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or refused by a “Corps Législatif” of three hundred members; Sénat” of eighty life-members was to

see that the laws were duly carried out. 89, 16. L'historien de la Révolution ; François - Auguste - Marie

MIGNET, born at Aix, dep. Bouches-du-Rhône, May 8, 1796, a French historian, a Member of the Academy, &c. ; his “Histoire de la Révolution française de 1789 à 1814" came out in 1824; it has been reprinted a

great many times, and translated into several languages. 90, 7, Maillot, swaddling-clothes ; bands in which the lower half

of the body of infants was more or less tightly wrapped up; this article of dress gave rise to a long controversy among philosophers and doctors ; Montaigne (d. 1592), Locke (d. 1704), J. J. Rousseau (d. 1778), Désessart (celebrated actor, d. 1811) have condemned it; the following Spanish proverb shows that all things pertaining to youth are rightly considered to be of the greatest importance : “Ce qui entre avec le maillot ne s'en va qu'avec le suaire,'' what comes in with the swathe goes

out only with the shroud. 94, 36. Le héros de brumaire, Napoleon Bonaparte, see Republican

Calendar, p. 143. 96, 8. Defenders, members of a secret society formed in the North

of Ireland after the defeat of James II. by George III. on the banks of the Boyne, 1690; its object was the freedom of Ireland ; the “defenders " played an im

portant part in the insurrections of 1797, 1798, 1803. 97, 22. Abuser, to deceive ; remark that the English word to abuse

is translated into French by "insulter, dire des injures

à," but never by "abuser." 98, 16. A leur bord, on the ships they commanded. 100, 40. La fameuse expédition projetée ... Napoleon Bonaparte

made great preparations at Boulogne to invade England 1801-1805, but had to turn all his strength against

Germany. 102, 18-19. Mit . le cap sur, steered or bore towards ; " cap

is the head, the prow of a ship. Latin, caput, head. 23, Désemparée, disabled. 103, 3. Hors d'état de, incapable of. 105, 13. Des deux conseils, the “Conseil des Anciens” and “Con.

seil des Cinq-Cents.” 21. Afferma, from “

affermer," to farm ; not to be mistaken with "affermir," to strengthen. 30. Un effectif, an effective force, that is to say ready for

action. 106, 12. Un équipage de pont, everything necessary to throw a

bridge across a river, pontoons, &c. 29. Le gros des, the main body of. 108, 19. République batave; Holland, in 1795, proclaimed the



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Republic and was known (from its Latin name Batavia) as the Batavian Republic until Louis Bonaparte as

cended the throne, June 5, 1806. 109, 8. 9 Thermidor, see Republican Calendar, p. 142. 14. Conventionnels, members of the Convention ; see list of

Assemblies, p. 6, l. 12. 27. 13 vendémiaire, see Republican Calendar, p. 142. 110, 15. Principes de 1789; see p. 86, 1. 34, the Constitution of

1791. 18. Les deux conseils législatifs, the “Conseil des Anciens”

and Conseil des Cinq-Cents.” 37. Mesures draconiennes, severe and harsh measures ; from

Draco," an Athenian legislator who enacted (about B.C. 623) a criminal code in which slight offences were

punished as severely as murder and sacrilege. 115, 3. L'anniversaire du 10 Aout, on August 10, 1792, Santerre,

Westermann, and Fournier, at the head of 3000 workmen, attacked the “ Tuileries ;" the king took refuge in the National Assembly, where his dethronement was

voted. 36. A bout portant, point-blank; literally with the muzzle

bearing on the object at which one aims. 216, 2 2. Un empirique, a charlatan, a quack; one whose practice

is not based on science; from the Greek év in, and tripa,

experience. 117, 19. Le vainqueur d'Arcole et de Rivoli, Bonaparte ; see in the

Index both these towns. 118, 30. Byron's lines are as follows:

By Coblentz, on a rise of gentle ground,
There is a small and simple pyramid,
Crowning the summit of the verdant mound;
Beneath its base are heroes' ashes hid,
Our enemy's, but let not that forbid
Honour to Marceau ! o'er whose early tomb,
Tears, big tears, gush'd from the rough soldier's lid,

Lamenting and yet envying such a doom,
Falling for France, whose rights he battled to resume.

Brief, brave, and glorious was his young career,
His mourners were two hosts, his friends and foes,
And fitly may the stranger lingering here
Pray for his gallant spirit's bright repose ;
For he was Freedom's champion, one of those,
The few in number, who had not o'erstept
The charter to chastise which she bestows

On such as wield her weapons ; he had kept

The whiteness of his soul, and thus men o'er him wept. 120, 2. Au tiers et au quart, right and left ; “le tiers et le Page. Line. 122, 9. Les grands principes de 1789, see note p. 86, 1. 34, on

quart means the third or fourth person whom one happens to meet, anybody; cf. “Le premier venu,' the first who turns up.


the Constitution of 1791, which contains some of them.


