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NOTES.

see the 66

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N.B. For names of persons, towns, villages, and rivers,

Biographical and Geographical Index,P. 144. Page. Line. 1, 6. Gardes-françaises, an infantry regiment formed by Charles

IX., 1563; grenadiers were added to it by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. This regiment sided with the people in 1789, and contributed to the fall of the Bastille. It

was cashiered by Louis XVI. 2, 4. Surnumérariat, supernumerary service. 14. Du maniement de l'arme à l'exercice des manæuvres, from

manual to field exercise.
21. Grenadiers, a name given in 1667 to the old company of

the "Enfants Perdus (picked men who led in every
attack). They were originally employed in throwing
hand-grenades, hence their name. The "grenade
so called from its likeness to the pomegranate, grana-

tum malum."
40. Et répand de charmes, the de is explained by the presence

of combien higher up. The complete sentence would be “ Combien la culture de l'intelligence répand de

charmes.” 3, 27. Ouvrages de polémique courante, current polemics. 4, 29. Relevait, set off. 5, 36. La taille, or les tailles (there were a great many kinds), a

very heavy tax levied on all those who were not of noble birth, or did not belong to the clergy.

" Its name (says Littré) comes from the fact that the collectors used

tally,' or stick, on which they kept their accounts by notches." This mode of “notching” accounts is

still used by bakers in some country places in France. 36. Corvée, statute labour, a certain amount of work which the

vassal had to do gratuitously for his lord. 37. Roturiers, commoners, those who are not of noble birth.

They were said to be "taillables et corvéables à merci," subject to taxes and statute labour at the will of their

lord. 6, 12. L'Assemblée Nationale et Constituante, the name taken by

the “States-General,” June 17, 1789. The following are the names of the principal Assemblies,

Committees, &c., of the French Revolution from 1789

to 1799:-
“ États-Généraux," the, representatives of the Nobility

Clergy, and “Tiers-États,” assembled at Versailles
May 5, 1789; 1118 members.

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Assemblée Nationale Constituante,” the name taken by

the above assembly, June 17, 1789. " Assemblée Législative,” 745 members, October 1, 1791.

Convention Nationale,” 749 members, proclaimed the

Republic, September 21, 1792. “ Comité de Salut Public,” created by the Convention

originally for a month, April 6, 1793. It lasted till the “ Directoire," and established the Reign of Terror ;

9 members. “ Conseil des Anciens,” 250 members, 2 “Conseil des Cinq-Cents,” 500 members, Oct. 27, 1795.

Directoire,” 5 Directors,

“ Consulat,"' 3 Consuls, November 10, 1799. 6, 20. Louis XVI., see " Biographical and Geographical Index,”

p. 152. 7, 17. Invalides (l'hôtel des) was built by Louis XIV., 1671

1674; it contains now about 3000 invalided soldiers and officers; it is situated in the “faubourg St. Germain,"

S. W. extremity of Paris. 20. Suisses, the Swiss Guards. 8, 3. Dauphin, when Humbert II. ceded the province of

“ Dauphiné” to Philippe VI. of Valois (1349), it was stipulated that the heir apparent to the throne of France

would take the title of “ Dauphin.” 5. Blanches . . . tricolores, white is now the colour of the

Bourbons and the "ancien régime ; ” red that of the Democrats; and the three colours, blue, white, and red together, represent the Republican party, as well as

those who believe in a limited monarchy. 9,11-12. 6 octobre (1789), the attack on the Castle of Versailles by

the mob, who insisted on Louis XVI. coming to Paris. 11-12, 14 juillet (1789), the taking of the Bastille by the people. 10, 33. Temple (Le), originally a monastery in Paris occupied by

the Templars and other monastic orders. Part of the

building was used as a prison during the Revolution. 11, 33. La Marseillaise, see Rouget de L'Isle in the Index. 12, 40. Parlementaire, one who in the civil war called “La

Fronde,” sided with the Parliament and “ Tiers-État” against the Cardinal Mazarin, 1648-1653, during the

minority of Louis XIV. 13, 3-4. L'attentat du 21 Janvier (1793), execution of Louis XVI. 28. Comité de salut public, see list of Assemblies, note, p. 6,

1. 12. 17, 24. Jacobins, members of a political club composed of extreme

Democrats. They originally met in an ancient monastery

of Jacobin monks. 25. Convention, see list of Assemblies, note, p. 6, 1. 12. 33. Impériaux, a name given since the sixteenth century to the

troops of the German Empire.

