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quoad possem et liceret: cf. Lucr. 2, 850 quoad licet ac possis; Cic. Leg. agr. 2, 19 quoad posset, quoad fas esset, quoad liceret. 5 a senis...discederem: an exaggerated expression, as in Balb. 5 accu

sator fatetur hunc numquam à Memmio discessisse ; Liv. 37, 53, 18

numquam a consule abscessi. 6 ab eo...disputata : Cic. allows disputare to govern an accusative of a

neuter pronoun only, in place of the usual constr., viz. de with abl.; so in 24, p. 36, 1. 2; 16, 1. 22. He is more free in his use of the passive; thus he says in De Or. I. 22 re quaesita et disputata, though he would

hardly say rem disputare for de re disputare. Cf. 8 prudentia: this word usually implies not wisdom in general but skill

in some special subject; here Roman Law; cf. prudens in iure in 6, p. 29, 1. 1.

me...contuli: contrast this with a patre deductus eram above. 9 unum...praestantissimum: this emphatic use of unus with the super

lative is common in Cic., e.g. Tusc. 2, 64; 4, 55; 5, 66; so Verg. Aen. 2, 426 cadit et Rhipeus iustissimus unus, and Homer, Il. 12, 243 els oiwvòs åplotos. For the gen. nostrae civitatis cf. Tusc. 3, 81 unum omnium maximum. The strengthening force of unus is also seen in the common phrases quivis unus, quilibet unus, unus aliquis, unus quisque.

seul de hoc alias: nunc etc.: the ellipse of the verb (dicam) is common; cf. Tusc. 3, 10 sed id alias, nunc quod instat; ib. 3, 25 sed cetera alias nunc...; ib. 3, 73 sed de hoc alias, nunc...; Balb. i ego quantum ei debeam, alio loco; also below, 13, 1. 18; 64, 1. 19; 32, 1. 30. Observe that in the best writers alias is always equivalent to alio tempore, never to alio modo. For redeo cf. De Or. 2, 62 sed illuc redeo; below, 96, l. 22 ut ad me redeam ; also 75, 1. 22.

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cum saepe multa, tum etc.: there is a change of construction in this sentence which leaves the clause cum saepe multa incomplete. Something like eum dicere must be supplied. Trans. 'I remember much that he said on many occasions, but particularly that etc.' On the constr. of memini Roby $ 1372 says 'memini is used with the present (and sometimes the perfect) infinitive of events of which the subject himself was witness, with the perfect infinitive of events of which the subject was not witness'. The rule may be somewhat more precisely stated thus. If the person who recalls an event was a witness of it, he may either (a) vividly picture to himself the event and its attendant circumstances so that it becomes really present to his mind's eye for the moment, in which case he uses the present infinitive, or (6) he may simply recall the fact that the event did take place in past time, in which case the perfect infinitive is used. If he was not a witness, he evidently can conceive the event only in the latter of these two ways. As regards (a) cf. Verg. Ecl. 9, 52 longos cantando puerum memini me_condere soles with Georg. 4, 125 memini me Corycium vidisse senem. Examples like the latter of these two are more numerous than is commonly supposed.

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hemicyclio; a large semicircular bench, not a part of the household furniture, but placed outside in the grounds, and used for conversations, or lessons, the shape enabling the company to see each other's faces. So, at the outset of the discussion in the Academica (1, 14), Cic. says

omnes in conspectu consedimus. 13 admodum: Lahmeyer is wrong in taking this with familiares; it

qualifies pauci, as in Tusc. 4, 6 nulla fere sunt aut pauca admodum Latina monumenta, though Cic. nearly always says admodum pauci rather than pauci admodum; cf. Tusc. 2, 11; Top: 3; N. D. 3, 69; Leg. 3, 32; Phil. 3, 36 and 14, 27. In 16, 1. 25 we have gratum admodum. În sense, admodum exactly corresponds with our phrase 'to a degree'.

