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his own, but first quotes Scipio's condemnation of a saying attributed to Bias, that in loving a friend one ought to keep in view the possibility of hating him some day or other. Then he gives his definition of the proper attitude of friend to friend. 'If friends are of high character, they should have all things in common; if one swerves from rectitude and endangers his life or reputation, the other should support him, if he can do so without incurring extreme disgrace.'

C. 4. 8. § 62. "Men are utterly careless in choosing friends. $ 63. It is wise not to confer friendship without some experience and trial of the persons on whom it is to be conferred. The mark of a true friend is that he prefers friendship to all else in the world. $ 64. Ambition is the greatest test; change of fortune the next. $$ 65, 66. One must look for loyalty above all things, then frankness, affability and compatibility, and unsuspiciousness; then sweetness of character and conversation.'

C. 4. E. $$ 67, 68. “The older a friendship is, the more valuable it is, yet new and promising friendships are not to be rejected.

C. 4. §. $$ 69, 70. "The man of superior station or advan tages of whatever kind must treat his friends as equals. $$ 71,72. The friend who is at a disadvantage must be careful not to bear himself as an inferior. § 73. In imparting advantages to a friend, you must look both to your own powers and to the character and position of your friend. § 74. The friendships we most value are those formed in mature life; we are not bound to give the first place to the friends of our boyhood, though they must not be neglected. $ 75. We must not allow any violence of temper to prevent a friend from imparting to us a benefit.'

C. 5. $ 76. 'In friendships of the commoner order, the faults of one sometimes bring disgrace on the other. Such friendships must be gently severed. $$ 77, 78. If a disagreement of views developes itself, we must avoid allowing the friendship to change into open enmity. § 78. To escape these mishaps we must be extremely cautious in entering on friendships. $$ 79, 80. Men by looking first for advantage, miss the true friend. $ 81. Even the beasts might teach us that this is wrong. $ 82. Friendship must rest on similarity; the theory that friends should supplement each other's defects is mistaken. $$ 83—85. Looking to virtue chiefly, you must judge the friend's character before you begin to love him, not after. § 86. The prevalent carelessness in choosing friends is the more remarkable, because friendship is the one thing on whose value all men are agreed. $$ 87–89. It is indeed a necessity of existence; yet we do not allow this natural law its full force. S$ 89, 90. We must be able to hear and tell the truth without offence. $$ 91–94. Flattery is the curse of friendship. $95. The true friend may be known from the flatterer with a little care.'' 96. Historical examples. $$ 97—100. 'Flattery has only power over him who has an appetite for it; open flattery is not so dangerous as that which is masked.'

D. $ 100. "To sum up, virtue is the only origin and bond of friendship. $ 101. It is this which has attracted me to my friends throughout life, to you young men as well as others. f 102. It would be well if friends could begin life and end life together, but such are the chances of our mortal state that we must ever be forming new friendships. $$ 103, 104. My perfect intimacy with Scipio has been the greatest blessing of my life. I end by exhorting you to value virtue above everything else, and friendship next.'

M. TULLI CICERONIS

LAELIUS

DE AMICITIA.

1. Q. Mucius augur multa narrare de C. Laelio 1 socero suo memoriter et iucunde solebat nec dubitare illum in omni sermone appellare sapientem. Ego autem a patre ita eram deductus ad Scaevolam sumpta virili toga, ut, quoad s possem et liceret, a senis latere numquam discederem.

Itaque multa ab eo prudenter disputata, multa etiam breviter et commode dicta memoriae mandabam, fierique studebam eius prudentia doctior. Quo mortuo me ad pontificem

Scaevolam contuli, quem unum nostrae civitatis et ingenio 10 et iustitia praestantissimum audeo dicere. Sed de hoc alias,

nunc redeo ad augurem. Cum saepe multa, tum memini 2 domi in hemicyclio sedentem, ut solebat, cum et ego essem una et pauci admodum familiares, in eum sermonem illum

incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore. Meministi enim 15 profecto, Attice, et eo magis, quod P. Sulpicio utebare mul

tum, cum is tribunus plebis capitali odio a Q. Pompeio, qui tum erat consul, dissideret, quocum coniunctissime et aman

tissime vixerat, quanta esset hominum vel admiratio vel 2querella. Itaque tum Scaevola, cum in eam ipsam mentio- 3 za nem incidisset, exposuit nobis sermonem Laeli de amicitia

habitum ab illo secum et cum altero genero C. Fannio, Marci filio, paucis diebus post mortem Africani. Eius disputationis

sententias memoriae mandavi, quas hoc libro exposui arbitratu meo : quasi enim ipsos induxi loquentis, ne 'inquam'

et 'inquit' saepius interponeretur atque ut tamquam a prae4 sentibus coram haberi sermo videretur. Cum enim saepe mecum ageres, ut de amicitia scriberem 'aliquid, digna mihi s res cum omnium cognitione' tum nostra familiaritate visa est; itaque feci non invitus ut prodessem multis rogatu tuo. Sed ut in Catone maiore, qui est scriptus ad te de senectute, Catonem induxi senem disputantem, (quia nulla videbatur aptior persona quae de illa aetate loqueretur, quam eius, qui 10 et diutissime senex fuisset et in ipsa senectute praeter ceteros floruisset ; sic, cum accepissemus a patribus maxime memorabilem C. Laeli et P. Scipionis familiaritatem fuisse, idonea mihi Laeli persona visa est quae de amicitia ea ipsa dissereret, quae disputata ab eo meminisset Scaevola. Genus autem 15 hoc sermonum positum in hominum veterum auctoritate et eorum illustrium plus nescio quo pacto videtur habere gravi

tatis. Itaque ipse mea legens sic afficior interdum, ut 5 Çatonem, non me, loqui existimem. Sed ut tum ad senem

senex de senectute, sic hoc libro ad amicum amicissimius 20 scripsi de amicitia. Tum est Cato locutus, quo erat nemo fere senior temporibus illis, nemo prudentior : nunc Laelius et sapiens, sic enim est habitus, et amicitiae gloria excellens de amicitia loquetur. Tu velim a me animum parumper avertas, Laelium loqui ipsum putes. C. Fannius et Q. Mucius 25 ad socerum veniunt post mortem Africani: ab his sermo oritur, respondet Laelius, cuius tota disputatio est de amicitia, quam legens te ipse cognosces.

II. FANNIUS. Sunt ista, Laeli , nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam nec clarior. Sed existimare debes omnium 30. oculos in te esse coniectos unum ; te sapientem et appellant i et existimant. Tribuebatur hoc modo M. Catoni, scimus L. Acilium apud patres nostros appellatum esse sapientem, v

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