem : the imperfect gives the sense ‘I should not now be able'. see n. on 75, 1. 22.

alunturque potius : the que is corrective as in the common phrase potiusque, or rather'. For aluntur, 'are strengthened', cf. De Or. 2, 123 si hunc oratorem quem nunc fingo, ut institui, crearo, aluero, confirmaro; Tusc. I, 4 honos alit artis : Vell. Pat. I, 18, 6 alit aemulatio

ingenia. 22 essem...affert : for the indicative in the apodosis, though the subjunctive is in the protasis, cf. n. on 29, 1. 21.

aetas ipsa : 'the mere lapse of time'; cf. 19, 1. 25 natura ipsa. 24 brevia tolerabilia : cf. the maxim of Epicurus, Fin. I, 40 dolor in

longinquitate levis, in gravitate brevis ; ib. 2, 94 magnum dolorem brevem,

longinquum levem. 26 haec habui etc.: so Cicero makes Cato conclude in the Cato m. 85 haec habui de senectute quae dicerem.

hortor: cf. 17, p. 32, 1. 33 ego vos hortari tantum possum, ut amicitiam omnibus rebus humanis anteponatis. 27 ita locetis : cf. 40, 1. 8 eo loco locati.


[Remarks relating to readings, punctuation or orthography will be found in the explanatory notes on the following passages :

2, 1. 19 querella; 2, 1. 21 Gaio; 6, 1. 33 L. Acilium; 9, 1. 26 maestitia; jo, l. 12 solacio; 11, 1. 20 adulescens; 11, l. 21 factus consul; 11, 1. 32 etiam nunc; 14, l. 24 adesset; 20, 1. 6 beluarum; 24, 1. 31 iudicarent; 26, 1. 13 iustitia ; 31, l. 11 faeneramur; 34, 1. u condicio; 35, 1. 20 quod; 41, 1. 18 deinde; 42, l. 26 alligatos; 42, 1. 27 in magna re publica; 44, 1. Io verum; 48, l. 27 si quasi; 52, 1. 30 pro; 52, p. 45, 1. i nimirum; 54, 1. 19 sperni; 57, 1. 6 nostra causa ; 59, 1. 29 esset; 64, l. 22 aut si...aut; 65, 1. 29 isdem; 70, l. 13 ignorationem; 73, 1. 5 perducere; 74, 1. 11 habere; 88, 1. 27 subeunda; 89, p. 56, 1. 5 habenda; 97, l. 31 contione; 99, p. 59, 1. 3 illusseris; 100, s. 16 dictum est; 100, 1. 18 ecflorescit.]

In 1861 Halm published in Vol. IV of the revision of Orelli's edition of Cicero's works, continued by Baiter and Halm) a text of the Laelius based on a collation of the readings of six mss. Much the best of these is the codex Gudianus, now at Wolfenbüttel, written in the xth century. This Halm marks G. Since his edition appeared two other MSS of equal—some would say of superior-authority have come to light, both of which were used by Baiter in revising the Laelius for the edition of Cicero's works brought out by himself and Kayser in 1863 and 1864. One of these two MSS is in a private library at Paris, and was first described by Th. Mommsen in the Rheinisches Museum, 1863, p. 594 sq. It belongs to the end of the ixth or beginning of the xth century, and is commonly known as Codex Parisinus, and denoted by P. There are two lacunae, one after the word magnas in $ 75 to the word etiam in 8 78; the other from peccasse in & go to de Scipione in $ 96. The other ms is at Munich. It also belongs to the xth century, and is known as codex Monacensis, being denoted by M. It has lost the part containing the first ten chapters.

Unfortunately, the information at hand concerning P and M is far from sufficient to enable us to determine their real value. We possess only an incomplete collation of P by Mommsen, which leaves the readings of many important passages in doubt. An overwhelming authority is assigned to this ms by Baiter, Lahmeyer and others. My judgment upon the existing evidence is that their estimate is exaggerated. Phas peculiar errors of its own, and there is a most singular agreement in many places between it and Halm's D ("codex Vindobonensis saec. XV') which any one who reads Halm's critical notes will see to be so grossly corrupt as to be practically worthless.

