« PreviousContinue »
see the 66
N.B. For names of persons, towns, villages, and rivers,
Biographical and Geographical Index,” P. 144. Page. Line. 1, 6. Gardes-françaises, an infantry regiment formed by Charles
IX., 1563; grenadiers were added to it by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. This regiment sided with the people in 1789, and contributed to the fall of the Bastille. It
was cashiered by Louis XVI. 2, 4. Surnumérariat, supernumerary service. 14. Du maniement de l'arme à l'exercice des manæuvres, from
manual to field exercise.
the "Enfants Perdus (picked men who led in every
of combien higher up. The complete sentence would be “ Combien la culture de l'intelligence répand de
charmes.” 3, 27. Ouvrages de polémique courante, current polemics. 4, 29. Relevait, set off. 5, 36. La taille, or les tailles (there were a great many kinds), a
very heavy tax levied on all those who were not of noble birth, or did not belong to the clergy.
" Its name (says Littré) comes from the fact that the collectors used
tally,' or stick, on which they kept their accounts by notches." This mode of “notching” accounts is
still used by bakers in some country places in France. 36. Corvée, statute labour, a certain amount of work which the
vassal had to do gratuitously for his lord. 37. Roturiers, commoners, those who are not of noble birth.
They were said to be "taillables et corvéables à merci," subject to taxes and statute labour at the will of their
lord. 6, 12. L'Assemblée Nationale et Constituante, the name taken by
the “States-General,” June 17, 1789. The following are the names of the principal Assemblies,
Committees, &c., of the French Revolution from 1789
Clergy, and “Tiers-États,” assembled at Versailles
“ Assemblée Nationale Constituante,” the name taken by
the above assembly, June 17, 1789. “ Assemblée Législative,” 745 members, October 1, 1791. “ Convention Nationale,” 749 members, proclaimed the
Republic, September 21, 1792. “ Comité de Salut Public," created by the Convention
originally for a month, April 6, 1793. It lasted till the “ Directoire," and established the Reign of Terror ;
9 members. “ Conseil des Anciens,” 250 members, “Conseil des Cinq-Cents,” 500 members, Oct. 27, 1795. “Directoire,” 5 Directors,
Consulat,” 3 Consuls, November 10, 1799. 6, 20. Louis XVI., see“ Biographical and Geographical Index,”
p. 152. 7, 17. Invalides (l'hôtel des) was built by Louis XIV., 1671
1674; it contains now about 3000 invalided soldiers and officers; it is situated in the “faubourg St. Germain,"
S. W. extremity of Paris. 20. Suisses, the Swiss Guards. 8, 3. Dauphin, when Humbert II. ceded the province of
Dauphiné" to Philippe VI. of Valois (1349), it was stipulated that the heir apparent to the throne of France
would take the title of “ Dauphin." 5. Blanches . . . tricolores, white is now the colour of the
Bourbons and the “ancien régime ; " red that of the Democrats; and the three colours, blue, white, and red together, represent the Republican party, as well as
those who believe in a limited monarchy. 9,11-12. 6 octobre (1789), the attack on the Castle of Versailles by
the mob, who insisted on Louis XVI. coming to Paris. II-12, 14 juillet (1789), the taking of the Bastille by the people. 10, 33. Temple (le), originally a monastery in Paris occupied by
the Templars and other monastic orders. Part of the
building was used as a prison during the Revolution. 11, 33. La Marseillaise, see Rouget de L'Isle in the Index. 12, 40. Parlementaire, one who in the civil war called “La
Fronde," sided with the Parliament and “ Tiers-État” against the Cardinal Mazarin, 1648-1653, during the
minority of Louis XIV. 13, 3-4. L'attentat du 21 Janvier (1793), execution of Louis XVI.
28. Comité de salut public, see list of Assemblies, note, p. 6, 17, 24. Jacobins, members of a political club composed of extreme
Democrats. They originally met in an ancient monastery
of Jacobin monks. 25. Convention, see list of Assemblies, note, p. 6, 1. 12. 33. Impériaux, a name given since the sixteenth century to the
troops of the German Empire.
Page Line. 18, 7. Les montagnards (from "montagne,” mountain), seated on
the highest benches in the house, they represented the extreme Democratic party; the group "la Plaine” (the plain) or "le Marais” (the marsh) was lower down, and moderate in their views. Their enemies called them
“les crapauds (toads) du Marais." 8. Les girondins, see Vergniaud in the Index. 22, 6. Revêtement, a solid coating with which moats are lined. 25, 20. Accentués, emphasized. 31. Qu'il batte son arrière-ban, let them (the people) call to
arms their arriere-ban (last reserves); "battre,” to beat,
because the summons was made with a drum. 34. Lignes de Wissembourg, see Wissembourg in the Index. 29, 13. Encan, auction. 0. Fr. "en quant ; ' Lat. “in” and
quantum.” 14. Livre, a French coin, now called a franc; the word is still
used, however, in such expressions as “ il a 10,000 livres
de rente,” he has an income of 10,000 francs. 30, 12. Abatis, from "abattre,” to pull down. 31, 6-7. Sans rompre d'une semelle, without flinching; in sencing,
“rompre means to retire in parrying ; " semelle,” sole
(the width of a sole). 13. Le vainqueur de Rucroi, Louis II., Prince of Condé, surnamed
“Le Grand Condé,” beat the Spaniards at Rocroi (see
Index) 1643 ; he had to be awakened before the battle. 32, 12. Déblocus, a military term. The action of raising a blockade
or of causing it to be raised. It is used here in the latter 33, 38. L'épée de Damoclès, the sword of Damocles, one of the
courtiers of Dionysius of Syracuse (fourth century B.C.) To show him that kings were not so happy as he thought, the tyrant invited him to a sumptuous entertainment, at which he caused a naked sword to be sus
pended over his head by a single hair. 38, 17. Sans reproche, being without reproach, having nothing
with which to reproach myself. 39, 17. Carmes, a monastery of Carmelite friars in the rue
Vaugirard, in Paris, used as a prison during the
Revolution. 19. Conciergerie, part of the Palais de Justice (law.courts) ; it
was originally the residence of the judge called in Paris “ Concierge du Palais de Paris” (988), afterwards “Bailli du Palais ” (1348); concierge now means porter,
door-keeper, 40, 11. Fournée, a batch, an oven-full, from "four," an oven.
