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27 disputatio : here not discussion', but merely discourse'; cf. De Or..

2, 233 disputes quid sentias; also n. on 4, 1. 13. 28 te ipse cognosces: 'you will recognise your own likeness'. Cf. 10,

1. 12 me ipse consolor; also 59, l. 20; 80, l. 4. In these places ipse, not ipsum, is put, because there is an implied contrast between the subject of the verb and other persons, so that ipse==kal aúrós; here you yourself, as well as others'.

§ 6. 29 sunt ista : 'what you say is true '; sunt ista (foti tauta) and sunt ista

vera being equivalent expressions. The phrases esto (be it granted') and’verum esto are frequently interchanged, as in Cic. Flacc, 71, 72,95; cf. also N. D. 1, 60 quid non sit, quid sit; Acad. 1, 134 tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur, et tamen nisi alterutrum sit, virtutem plane iacere puto. In two passages of the Academica containing esse or verum esse, mss readings have been wrongly tampered with by editors

. In 2, 10 dicam enim nec mea nec ea in quibus, si non fuerint, non vinci me malim quam vincere, there is not the slightest need to insert vera after fuerint; while in 1, 43 verum esse autem arbitror correctionem veteris Academiae putandam (sc. hanc rationem), it is altogether unnecessary to expunge either verum or autem, the sense being 'I believe it however to be true that the system should be looked upon as a reform of the Old

Academy'. 30 existimare...existimant: the repetition is a mark of careless writing. 31 oculos...coniectos: the cause is given at the end of 8 7. 32 hoc: i.e. ut sapiens et appellaretur et existimaretur. For the tense of tribuebatur see n. on 37, 1. 2 videbamus.

modo : 'a little while since'; the expression is somewhat loose since Cato died in 149 B.C.; cf. the use of nuper in 13, 1. 10; 24, 1. 25. 33 L. Acilium : supposed to be the person mentioned by Cic. Leg.

2, 59 as a commentator on the XII tables, and probably a contemporary of Ćato. By some he is thought to be the person named by Liv. 40, 31, 1 as commander of the left wing of the Roman army at the battle of Aebura in 181 B.C. Some read in our passage L. Atilius, a name about which nothing is known.

P. 29.

I

uterque: sc. sapiens appellatus est or habuit hoc nomen sapientis.

alio quodam modo: 'in a somewhat different way'; understanding atque tu. Cf. 25, l. 4 aliud quoddam; 7, 1.6 and 74, l. 14 alio quodam modo; 27, p. 37, 1. 1. Quidam (like quasi in 3, p. 28, 1. 2) is often used to indicate that the word to which it is attached does not accurately represent the writer's meaning. In the passages quoted above quodam quoddam etc. indicate that alio aliud etc. are too strong for Cicero's meaning. On the other hand in 29, l. 26; 45, 1. 18; 75, l. 21; 59, p. 46, 1. 32 the parts of quidam used shew that Cicero cannot find terms strong enough, and that the terms used are only make-shifts. The indefinite tus is used in the same two ways in Greek.

2

prudens in iure: Seyffert rightly points out that Cic. does not use prudens with a genitive. He might have added that the phrase iuris prudens (for iuris peritus or consultus) is not Latin, though iuris prudentia occurs, as in De Or. 1, 256, and though jurisconsults are styled prudentes. Cic. has imprudens with gen. in De inv. 2, 95, also prudens ad in pro Font. 43; and prudentia often both with gen. and with in and abl.

multarum rerum usum: “a manifold experience'. Liv. 39, 40, 4 says of him nulla ars neque privatae neque publicae rei gerendae ei defuit. 3 habebat et multa: for the reading see Appendix. There is a change

of construction in the sentence; the clause from Acilius to putabatur requires to be completed by supplying something like ergo appellatus est sapiens, while the clauses from Cato to ferebantur, which are parallel to the former clause, have their sense actually completed by the words from propterea to sapientes.

multa eius... ferebantur • many instances where both in the senate and the forum he displayed either wise foresight, or firm conduct, or shrewdness in reply, were on every tongue'. The chief reference in responsa is to Cato's fame as a lawyer. According to old Roman custom he sat at home in the early morning, on purpose to resolve the legal difficulties of all who chose to consult him. This was technically called ius respondere. 5 quasi: almost'; cf. n. on quasi, 3, p. 28, 1. 2.

iam: i.e. even before his death.

sapientis: observe this difference between Latin and English idiom; the Latins always say nomen iustitiae, vox fortitudinis, appellatio prudentis etc. where we use apposition—'the name justice', 'the word courage', the title skilful'. Cf. 92, l. 30 nomen amicitiae and for the sense Cat. m. 5 (where Cato is speaking) sapientiam meam admirari soletis-quae utinam digna esset opinione vestra nostroque cognomine! Note that the same term cognomen is applied to the inherited third name Cato and to the acquired name sapiens. In late Latin agnomen was applied to the latter to mark the distinction.