eum sermonem qui:=sermonem de ea re quae..., like is timor=timor eius rei, common in Livy. So below, 3, 1. 19 eam 'mentionem=eius rei mentionem. Cf. also 55, 1. 26; 32, 1. 24 haec concertatio; 88, 1. 18 illam admirationem, and n. on 38, l. 22 ex hoc numero.

tum fere : ‘just about that time’; cf. 14, P. 31, 1. 26 extremum fere almost the last part '; also 5, 1. 21 nemo fere, hardly any one'; 72, l. 32 non fere. Lahmeyer, Nauck, and others err by supposing fere to qualify the words erat in ore, and to mean 'generally', 'commonly', like volgo, for which sense cf. 54, l. 15. Fere nearly though not quite always modifies the word which immediately precedes, and is often joined with expressions relating to time, when the time is not fixed with absolute exactness. So Cic. Rep. 2, 56 decem fere annis; Pis. 13 quinta fere hora; Caes. B. G. 4, 23, 1 tertia fere vigilia. The Greek expressions ws & tros είπείν, ως ειπείν (which have a verbal resemblance to the Latin phrase ut ita dicam, but do not resemble it in their sense) correspond very closely to fere.

multis erat in ore: Cic. uses both constructions, esse in ore alicui and esse in ore alicuius.

Cf. Appendix on tum fere multis. 15 P. Sulpicio: see Intrud. p. 20.

utebare multum: 'were much in the society of...' 16

..vixerat: in translating, these words should be taken after the words from quanta to querella.

is tribunus plebis: not that tribune', but ‘he, being tribune', or 'he, as tribune

capitali odio: "deadly hatred'. The same phrase occurs in a fragm. of Cic. (Baiter, XIII I, 2); cf. also Hor. Sat. 1, 7, 13 ira capitalis. 17 quocum: so 15, 1.8 and 77, p. 52, 1. 13, but in 22, p. 34, 1. 20 quicum.

Quocum is commonly used when some particular and specified person is meant, as here and 15, 11. 8, 9, quicum when the statement is general and the person undefined, as in § 22. The mss, however, vary so much be

tween the two forms that it is often difficult to decide concerning them. 19 querella: 'complaint'. The spelling querella seems better attested

than querela.

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cum...incidisset: 'having chanced to talk of that particular fact', i.e. the fact that Sulpicius had turned against his former friend; this led

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Scaevola to the general subject of friendship. For eam mentionem see

13 eum sermonem.
secum et cum: so 11, l. 31 mecum et cum, and often.

C. Fannio: see Introd. p. 16. The young student should clearly realise the fact that C. is an abbreviation for Gaius, not CAIUS, the latter form of the name having been absolutely unknown to the Romans of the Republic and early Empire. It appears in an inscription (Vol. III no. 1178 of Mommsen's Corpus) of the time of Caracalla. On the other hand, it is not uncommon to find in modern books the abbreviation written G. instead of C. (e.g: in Gerlach's edition of Sallust throughout, and occasionally in R. Ellis' Catullus; so Kühner, Gram. I, ed. 2, p. 708 'C. oder G. Gaius'). But the Romans always wrote C. not G. In very early times the Latin alphabet contained no letter G, and the letter C represented two distinct sounds, the guttural tenuis and the guttural media. After the introduction of G the Romans still kept up the old fashion of writing C. for Gaius and Cn. for Gnaeus; so they wrote K. for Caeso. Africani: see Introd. p. 17 sq.

