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Directory takes place (Barras, Sieyès, Rogers-Ducos, Moulin, Gohier), which will bring about and justify the “

coup d'État” of the 18 brumaire.

The rer Prairial, An III, and the above are known as Les Journées de Prairial ;" they both eventually turned to the advantage of the more moderate party. 18 Brumaire, An VIII (November 9, 1799), Napoleon Bonaparte,

, by a

coup d'État,” upsets the two Assemblies called “Conseil des Cinq-Cents” and “Conseil des Anciens,” together with the Directoire," and is elected Consul, with Siéyès and Roger-Ducos.





the great hero of the Iliad : he wounded and slew numbers of Trojans, and at length met Hector, whom he killed after

chasing him thrice around the walls of the city. Alpes, a range of mountains nearly 600 m. long; the Alps form a

crescent-shaped chain, extending from the Mediterranean (the

Gulf of Genoa) on the W., to the plains of Hungary on the E. Altenkirchen, a town in Rhenish Prussia, 22 m. N. Coblenz. Alvinzi, or Alvinczy (Joseph, Baron of), an Austrian Field-Marshal;

fought against France at Neerwinden, Hondschoote, Arcole, and

Rivoli; died 1810. Andernach, a town in Rhenish Prussia, on left bank of the Rhine, 70

m. N.W. of Coblenz. Andreossy (Antcine François, Count of) served with distinction in

nearly all the campaigns of the French Revolution ; was Ambassador at London, Vienna, and Constantinople, and one of the Com

missioners sent to Wellington after Waterloo; died 1828. Angers, a French fortified town, cap. dep. Maine-et-Loire, on the

river Mayenne (prov. Anjou). Anjou, an old prov. of France; its cap. was Angers; forms now the

dep. of Maine-et-Loire. Antilles, in English West Indies, an archipelago of islands in the

Atlantic, betweeu North and South America. Arcole (Arcola), a village of Northern Italy, 15 m. E.S.E. Verona ;

Bonaparte defeated the Austrians there, November, 1796. Ardennes, a system of heights and forests, embracing part of Belgium,

the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the north of France,

extending W. to the sources of the Somme, and E. to the Moselle. Arras, a fortified city, cap. dep. Pas-de-Calais, France, on the river

Scarpe ; fortified by Vauban, under Louis XIV. Artois (Count of), brother of Louis XVI. and of Louis XVIII. ; was

very unpopular on account of his opposition to reform; reigned from 1824 10 1830, fled to England, and went to Göritz (Görz), a

town in Austria, N.N.W. Trieste, where he died in 1836. Augereau, Duke of Castiglione and Marshal of France, distinguished

himself through all the campaigos of Napoleon from 1796 to 1813; offered his services too readily to the Bourbons, and then

again to Napoleon on his return from Elba. Auray, a small French town on the river Auray, dep. Morbihan (prov.


Bailly (Jean Sylvain), a French astronomer ; was the first President of

the Assembly at the States-General, 1789, and called upon his colleagues to take the famous oath of the Tennis-Court (Serment du Jeu de Paume), June, 1789; was Mayor of Paris, declared the charges against Marie-Antoinette to be unfounded, and

was executed November 10, 1793. Bantry (baie de), a fine bay, S. Ireland, County of Cork. Barnave, an eloquent deputy of the States-General in 1789; some

times rivalled Mirabeau in eloquence; presided at the Constituent Assembly; after the arrest of the Royal Family at Varennes he accompanied them back to Paris, and was won over to their cause;

he was arrested and guillotined in 1793. Barrère, or Barère (de Vieuzac), at first a moderate Royalist, then an

extreme and bloodthirsty Republican ; generally sided with the

strongest party ; was also a literary man; died in 1841. Beauharnais (Joséphine de); her maiden name was Tascher de la

Pagerie; she marrried in 1779 the Viscount Alexandre de Beauharnais, and had two children, Eugène and Hortense; De Beauharnais was guillotined 1794 ; Madame de Beauharnais married General Bonaparte in 1796; was crowned Empress of the French

December, 1804; was divorced 1809; died in 1814. Bernier (l'Abbé), a curate of Angers (old prov. Adjou); the soul of

the Vendean insurrection ; was made Bishop of Orleans, 1802. Beurnonville (Pierre Riel de), Minister of War 1793 ; was made by

Napoleon 1. Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, Senator, and Count; afterwards attached himself to Louis XVIII., who made him a Marshal in 1816; he was born in Champagne in 1752, and

died in 1821. Billaud Varennes, one of the most violent and sanguinary characters

of the French Revolution; died in 1819. Biron (Armand Louis de Gontaut, Duke of), at first known as the

“ Duc de Lauzun;" fought in America for the Independence ; became the confidant and the secret agent of the Duke of Orleans; served the Republic in Corsica, Savoie, and Vendée; was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary tribunal, and executed in

1793. Bitche (German, Bitsch), a German town and fortress in Elsass

Lothringen (Alsace-Lorraine), in a Pass of the Vosges. Bohême, Bohemia (German, Böhmen; Bohemian, Czech), a division of

the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bonaparte (Napoléon), born August 15, 1769, at Ajaccio in Corsica ;

is called Bonaparte or Buonaparte till he assumes the title of Emperor under the name of Napoleon I ; died at St. Helena 1821.