$ 7. 6 te autem...esse sapientem: this clause was really intended to depend

on existimant below, 1. 13, but owing to the great length of the sentence Cic. made a pause at iudicatum, and repeated the gist of the sentence down to that point in the words hanc ...sapientiam, which are actually made to depend on existimant. The sentence is an example of change of construction or anacoluthia.

non solum... doctrina : here natura denotes the intellectual endowments with which a man is born, and mores his natural character; cf. 7, 1.7; 27, p. 37, 1. 7. Studium or devotion to the pursuit of learning depends on mores, doctrina or attainment on this combined with natura. The two words natura and mores together comprise the whole natural endowments of a man, while studium and doctrina indicate his acquirements. Lahmeyer says that natura corresponds to studio and moribus to doctrina, but the following passage will prove him to be wrong: Academica 1,

morum

Іо

11

20 naturae celeritatem ad discendum et memoriam dabant,.. autem putabant studia esse. Cf. also (with my notes on the passage) Arch. 15 ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse et sine doctrina naturae ipsius habitu...gravis exstitisse fateor etc., and Verg: Georg. 4, 5 mores et studia. Studio et doctrina is not an instance of ÈV dia duoîv, and should not be translated by zeal for learning', but ‘by devotion and culture'; cf. Arch. 3 otium ac studium ; De Or. I,

22 otio studioque. 9 reliqua : this word is proleptic or anticipative, since its sense is not

fully seen till we come to Athenis which completes the contrast. So ceterus is often used and doctròs, amlos in Greek; cf. 16, 1. 21 ceteris; 22, l. 24 ceterae; 54, 1. 17 antea ; 41, 1. 18 deinde'; 55, 1. 21 cetera.

septem: 'the seven', sapientes being understood, as in 59, p. 46, 1. 32. So xii alone often stands for XII tabulae (Leg. 2, 59, 60), and Asinius Pollio has (in Cic. Fam. 10, 32, 2) xiv for Xiv ordines.

subtilius: 'with more than usual accuracy'. Subtilis is often the exact equivalent of the Greek ακριβής. .

non habent: Cic. in Off. 3, 16 denies the title sapiens not only to the seven, but to Cato and to Laelius himself.

unum : emphatic : 'one only'. Cic. nearly always leaves the English 'only' unexpressed, but occasionally he uses modo, and once (Acad. 2, 74) .tantum, the occurrence of which Seyffert on this passage wrongly denies.

et eum quidem : these words really belong to and add emphasis to sapientissimum; cf. 4, 1. 16 et eorum ; 38, 1. 23 et eorum quidem.

Apollinis... iudicatum: Socrates in Plato's Apology p. 21 A merely says that the oracle declared that no one was wiser than himself (undeva coputepov elvai). The person who put the enquiry to the oracle, Chaerephon, a pupil of Socrates, was dead when the trial took place, but his brother bore evidence to the facts. Xenophon in his Apology 14 (if it be his) makes Socrates speak more definitely about the oracles-aveîlev ó 'Απόλλων μηδένα είναι ανθρώπων εμού μήτε ελευθεριώτερον μήτε δικαιότερον unte owopovégtepov. In another part of the Apology by Plato (33 C) Socrates says that the life he followed had been enjoined on him by the Delphian god και εκ μαντείων και εξ ενυπνίων. The Scholiast on Aris. tophanes' Nubes 114 gives there the actual words of the answer to Chaerephon : σοφός Σοφοκλής, σοφώτερος δ' Ευριπίδης, ανδρών δ' απάντων Σωκράτης σοφώτερος. The latter of the two lines is also preserved by Diogenes Laertius 2, 5, $ 37. Cic. speaks in four other passages of the

oracle, viz. Lael. 10 and 13, Cat. m. 78, Academ. I, 16. 13 omnia tua in te posita esse : the Stoic doctrine is here hinted at, that

virtue is the only thing deserving the name of good, and that the happiness of the truly wise man is absolutely unaffected by external circumstances. People were curious to see whether Laelius would try to carry out his philosophy, and to appear careless about the death of his friend. For

constr. posita in cf. 4, 1. 16; 20, p. 34, 1. 7. 14 virtute inferiores: 'of less importance than virtue'. This (see pre

ceding n.) is not strong enough to express the Stoic doctrine.

4,

32 nescio

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art.

credo : merely parenthetic, and without influence on the construction. The verb to be supplied for this clause is quaerunt, not quaerere. 15 hoc: our friend here'; so 32, 1. 31.

quonam pacto: lit. 'on what conditions', pactum (paciscor) being properly something agreed on between two persons. The phrase came to be used in exactly the same sense as quonam modo ; cf. l. 17 nescio quo pacto with 89, p. 55, 1.

quo

modo. 16

eoque magis : sc. quaerunt. The sentence from quod onwards is really explanatory of eo, which is the ablative of excess dependent on magis; lit. more by thus much, viz. that'.

proximis: 'the last'. Proximus is used both of the future and the past. Occasionally a word is inserted to define the meaning more nearly, as Fam. I, 9, 20 proximis superioribus diebus; Tac. A. I, 77 proximo priore anno, and also when proximus is used of space, as Cic. Orat. 216 proximum superiorem pedem; N.D. 2, 53 proximum inferiorem orbem.