Of M we have still less information,-nothing indeed beyond the readings Baiter gives from a collation by Karl Halm. While I have carefully weighed the Mss evidence on every point, even the minutest, the general result has been that when any two of these three Mss, viz. MG P, are agreed, I have adopted the reading, while I have seldom found it necessary to take a reading given by any one of them, when unsupported by other evidence. Very rarely have I had to depart from the consensus of the three. These three mss give an unusually sound basis for the text of the Laelius.

Baiter's text is denoted by B, Halm's by H, Lahmeyer's by L (I have used the third edition), Nauck's by N (seventh edition). The readings I have selected here for comment are chiefly those which illustrate points of grammar, syntax, or orthography.

$ 2. l. 14. fere multis: some scholars have wished to strike out multis as a gloss. Cic. certainly would not qualify multis by the addition of fere, but fere is to be taken with tum, not with multis. The writer of one of Halm's MSS (D) felt the difficulty, and changed multis into omnibus.

1. 15. utebare: some mss have utebaris, but although in the second person singular of the present indicative deponent and passive Cicero commonly uses the form in -ris, he oftener has the form in -re in the second person singular of the imperfect (indicative and subjunctive) and of the future passive.

1. 19. querella : so B but H L N querela; P has quaerella (Mommsen p. 596) but in $ 35 querela; see n. [C. F. W. Müller follows P in both places. ]

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1. 20. Laeli: I have everywhere written single i in the genitives of nouns whose nominatives end in ius, ium, from a conviction that Cicero so wrote. See a good deal of the evidence in Neue, Formenlehre, I, 85–94, ed. 2. [C. F. W. Müller writes -i throughout.]

§ 4. 1. 11. ceteros: so rightly spelt: it is high time the spelling caeterus was banished from modern texts, with coelum and other like enormities.

$ 5. 1. 28. te ipse: so PLN; but H B with G and some inferior MSS have te ipsum. Phrases like te ipse are so much commoner in Cicero than those like te ipsum, and the former are so easily and so often corrupted into the latter, that I have followed the reading of P. (C. F. W. Müller ipse.]

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1. 3. habebat et multa: I have inserted et on my own conjecture. Without it Cato is one of the subjects to the verb putabatur; with it, is subject to the verb habebat below, propterea repeating quia, owing to the length of the sentence. With the old reading a long stop was needed after habebat, another after ferebantur, and the transitions were most awkward.

87. 1. 8. volgus: so B, but H L N vulgus. It is almost certain that Cicero wrote volgus, volt and the like.

1. 9. Graecia reliqua: so H with G and other MSS; BLN reliqua Graecia with P D only.

1. 18. affuisti: so L N rightly (the Latins objected to df, bf) but H B adfuisti.

$ 9. 1. 3. Gallum: all the ass here have Gaium ; so in 21, 1. 14 Gaios, but in 101, l. 20 gallum. Since Galus is occasionally found for Gallus, Mommsen and after him BLN write the name with one l in all three places.

$ 10. 1.7. vestrum: omitted by B L N with P. D only.

§ 11. 1. 21. consul: bracketed by B H L, though in all mss. Cf. however my n. On this principle many other words in the dialogue would have to be bracketed or ejected; 1.g. sapientem in 7, l. 8; sapientes in 18, 1. 12.

1. 27. omnis: I have written everywhere i not e in the accusative plural masc. and fem. of nouns whose genitive plural ends in -ium. Though Cicero's usage may have varied, he probably wrote the -i in the vast majority of instances.

$ 12. 1. 32. etiam nunc: H commends without adopting the conjecture of Victorius, tunc. See, however, my n.

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