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Page Line. 18, 7. Les montagnards (from "montagne,” mountain), seated on

the highest benches in the house, they represented the extreme Democratic Party; the group “ la Plaine” (the plain) or “le Marais” (the marsh) was lower down, and moderate in their views. Their enemies called them

les crapauds (toads) du Marais." 8. Les girondins, see Vergniaud in the Index. 22, 6. Revêtement, a solid coating with which moats are lined. 25, 20. Accentués, emphasized. 31. Qu'il batte son urrière-ban, let them (the people) call to

arms their arriere-ban (last reserves); "battre,” to beat,

because the summons was made with a drum. 34. Lignes de Wissembourg, see Wissembourg in the Index. 29, 13. Encan, auction. 0. Fr. en quant ; Lat. “in” and

quantum.” 14. Livre, a French coin, now called a franc; the word is still

used, however, in such expressions as " il a 10,000 livres

de rente,” he has an income of 10,000 francs. 30, 12. Abatis, from "abattre,” to pull down. 31, 6-7. Sans rompre d'une semelle, without flinching ; in sencing,

rompre" means to retire in parrying; “ semelle," sole

(the width of a sole). 13. Le vainqueur de Rucroi, Louis II., Prince of Condé, surnamed

“ Le Grand Condé," beat the Spaniards at Rocroi (see

Index) 1643 ; he had to be awakened before the battle. 32, 12. Déblocus, a military term. The action of raising a blockade

or of causing it to be raised. It is used here in the latter 33, 38. L'épée de Damoclès, the sword of Damocles, one of the

courtiers of Dionysius of Syracuse (fourth century B.C.) To show him that kings were not so happy as he thought, the tyrant invited him to a sumptuous enter, tainment, at which he caused a naked sword to be sus

pended over his head by a single hair. 38, 17. Sans reproche, being without reproach, having nothing

with which to reproach myself. 39, 17. Carmes, a monastery of Carmelite friars in the rue

Vaugirard, in Paris, used as a prison during the

Revolution. 19. Conciergerie, part of the Palais de Justice (law.courts) ; it

was originally the residence of the judge called in Paris Concierge du Palais de Paris” (988), afterwards “Bailli du Palais ” (1348); concierge now means porter,

door-keeper, 40, 11. Fournée, a batch, an oven-full, from "four,” an oven.

Cf. " brassée, an arm-full; poignée," a handful ;

maisonnée,” a house-full, &c. 45, 25. Un supplice inventé pour abréger les souffrances, the guillo.

tine, invented by Guillotin, a celebrated doctor (1738

sense.

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1814). Before the Revolution noblemen were beheaded and commoners hanged; the Assembly, December 1,

1789, abolished this distinction. 46, 2. Terroristes, name given to the partisans or agents of the

régime de la Terreur,” which began with the fall of the “Girondins (see Vergniaud, * Index”) May 31, 1793, and lasted until the fall of Robespierre, July 27, 1794 (9 thermidor an II.) ; the principal victims of this “ régime” were Marie-Antoinette, Madame Elisabeth (sister of Louis XVI.), the “Girondins,” the duke Louis-Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (Philippe-Egalité),

André Chénier, Madame Roland, &c., &c. 5. Prairial, see Republican Calendar, p. 142.