123, 6. Faubourg Saint-Germain, a district west of Paris, on the

left bank of the Seine, where the nobility dwell ; it takes its name from the celebrated church and monastery, Saint-Germain - des - Prés, founded

about 543. 123, 31. Section, by a decree of the National Assembly, June

22, 1790, Paris was divided into forty-eight

sections. 124,

12. Fournées, see p. 40, 1. 11.
17. Le pont au Change, a very old bridge in Paris ; in 1141

Louis VII. allowed the money-changers to carry on

their business there. 17-18. Place de la Révolution, formerly “ Place Louis XV. ;"

there was in the centre a statue of Louis XV. on
horseback, surrounded by emblematic figures ; on
the pedestal of this monument epigrams were occa-
sionally found, of which the following are specimens:

Grotesque monument, infâme piédestal,
Les vertus sont à pied, le vice est à cheval.
Il est ici comme à Versailles,

Il est sans coeur et sans entrailles. 127, 3. Flibustiers, a band of adventurers who, from 1660, were

constantly attacking Spanish settlements. 128, 30. Constitutionnel, one who believes in a monarchy limited

by a constitution. 31. Jacobin, see p. 17, 1. 24. 31. Thermidorien, see 9 thermidor in the Republican

Calendar, p. 142. 129,

2. Moutonnière, sheep-like, ready to follow any leader ;

this word always reminds one of the tale in Rabelais (1483-1553) in which Panurge, wishing to take revenge of Dindenault, the sheep.merchant, buys a sheep of him and throws it into the sea ; all the other sheep follow their bleating comrade, to the great

dismay of poor Dindenault. 21. Le tiers Etat, in the old French monarchy the nation

was divided into three orders, called “ Etats,” the Nobility, the Clergy, and the “ Tiers Etat ; " peasants and serfs were not considered to belong to any order ; “The Etats généraux," as in 1789, were an assembly of the three « Etats."

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Page. Line. 131, 8. Agnès, one of the principal characters of Molière's

(1622-1673) comedy, “L'Ecole des Femmes ;" she
is very timid, and has been brought up by Arnolphe
in great ignorance; her ignorance nearly leads
her astray. Arnolphe explains in the following cele-
brated lines his idea of a good girl and a perfect wife :-

Et, s'il faut qu'avec elle on joue au corbillon,
Et qu'on vienne à lui dire à son tour, Qu'y met-on ?
Je veux qu'elle réponde, “ Une tarte à la crême;"
En un mot qu'elle soit d'une ignorance extreme:
Et c'est assez pour elle, à vous en bien parler,
De savoir prier Dieu, m'aimer, coudre, et filer.



"HE Republican Calendar was used from September, 22, 1792,

to September 9, 1805. The names of the months were as follows : – FOR AUTUMN: Vendémiaire (vindemia, grapegathering), Brumaire (bruma, brume, fog), Frimaire (frimas, hóarfrost); FOR WINTER: Nivôse (nivosus, snowy), Pluviôse (pluviosus, rainy), Ventôse (ventosus, windy); FOR SPRING: Germinal (germen, germ), Floréal (florem acc., flower), Prairial (prairie, meadow); FOR SUMMER : Messidor (messis, harvest ; sõpov, gist), Thermidor Dépuen, heat; dõpov, gift), Fructidor (fructus, fruit).

The month was divided into 3 “decades” of 10 days each. The. days were called primidi, duodi, tridi, quartidi, quintidi, sextidi, septidi, octidi, nonidi, decadi.

Lalande and Fabre d'Eglantine composed this calendar, Romme caused it to be adopted. PRINCIPAL DATES OF THE REPUBLICAN CALENDAR, WITH THE

CORRESPONDING DATES OF THE GREGORIAN. 9 and 10 Thermidor, An II (July 27 and 28, 1794), a reaction sets in against Robespierre, who is guillotined on the roth, with some of his sanguinary supporters, and the Reign of Terror comes to an end ; the leaders and supporters of this movement are called " Thermidoriens.”

12 Germinal, An III (April 1, 1795), a rising of the suburbs of Paris against the National Convention takes place; the people ask for bread and a return to the Constitution of 1793 (a very Democratic one, never completely carried out); they are dispersed by the military.

Ier Prairial, An III (May 20, 1795), a supreme but vain effort of the Jacobins (extreme Democrats) against what is called “La réaction thermidorienne" (Moderate Republicans and Royalists).

13 Vendémiaire, An IV (October 5, 1795), an insurrection of Moderate Republicans and Royalists takes place against the Assembly called “ Convention Nationale ;” it is quashed by Napoleon Bonaparte, commanding under Barras. 18 Fructidor, An V (September 4, 1797), a coup

d'État " is executed by three members of the Directoire, Barras, La ReveillèreLepeaux, and Rewbell, against the “ Conseils des Anciens et des Cinq-Cents," whom they accused of royalist tendencies.

30 Prairial, An VII (June 18, 1799), a reconstitution of the

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