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$ 9. 31 tribui : i.e. by people in general. 32 agnosco: sc. mihi tribui. Nägelsbach Stilistik § 114 supplies tanquam debitum mihi.

facis amice: a polite expression of thanks, like bene facis in Acad. I, 25.

ut videris: for the personal construction taking the place of the impersonal ut videtur cf. Att. 5, 18, 2 consiliis, ut videmur, bonis utimur.

The usage is somewhat uncommon. See also n. on 56, p. 45, 1. 30. 33 nemo: the Stoics attached such superhuman excellences to their

oopòs or sapiens, that doubts were often expressed whether such a person ever existed in the flesh. Cf. 18, 1. 7 and Tusc. 2, 51 in quo vero erit perfecta sapientia, quem adhuc nos quiilem vidimus neminem.



P. 30. si quisquam: like the parenthesis commonly used in Greek, el kai tis άλλος. So in Latin sometimes si quisquam alius, as in Brut. 126.

fili: cf. Cat. m. 12 and 84. He was praetor designatus when he died and had served with distinction against Perseus, under L. Aemilius Paulus, whose daughter he had married (Cat. m. 15).

memineram Paulum, videram Gallum: sc. mortem filiorum ferre. Seyffert quotes Phil. 5, 17 Cinnam memini, vidi Sullam; cf. also De Or. 3, 133 meminerant illi Sextum Aelium; M'. vero Manilium nos etiam vidimus. In all passages where memini is thus used with the accus. of a person there is an ellipse of an infinitive. Paulus (Macedonicus) lost two sons, one immediately before, the other immediately after, his great triumph in 168 B.C. Cf. Fam. 4, 6, 1 L. Paulus duos septem diebus (sc. filios amisit). C. Sulpicius Gallus served as tribunus militum under Paulus, and was consul 157 B.C. He was famous as an astronomer and

was the first Roman who predicted an eclipse (Liv. 44, 37). 3 sed hi: sc. mortem filiorum, or rather talem casum tulerunt.

in pueris: literally ‘in the case of boys'. Trans. ' but their sons were boys, while Cato's was, etc.'. For the use of in see my n. on Cic. pro Balbo, 86; also cf. 18, 1. 3 ; 41, 1. 14; 63, l. 4; 41, l. 19; 42, 1. 27; 24, 1. 23; 39, 1. 31.

perfecto : this seems here merely to mean 'adult’in opposition to pueris. I know no parallel to this use, but there are good reasons for not taking perfectus in the moral sense which our word 'perfect' has. (1) Cic. though he has perfectus orator Stoicus etc., would not say perfectus vir in this sense. (2) The meaning 'perfect' would make perfecto et spectato a votepov Tipótepov.


§ 10. Cic. here treats cave as a negative verb, and he frequently follows up negative words with negative, where in English we should use positive, expressions. Thus nec is regular;

cf. also 51, 1. 25. For the subjunctive immediately dependent on cuve cf. Roby, Gram. SS 1584, 1608; Kennedy, Gram. § 197; also below, 47,

1.8; 17, 1. 32. 6 huius facta, illius dicta: for hic used to denote the one of two persons

who is nearer in time to the speaker, as compared with ille, the person who is more distant in time, see my n. on Arch. § 16. In facta...dicta we have the contrast between the life of action, the mpaktekos Blos, which the Romans regarded as the only proper life for a man of rank, and the literary or contemplative life, the DewpNTIKÒS Blos. The Romans looked on all departments of thought and literature as graceful adjuncts to a

life of activity, but nothing more. Cf. n. on 16, 1. 19; also on 88, l. 29. 7 habetote: on this form of the imperative, erroneously called the

future imperative, though it differs not a whit in sense from the other

form, see my n. on Cic. pro Balbo § 17; cf. quaeritote in 24, p. 36, 1. 2. 8 quam id recte: Cic. loves to separate tam quam ita tantus quantus

by some small word, from the words they qualify. See my n. on Academ. I, 26; also cf. 11, 1. 27; 15, 1. 14; 17, p. 33, 1. 1 ; 23, 1. 9; 53,

1. 6; 63, 1. 5. 9 viderint sapientes: 'how far I am right is for the wise men to. con

sider'. The literal rendering of viderint would be shall by and by consider', viderint being not perfect subjunctive, but future perfect indicative. Phrases like this are carefully treated by Roby (Preface to Vol. II, p. CVI and § 1593), who has a very full list of examples.

moveor enim: Seyffert is right in supplying desiderio from the preceding sentence.

confirmare: the sense is rather stronger than that of affirmare.
me ipse: cf. n. on 5, 1. 28.

solacio: this, not solatio, is the right spelling. 13 errore: 'delusion'.