27. Thermidor, see Republican Calendar, p. 142. 49, 3. Chouannerie, see "Index,” Cottereau.

20. Roturiers, see note on p. 5, l. 37. 51, 13. Une guerre de partisans, a partisan war, one which con

sists in surprising the enemy's convoys and performing

other feats of desultory warfare. 25. Réquisition, a levy, decreed by the Convention, calling

out all Frenchmen not married, and from eighteen to

twenty-five years of age. 52, 16. Monsieur, the title given to the eldest brother of the

king from the seventeenth century ; Monsieur le Comte

d'Artois (Charles X.) was the last who bore that title. 59, 32. L'acquittement des bons, the paying of the bills; bills

generally begin with the words, "Bon pour la somme

-i.e., this is good for the sum of ..., hence

bon” for bill. 61, 2. Bons anciens, an apostrophe, good people of the olden

times. 63, 33. Panthéon, one of the finest monuments in Paris; originally

the church of “Ste. Geneviève,” the patron Saint of Paris. The French Assembly in 1791 decreed that it should be called “Panthéon," and become a monument erected to the memory of great men ; it bore on its frontispiece the words, “ Aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaissante ; in 1852 it was once more restored to

its original destination. 64, 13. Embaucher les soldats, to gain over the soldiers, to induce

them to desert ; from en in, and bauche a place (where work is done, where workman is employed); “ débaucher” means to entice away (from work or right) ; embaucher and débaucher are used by workmen

in the sense of to begin and to leave off work. 65, 15. Commune, the smallest territorial and administrative

division in France, 32. Ont insulté à; the verb “insulter” may be used as an

active or as a neuter verb; when neuter it adds to its

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previous sense that of meanness and cowardice ; “in. sulter à la faiblesse,” is to take advantage of weakness

to insult it. 66, 13. Vint mouiller, and cast anchor ; 66 mouiller

l'ancre,” to anchor. 68 16. La réaction thermidorienne, see Republican Calendar, p.

142, 9 and 10 thermidor.” 16. Terroristes, see p. 46, l. 2.

17. Convention, see list of principal assemblies, &c., p. 6, 1. 12. 69, 6. Guérillas, those who carry on a “guerilla,” petty war ; an

irregular mode of warfare carried on by the constant attacks of independent bands adopted in the north of

Spain during the Peninsular war (1808-1814). 70, 25. Embossées, from "embosser,” to moor head and stern,

bringing the broadside of a ship to bear upon the point

which is attacked. 72, 1. L'étroite presqu'ile, see Index, “ Quiberon.”

13. Chasse-marée, fishing luggers. 81, L'air de route, a particular way of beating the dram when

the soldiers are marching: 84, 36. Chouans, see “Cottereau " in the Index. 86, 24. Directoire, it was composed of five directors, and formert

part of the government with the “Conseil des CinqCents," and the “ Conseil des Anciens ;” it lasted from October 27, 1795, to November 11, 1799, see list of

assemblies, &c., p. 6, 1. 12. 34. Une constitution nouvelle; the following are the different

Constitutions of the French Revolution :“ LA CONSTITUTION DU 14 SEPTEMBRE, 1791,” which

proclaimed the equality of every citizen before the law and his admissibility to any public office, the liberty of conscience and the liberty of the press ; there was to be a parliament of 745 members, a king with responsible ministers, and with the right of veto; assemblies called “ primaires named the electors, who formed them

selves into electoral assemblies and elected the deputies. LA CONSTITUTION DE 1793,” drawn up by the Conven

tion, but never carried out; by it the people were supreme, and the mob generally clamoured for it in

riots. “LA CONSTITUTION DE L'AN III. (1795),” also drawn up

by the Convention, but less radical than the above; the legislative power was entrusted to the “ Conseil des Anciens " and “Conseil des Cinq-Cents,” and the executive power to a

Directoire" of five directors. LA CONSTITUTION DE L'AN VIII." (22 frimaire), Decem

ber 13, 1799 ; the executive power was entrusted to three consuls; the laws proposed by them were to be discussed by a “ Tribunat” of a hundred members, and accepted

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