P. 28. sententias: 'the opinions expressed in the discussion', i.e. their purport, not the actual words.

exposui arbitratu meo : ‘have rendered at my own discretion'. Like very many other nouns whose stems end in-u, arbitratus scarcely appears except in the ablative singular. [The nom. sing. and accus. sing. are also found, but only in Plautus.] The other cases of the sing. are supplied by the corresponding cases of arbitrium, and even in the ablative arbitrio is commoner than arbitratu (41, l. 21). Rogatu in 4, l. 7 is an isolated ablative.

quasi...loquentis: 'I have exhibited them as speaking in person, if I may say so'. Quasi modifies the too strong expression ipsos; cf. 27, p. 37, 1. 8; 55, 1. 27; 6, p. 29, 1. 5; 48, 1. 20; 50, 1. 6; 56, 1. 31; 35, 1. 26. A modern writer would hardly have thought it necessary to indicate that the interlocutors cannot actually appear in person.

ne 'inquam' etc. : this is directly and closely imitated from the introduction to Plato's Theaetetus, p. 142 (a dialogue Cic. imitates elsewhere, as in De Or. 3, 47; Tusc. 1, 8), where Euclides says with regard to the subject-matter of that dialogue έγραψάμην δε δή ούτωσι τον λόγον, ουκ εμοί Σωκράτη διηγούμενον ως διηγείτο, αλλά διαλεγόμενον οίς έφη διαλεχθήναι... ένα ούν εν τη γραφή μη παρέχοιεν πράγματα αι μεταξύ (cf. interpomerentur) των λόγων διηγήσεις περί αυτού τε οπότε λέγοι ο Σωκράτης, οίον, Καγώ έφης (inquam) ή Και εγώ είπον, ή αν περί του αποκρινομένου, ότι Συνέφη (inquit) ή Ουχ ώμολόγει, τούτων ένεκα αυτόν αυτοίς διαλεγόμενον έγραψα (quasi ipsos induci loquentis), εξελων τα τοιαύτα. .

coram: adverb here, as it is almost throughout the Republican and Augustan Latin. The prepositional use occurs in two passages of Cicero, Pis. 12 mihi vero ipsi coram genero meo quae dicere ausus es (where I would insert et before genero and take coram adverbially) and Fam. 13,

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6A, 1, and in one or two of Nepos, but Tacitus is the only writer who uses the word freely as a preposition. The grammars and dictionaries do not quote Livy for the prepositional use, which occurs in 35, 49, I.

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§ 4. cum enim etc.: the triple repetition of cum in this sentence seems careless and inelegant, but passages of the sort are not uncommon in Cic.; cf. my n. on pro Balbo 1, l. 3, also Fam. 9, 6, 3 cum videremus cum...tum.

mecum ageres. pleaded with me'; so tecum agere in 16, 1. 24; agere Gum populo in 96, 1. 26.

scriberem aliquid: so Cat. m. 2 cum de senectute vellem aliquid scribere. 7 feci ut prodessem: I took pains to confer benefit. The constr. is a

favourite one with Cic.; cf. Vat. 21 invitus facio ut recorder; Cat. m. 42 invitus feci ut L. Flaminium e senatu eicerem. Cic. often gives as his reason for writing the desire to serve his countrymen; so Acad. I, II;

Div. 2, 5; Off. 2, 2. Non invitus also in 25, 1. 4. 8 Catone maiore: see Introd. p. 10.

qui est...senectute: 'which I dedicated to you...'; cf. Cat. m. 3 hunc librum ad te de senectute misimus; Fin. 1, 8 libro quem ad me de virtute misisti; Div. 2, 3 liber is quem ad Atticum de senectute misimus;

Att. 8, 6 Demetri Magnetis librum quem ad te misit de concordia. For the collocation of the words cf. Tusc. 4, 66 eam rationem quae maxime pro

batur de bonis et malis, also De Or. 2, 61 libri qui sunt fere inscripti de. 9 induxi...persona: both words are connected with the stage. Inducere

is literally 'to bring upon the boards' (cf. 59, l. 25): persona properly means a mask, here a type of character as we say. See my n. on Arch. 3, 1. 13, also cf. Lael. 93, 1. 5; 100, l. 4, and for the general sense of the passage Att. 13, 19, 5 haec Academica, ut scis, cum Catulo Lucullo Hortensio contuleram. Sane in personas non cadebant ; ib. 13, 16, I ecce tuae litterae de Varrone. Nemini visa est aptior Avtloxela ratio.