quo decessu: for the juxtaposition of ablatives in different constructions which seems to us an awkwardness, cf. my n. on pro Balbo § 26.

nihil mali etc.: the same opinion is expounded at length in Tusc. Disp., book I. Cf. especially III nostrum enim et nostra causa susceptum dolorem modice ferre debemus ne nosmet ipsos amare videamur. Illa suspicio intolerabili dolore cruciat, si opinamur eos quibus orbati sumus, esse cum aliquo sensu in eis malis quibus volgo opinantur. See also the reflexions on the death of Hortensius in Brut. 8 5, and Fam. 5,

16, quoted on 45, 1. 25. 15 incommodis: the word is here pointedly contrasted with mali. There

is no doubt a slight reference to the Stoic theory of a ponyuéva and aroat ponyuéva. Although only virtue is bonum, only vice malum in the eyes of the Stoics, still there are such differences among other things as will incline the wise men to desire some of them (Iponyuéva = sumenda) and reject others (dron ponyuéva=reicienda or incommoda), his real happiness, however, remaining absolutely unaffected. See Acad. 1, 36 and 37, with my nn.

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§ 11.



cum illo...praeclare: 'who would say that his destiny has not been glorious': lit. "that he has not been dealt with (ie. by the gods or fates) splendidly?' Cf. 15, 1. 3, also Academ. 2, 128 quaeret noster sapiens ut vereatur temere opinari praeclareque agi secum putet si veri simile quod sit invenerit; Fam. 5, 18, i ea denique videtur condicio impendere legum iudiciorum temporum ut optime actum cum eo videatur esse, qui quam levissima poena ab hac re publica discesserit; ib. 4, 5, 3 non pessime cum eis actum quibus sine dolore licitum est mortem cum vita commutare; ib. 4, 5, 2 cogita quem ad modum adhuc fortuna nobiscum

egerit; also ib. 4, 14, 1; 9, 24, 4; Acad. 2, 80; Verr. 3, 70; Sest. 51. 17 quod ille minime putabat: 'a thought that he was far from enter

taining'. 18 optare: rightly used here of a desire for the impossible; sperare

would have implied that the fulfilment of the wish was possible. I have carefully drawn the distinction between the words in a n. on pro Balbo § 9, where see examples. Cf. also n. on 18, 1. 8.

quod...esset: an instance of the restrictive or limitative or defining subjunctive, on which see Kennedy, Gram. § 206, 3; Roby, § 1692. 19 iam : strictly belongs to habuerunt. The word is often displaced,

either, as here, to add emphasis to it (which it gains by being put close to puero) or to make the sentence or clause more euphonious.

puero: for this and other references to Scipio's life see Introd., p. 17 sq.

adulescens: this, not adolescens (which is the participle of adolesco), is the right spelling.

factus consul: some scholars wish, quite unnecessarily, to strike out the word consul, on the strength of passages like Mur. 18 quaesturam una petiit et sum ego factus prior; dom. 52 consulatum ei petere liceret, cum factus esset... Cf. however Cic. leg. agr. 2, 3 me esse unum...qui consulatum petierim, cum primum licitum sit, consul factus sim, cum primum petierim.

ante tempus: see Introd. p. 18. Tempus here=the proper or regular time = καιρόν. sibi: a so-called dativus commodi; 'as regards himself'; so 34, 1.

15 amicitiis; 18, l. 15 sapienti.

suo tempore: a man is said to gain office suo tempore when he is elected to the office at the earliest age which the law allows. 23 sero: because the Numantine war had already continued eight years and had proved disastrous to the Romans. See Introd. p. 18.

duabus: Carthage and Numantia.

non modo...delevit: 'extinguished not only the wars then existing, but also those which were likely to happen' (i.e. from the action of the destroyed cities). It is of course strictly incorrect to speak of blotting out something in the future, but the incorrectness has a thousand




parallels in every language. Delere bellum for the more usual conficere or profligare is found also in Nepos, Alcib. 8, 6. [Mr Shilleto (in ms note) appositely compares Thucyd. 6, 92 και Αθηναίων τήν τε ούσαν και

την μέλλουσαν δύναμιν καθέλητε.] 25 facillimis: 'most affable'.

de pietate...liberalitate: it is impossible to give general rules for the insertion or omision of the preposition in the second and subsequent places. If, however, the preposition had been repeated here before liberalitate pietate and bonitate each of these qualities would have stood out with greater prominence and distinctness; would in fact have been

more emphasized; cf. n. on 95, l. 13. 27 nota sunt vobis : 'you are well acquainted with all this '.