(For more information see French History.) Bonchamp (the Marquis of), a Royalist Chief in Vendée; brave and

humane ; saved 5000 Republican prisoners from the fury of the Royalists; was mortally wounded at Cholet (dep. Maine-et-Loire)

October 27, 1793. Bourdon de l'Oise, first a violent and extreme Republican, member of

the National Convention; became a Reactionist after the excesses committed in Vendée ; was transported and died in 1797.


Braunfels, a town in Rhenish Prussia, 37 m. E.N.E. Coblenz.
Brest, a fortified French town and seaport, dep. Finistère (prov

Bretagne, an old province N.W. of France, called in English Brit-

tary. Brissot, one of the chiefs of the Girondist Party (see Vergniaud);

was executed in 1793. Bristol, a city and seaport of England, in Gloucestershire and Somer

setshire, on the Avon. Brunswick (Frederick William, Duke of) took an active part in the

war against France, 1809; came to England with his troops, which were taken into the British service; in 1813 raised a large boily of troops to fight again against France; fell at Ligny at the head of his " Brunswickers."

Canclaux, commanded in 1793 the army of the West against the

Royalists (Vendéens); was Peer of France under Louis XVIII.,

died in 1817. Carnac, a French village, dep. Morbihan (prov. Brittany), 17 m. S.E.

Lorient. Carnot (Lazare Nicolas Marguerite), a French mathematician and

Minister of War; beat the Austrians at Wattignies, October, 1793 ; member of the Convention and of the "Comité de Salut Public; Inspector of the Army of the North; exiled in 1797 ; recalled by Buonaparte and made Minister of War; Napoleon's Minister of the Interior during the Hundred Days; settled at Magdeburg, and spent the last years of his life in the pursuit of science; diod

1823. Cathelineau (Jacques) was the son of a weaver; at the head of the

Vendéens (Royalists) gained several victories against the Repub

lican troops ; died at the attack of Nantes in 1793. Cadoudal (George), the son of a miller and a notoricus Chouan chief

(see Cottereau); escaped to England; came afterwards to Paris with Pichegru to assassinato th First Consul Bonaparte; was

arrested and executed June 23, 1804. Cayenne, a seaport town, cap. of French Guiana, South America. Championnet (Jean Etienne), fought at Fleurus, 1793; was sent in

1798 to help the Roman Republic attacked by the Lazzaroni of

Naples, and occupied that town; died 1800. Charette (de la Contrie), a nobleman; one of the Vendean chiefs;

was often successful against the Republican troops; was shot in

1796. Charles (l'Archiduc), third son of Leopold II., Emperor of Germany;

fought under Coburg; defeated Moreau at Rastadt; took Kehl; was Governor of Bohemia ; fought against Napoleon at Essling,

Eckmühl, and Wagram ; died in 1847. Châtillon, a village, dep. Ille-et-Vilaine (prov. Brittany), where the

Vendeans (Royalists) and Republican troops had several en

counters. Chénier (André), a French poet; guillotined in 1794 ; his odes, idylls,

and elegiacs were published twenty-five years after his death.


Cherbourg, a seaport, dep. Manche, in the English Channel, at the

N. extremity of the peninsula of Cotentin; Napoleon III. completed in 1864 the great breakwater commenced by Louis XVI. in

1784. Chérin, a French Republican General; fought under Hoche in

Vendée," 1795. Chollet or Cholet, a town, dep. Maine-et-Loire (prov. Anjou), the

scene of several battles between the Vendéens (Koyalists), and

the Republicans. Cimon, a celebrated Athenian General; wise and liberal; died B.C.

449. Cincinnatus (Lucius Quintus), one of the greatest characters of

ancient Rome; after his consulate he had retired to his farm, whence he was entreated (B.C. 458) to come and defend Rome against the Æqui; he defeated the enemy and returned to his

plough. Coblentz or Coblenz, a fortified town of Rhenish Prussia, on left

bank of the Rhine at the influx of the Moselle. Cobourg (Friedrich-Josias Coburg, Duke of Saxe-Coburg), an

Austrian Field Marshal; in 1792 commanded the Allies in the
Netherlands; beat Dumouriez at Neerwinden, and occupied Hol-
land; in 1793 was beaten by Moreau at Tourcoing, by Jourdan at
Wattignies, and in 1794 at Fleurus ; resigned his command; died

1815. Collot d'Herbois, one of the most sanguinary leaders of the French

Revolution; in 1792, at Lyons, he had over 16,000 persons put to death; he contributed to the fall of Robespierre, was transported,

and died in 1796. Condé (Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince of), emigrated after the fall

of the Bastille; organised a body of troops, and invaded the French territory with the Prussians and Austrians ; came back

with Louis XVIII.; died 1818. Confédération germanique, same as “ Allemagne;” in English, Ger

many; in German, Deutschland, ancient Germania. Cottereau; there were four brothers of that name, smugglers, whose

rallying cry was that of the "cbat-buant (corrupted into chouan), screech-owl; hence the name of Chouans given to the

bands of adventurers which they raised against the Republicans. Couthon (Georges), formed with Saint-Just and Robespierre the

Triumvirate of the Terror; fell with his colleagues on the “9

thermidor an II”-i.e., July 27, 1794. Custine (Adam Philippe, Count of), born at Metz, 1740; held a com

mission in one of the French regiments serving in America against the English; had the command of the Army of the Rhine in 1792 ; was condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal, and executed August 28, 1793.

Danton (Georges Jacques), one of the most active among the leaders

of the French Revolution ; was well qualified for the position he assumed by his colossal figure, tentorian voice, and fierce demeanour; after the taking of Loogwy and the siege of Verdun

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