Cf. " brassée,” an arm-full; “poignée," a handful ;
“ maisonnée," a house-full, &c. 45, 25. Un supplice inventé pour abréger les souffrances, the guillo
tine, invented by Guillotin, a celebrated doctor (1738
1814). Before the Revolution noblemen were beheaded and commoners hanged; the Assembly, December 1,
1789, abolished this distinction. 46, 2. Terroristes, name given to the partisans or agents of the
régime de la Terreur,” which began with the fall of the • Girondins” (see Vergniaud, "Index") May 31, 1793, and lasted until the fall of Robespierre, July 27, 1794 (9 thermidor an II.) ; the principal victims of this
régime” were Marie-Antoinette, Madame Elisabeth (sister of Louis XVI.), the “Girondins,” the duke Louis-Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (Philippe-Egalité),
André-Chénier, Madame Roland, &c., &c. 5. Prairial, see Republican Calendar, p. 142.
27. Thermidor, see Republican Calendar, p. 142. 49, 3. Chouannerie, see "Index,” Cottereau.
20. Roturiers, see note on p. 5, l. 37. 51, 13. Une guerre de partisans, a partisan war, one which con.
sists in surprising the enemy's convoys and performing
other feats of desultory warfare. 25. Réquisition, a levy, decreed by the Convention, calling
out all Frenchmen not married, and from eighteen to
twenty-five years of age. 52, 16. Monsieur, the title given to the eldest brother of the
king from the seventeenth century ; Monsieur le Comte
d'Artois (Charles X.) was the last who bore that title. 59, 32. L'acquittement des bons, the paying of the bills ; bills
generally begin with the words, “ Bon pour la somme
'-i.e., this is good for the sum of . hence the name
bon” for bill. 61, 2. Bons anciens, an apostrophe, good people of the olden
times. 63, 33. Panthéon, one of the finest monuments in Paris ; originally
the church of “Ste. Geneviève," the patron Saint of Paris. The French Assembly in 1791 decreed that it should be called “Panthéon,” and become a monument erected to the memory of great men ; it bore on its frontispiece the words, "Aux grands hommes la patrie reconnaissante ;” in 1852 it was once more restored to
its original destination. 64, 13. Embaucher les soldats, to gain over the soldiers, to induce
them to desert ; from en in, and bauche a place (where work is done, where a workman is employed); “ débaucher” means to entice away (from work or right) ; embaucher and débaucher are used by workmen
in the sense of to begin and to leave off work. 65, 15. Commune, the smallest territorial and administrative
division in France, 32. Ont insulté à; the verb “insulter” may be used as an
active or as a neuter verb; when neuter it adds to its
previous sense that of meanness and cowardice; "insulter à la faiblesse," is to take advantage of weakness to insult it.
66, 13. Vint mouiller, came and cast anchor; "" mouiller l'ancre," to anchor.
68 16. La réaction thermidorienne, see Republican Calendar, p. 142, "9 and 10 thermidor."
16. Terroristes, see p. 46, 1. 2.
17. Convention, see list of principal assemblies, &c., p. 6, 1. 12. 69, 6. Guérillas, those who carry on a "guerilla," petty war; an irregular mode of warfare carried on by the constant attacks of independent bands adopted in the north of Spain during the Peninsular war (1808-1814).
70, 25. Embossées, from "embosser," to moor head and stern, bringing the broadside of a ship to bear upon the point which is attacked.
72, 1. L'étroite presqu'ile, see Index, "Quiberon."
13. Chasse-marée, fishing luggers.
81, 3. L'air de route, a particular way of beating the dram when the soldiers are marching.
84, 36. Chouans, see "Cottereau " in the Index.
86, 24. Directoire, it was composed of five directors, and formed
part of the government with the "Conseil des CinqCents," and the "Conseil des Anciens;" it lasted from October 27, 1795, to November 11, 1799, see list of assemblies, &c., p. 6, 1. 12.
34. Une constitution nouvelle; the following are the different Constitutions of the French Revolution :
"LA CONSTITUtion du 14 SepTEMBRE, 1791," which proclaimed the equality of every citizen before the law and his admissibility to any public office, the liberty of conscience and the liberty of the press; there was to be a parliament of 745 members, a king with responsible ministers, and with the right of veto; assemblies called primaires" named the electors, who formed themselves into electoral assemblies and elected the deputies. "LA CONSTITUTION DE 1793," drawn up by the Convention, but never carried out; by it the people were supreme, and the mob generally clamoured for it in riots.
"LA CONSTITUTION DE L'AN III. (1795)," also drawn up