quam...carus: for the separation of these words cf. 10 l. 8 quam id recte. 28 maerore: the three words dolor maeror and luctus occur in one

sentence of pro Balbo § 61.. I repeat here my n. on that passage: * dolor is grief as felt at the heart, luctus as expressed by material signs, in the dress, for instance, maeror as expressed by the condition or action of the sufferer, for example by the gloom on his countenance. The following is a striking passage-Att. 12, 28, 2 maerorem minui, dolorem

nec potui nec si possem, vellem'. 30 memini...disserere: n. on 2, 1. II. Laelius and Scipio

re two of the interlocutors in the Cato maior, and Cic. strives artfully here to give

an air of reality to the conversation he relates in that dialogue. 31

mecum et cum : cf. 3, p. 27, 1. 21. 32

viriditatem : freshness'. For the metaphorical use of the word cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 304 cruda deo viridisque senectus: Tac. Agr. 29 iuventus et quibus cruda ac viridis senectus; Verg. Aen. 5, 295 viridis iuventa.

etiam nunc: even in the best writers nunc occasionally goes with a past tense, as Cic. Verr. 3, 47 quos ego campos antea nitidissimos vidissem, hos ita vastatos nunc videbam ut... In that passage tum would have been ambiguous after antea, so in ours tum might have been referred by the reader to the time of the conversation between Scipio, Cato and

Laelius; so in Liv. 3, 19, 8. But often the motive is merely the desire to make the narrative vivid, as in Caes. B. G. 7, 62, 6 incerto nunc etiam exitú signa intulerunt; cf. ib. 6, 40, 6; Cic. Cat. 1, 9; Sallust, Iug. 109, 3. Etiamnum, which some editions have here, is a word probably not used by Cicero.


§ 12. vita...gloria: ‘his life indeed was such, whether we speak of it as lucky, or as famous '; literally ‘whether in respect of fortune or of fame'. [For the ablatives cí. Roby $ 1210, Kennedy $ 398.]

Cic. means that some would look on Scipio's life as merely shewing the effect of luck or chance, while others would think of the renown attending it and assume the Scipio deserved it. Gloria here implies virtus. Fortuna and virt are the two important attributes of the Roman general; cf. pro Balbo

(of Pompeius) in quo uno ita summa fortuna cum summa virtute certavit ut plus homini quam deae tribueretur; Fam. 10, 3, 2 virtute duce, comite fortuna.

P. 31.





accedere: sc. vel ad fortunam vel ad gloriam.

moriendi sensum: moriendi is the act or process of dying; mortis would have a different meaning and could not be here substituted. Cf. Cat. m. 74 sensus moriendi aliquis esse potest, post mortem quidem sensus aut optandus aut nullus est; Phil. 9, 13 si quis est sensus in On Scipio's death see Introd.


18. quo de genere mortis: i.e. death so sudden as his; for the form of expression cf. n. on 4, l. 15. 3 vere: there is a loose contrast with difficile dictu est, which implies nihil veri potest dici.

celeberrimos: not ‘most famous' but (literally) ‘most attended by crowds', i.e. days on which Scipio was the centre of the popular interest.

Cf. my n. on Arch. $ 4. 5 clarissimum: for the application of clarus to things, as well as

persons, Nägelsbach quotes Div. 2, 85; Att. 6, 1, 22 clarissimi iur iurandi. Notice the emphasis given by the repetition of diem from diebus.

reductus est: it was the custom at times of excitement for leading statesmen to be escorted to the senate-house from their homes and back again by their admirers. For the escort away from home deducere is generally used, for the escort homewards reducere. See Cat. m. 63,

where the two words occur together, as they do in Val. Max. 2, , 9. 6 ad vesperum: with the prepositions ad, sub, in, the accusative of vesper is generally used and not that of vespera.

populo Romano: simply=civibus, the burgesses, as opposed to the socii and Latini. 7 sociis et Latinis: these two words must be taken together as forming

one member of the enumeration, parallel with patribus conscriptis and populo Romano. When an enumeration consists only of two members Cicero, except in certain special cases, never omits the copula; when there are three or more members, he either puts et before each member after the first or leaves it out altogether. In our passage, if sociis and Latinis had each of them been entitled to rank separately in the enumeration, it would have been necessary to strike out et. Madvig has most thoroughly discussed this matter in a n. on Fin. 4, 56 and also in Opuscula 1, p. 333 sq. The practice of most other writers of the best period agrees on the whole with that of Cicero in this respect. Cf. n. on 84, 1. 5.

superos...deos... inferos: the word deos is purposely not placed immediately after superos, in order to prevent the reader from under. standing inferos to mean inferos deos. With this arrangement superos... deos means, as Seyffert explains it, superi, qui dei sunt.


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