loqueretur : Cic. uses loqui (more rarely other verbs of speaking) very frequently when the subject is an abstract noun, as here persona practically is. So Fin. 2, 48 consuetudo loquitur; ib. 4, 41 institutio hominis si loqueretur ; Acad. 2, 101 conclusio loquitur.

floruisset : at first sight this seems a reference to the physical and menial powers for which Cato was famous in advanced age. Cic., however, does not use florere in the sense of vigere; Nauck therefore is probably right in supposing the word to allude to the general worldly prosperity of Cato, indicated in Cat. m. 8.

maxime memorabilem: superlatives from adjectives in -bilis are rare. In 51, l. 16 we have amabilissimum; Cato has stabilissimus, Columella mirabilissimum, and mobilissimus is common; these are all the instances which appear until post-Augustan times. Several adjectives of this class, as laudabilis probabilis flebilis, have comparatives, but no superlatives, in pre-Classical or Classical Latin.

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idonea : 'I thought Laelius a suitable character to expound the very views which had been maintained by him and recalled to mind by Scaevola'. Literally 'which, inaintained by him, Sc. had recalled'. It is not necessary to supply esse so as to make this a case of the perfect infinitive after meminisset. Disputare aliquid (cf. n. on 1, 1.6) often means not to discuss an opinion, but to put an opinion forward in discussion,

and so to defend or maintain it; cf. n. on 8, l. 21 respondere. 15 genus autem etc.: 'discourses of this kind seem, somehow or other,

to acquire greater dignity when they rely on (lit. are founded on) the influence of ancient characters, particularly such as are renowned '. Observe genus hoc sermonum=sermones huius generis; cf. 12, p. 31, 1. 2

quo de genere mortis; 93, 1. 6 id genus amici. 18 mea: without scripta, as in Acad. 1, 8 nihil magno opere meorum

miror. So 7, l. 12 omnia tua.

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senem senex: at the time the Cato maior was written Atticus was 65 and Cic. 60. Note the fondness of Cic. (as well as other Latins) for bringing into juxtaposition different cases of the same word. So De Or. 2, 310 rebus res and Lucr. I, 359 res rebus; cf. also below, 25, 1. 10 iustitiam iustissimo.

hoc libro: this corresponds to tum above; nunc would have been more formally correct; so below, 11. 20, 21 tum...nunc.

scripsi de amicitia : it is not often that Cic. leaves out the object after scribere ; above in 4, l. 5 aliquid is added. Sometimes a qualifying adverb takes the place of the object, as Att. 9, 15, 5 quod scribis me asperius quam mei patiantur mores de Dionysio scripsisse. Here the phrase ad amicum amicissimus softens the construction. Cf. however Fam. 9, 16, I: 14, 2, 4

senior-prudentior-sapiens-amicitiae gloria excellens. notice the order of the phrases, sapiens corresponding with prudentior, and senior with amicitiae gloria excellens; an instance of chiasmus; see n. on 23, l. 10.

tu velim...avertas: we have here an incomplete conditional sentence, the apodosis only being given, while the protasis (something like si tu quoque velis, or si tibi idem cordi esset) is suppressed as in 24, p. 35, 1. 31 possent ; also 51, l. 23 sciam; 47, 1. 10 videas. When Cic. uses the subjunctive construction after volo he nearly always leaves out ut, as here. Remark also that the subject of the dependent verb, if expressed, always precedes the words velim, vellem, malim and the like, as in the present passage; cf. also Tusc. 5, 20 nos vellem praemio elicere possemus, and Fam. 15, 3, 2.

Laelium...putes: the omission of a conjunction to connect two clauses together is particularly common in Cic. when two clauses are contrasted, as here and below, ab his sermo oritur, respondet Laelius; cf. 49, 1. 32; 69, p. 50, 1. 5; 13, 16; 19, 1. 29; 22, 1. 27; 90, however (below), the clauses are not contrasted, but parallel.

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In 11. 32, 33

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