Bruti: D. Iunius Brutus, surnamed Gallaecus, from his conquest of the Gallaeci, consul in 138 B.C.; cf. my n. on Arch. 37.

He

appears as augur only in our passage. my commentandi causa: 'with a view to practice', iv. in the augural

Commentari is properly 'to con over a lesson', ueletâv. For the custom cf. Cic. Div. I, 90 divinant Magi qui congregantur in fano commentandi causa atque inter se colloquendi, quod etiam idem vos quoʻidam facere Nonis solebatis.

As the augurs required for their practice an open space whence they could get an uninterrupted view of the sky they usually met in some gentleman's park (horti) outside the city: cf.

N. D. 2, 11; Rep. I, 14 in hortis esse. 18 qui ... solitus esses: though you had been accustomed'. For this

use of the subj. with qui, to express an idea contrasting with, or opposed to that of the preceding clause or sentence, cl. Brut. 127 hic, qui in collegio sacerdotum esset, iudicio publico est condemnatus.

diligentissime: 'most carefully'. See my n. on Arch. 9, 1. 24. 19 obire: 'to attend to'; lit. 'to go to meet'.

§ 8. C. Laeli: the addition of the praenomen, not usual in familiar conversation, gives formality to the address : cf. 100, 1. 10.

id respondeo, quod etc.: 'I state in reply what I have observed, that'

20

21

For this use of respondere=to put something into a reply, cf. Acad. 2, 93 fateris neque ultimum te paucorum neque primum multorum respondere posse, and the common phrase ius respondere; also n. on 4, l. 13.

animum adverti: animum advertere and animadvertere (cf. 27, p. 37, 11; 99, p. 58, 1. 26) differ not at all in sense, and very little in use. Animum advertere is said to be necessary when the construction ad aliquid (to turn the mind to something) follows. Bentley on Tusc. 5, 65 denied that it governs a simple accusative as animadvertere does; but he

etc.

was wrong

22

cum summi viri tum amicissimi: the natural order would have been viri cum summi tum amicissimi. A word however which (like viri here) stands in the same relation towards two other words or phrases, is often placed thus between the two. The old grammarians called this usage coniunctio; cf. Cornificius Ad Herennium 4, 38 coniunctio est cum inter positione verbi et superiores orationis partes comprehenduntur et inferiores, hoc modo: Formae dignitas aut morbo deflorescit aut vetustate ; also n. on 15, 1. 9 quocum ...communis; 32, 1. 21; 52, 1. 30; 61, l. 17;

84, 1. 5; 95, l. 10; 45, l. 23. 23 moderate: the Stoics, whom Laelius followed, declared (in opposition

to the Peripatetics) all ordinary emotion vicious; see Tusc., book iv, particularly § 42 nihil interest utrum moderatas perturbationes approbent an moderatam iniustitiam, moderatam ignaviam, moderatam intemperantiam. The Stoic wise man, however, experiences certain pure emotions (eúrabelai), which have their counterparts in other men; only among these there is nothing resembling pain (dolor).

nec potuisse...humanitatis tuae: 'that you could not remain unmoved, and that to be so (id) did not accord with your cultured spirit'. Humanitas almost exactly corresponds in sense with our 'culture', i.e. education when accompanied by its best fruits, gentleness and refine

ment. 25 valetudinem: not to be translated by 'ill-health' or 'sickness', but

simply by 'health', the English word being just as undefined as the

Latin, which receives its definition from the context; cf. 22, 1. 26. 26 maestitiam: this is the right spelling, not moestitiam; so maestus not moestus, maereo not moereo.

recte...et vere: sc. respondeas. Cf. Academ. I, 33 nos vero volumus, inquam, ut pro Attico respondeam.-Et recte, inquit, respondes; also

for the ellipse 1, 1. 10; 33, p. 38, 1. 33. 28 officio: corresponds to munus in l. 18 as usurpavi does to obire, l. 19.

Usurpare is to say or do something habitually or repeatedly, here to

perform regularly'. Cf. 28, 1. 13, with n. 29 incommodo: note the slightness of the expression, as applied to the death of a very dear friend, and cf. n. on 10, l. 15.

constanti homini: 'a man of strong character'. Constans homo (Horace's iustus ac tenax propositi vir) is opposed to mobilis in Qu. Rosc. 49; cf. Lael. 64, 1. 23 constantem et stabilem. Constantia (often coupled with gravitas fides and the like) formed an important part of the character of the ideal Roman. Cic. complains (Flacc. 36) nullam con

stantiam in Graecis hominibus esse. 30 contingere: here distinctly used of bad fortune, though the old

traditional distinction between contingere on the one hand and accidere, evenire on the other required the word to be used of good fortune only. Seyffert rightly compares contingere with a poońkely and explains its meaning to be in the best Latin) the happening of something which is natural or to be expected under the circumstances. Cf. N.D. 1, 27 non vidit, cum miseri animi essent, quod plerisque contingeret (that being the natural lot of most) tum dei partem esse miseram; so Fam. 5, 16, 5 and Phil. 14, 24; also below, 72, 1. 32; 48, 1. 29.

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