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the attention of the unscrupulous world. doubt. Whether or not he had chosen There remained what might be called his the best way to settle this account with general account with the world, and at the world, by trying to help those unfathe end he had sought to settle this, the vored by birth, cannot be easily answered. largest of all.
Conceiving it to be his inalienable right Powers Jackson had not been a good to do with his money what he would, man, as has been hinted, but that he after death as in life, he had tried to do took his responsibilities to heart and a large thing with it. Thus far, he had struggled to meet them there can be no succeeded in embittering his nephew.
Robert Herrick. (To be continued.)
Not to the swift, the race:
Not to the strong, the fight:
Not to the wise, the light.
But often faltering feet
Come surest to the goal ;
The sunrise of the soul.
A thousand times by night
The Syrian hosts have died ;
Hath risen, glorified.
The truth the wise men sought
Was spoken by a child;
In trembling hands defiled.
Not from my torch, the gleam,
But from the stars above :
Henry van Dyke.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING.
(This article, the first of a series of studies of Modern Advertising, has been written by Walter D. Scott, Assistant Professor of Psychology in Northwestern University. — The Editors.]
The only method of advertising known in Harper's Magazine in 1864. In this to the ancients was the word of mouth. magazine more space has been devoted The merchant who had wares to offer to advertising during the past year than brought them to the gate of a city and the sum total of space for the twentythere cried aloud, making the worth of four years from 1864 to 1887, inclusive. his goods known to those who were en Indeed, advertising may be said to have tering the city, and who might be induced been in its swaddling clothes until about to turn aside and purchase them. We the year 1887. The most rapid develare not more amused by the simplicity opment has taken place during the last of the ancients than we are amazed at fifteen years. The change has been so the magnitude of the modern systems of great that the leading advertisers say advertising. From the day when Boaz that in comparison with to-day there was took his stand by the gate to advertise in existence fifteen years ago no adverNaomi's parcel of land by crying, “Ho, tising worthy of the name. ... turn aside,” to the day when Bar The gain in the quantity of advertisdum billed the towns for his three-ringed ing can be seen by observing the increase circus, the evolution in advertising had in the number of pages devoted to adbeen gradual, but it had been as great as vertisements in any of our publications. that from the anthropoid ape to P. T. The month of October is regarded as the Barnum himself.
typical month, therefore we present the As soon as printed symbols were in number of pages devoted to advertisevented the advertising man made use of ments for the month of October in Harthem to give publicity to his merchan- per's Magazine for each year from the dise. We find advertisements engraved first appearance of advertisements in that on walls and tombs, written on parch- magazine to the present time, - 1864,ment and papyrus, and printed by the 31; '65, 2; '66, 3 ; '67, 6; '68, 7}; first printing presses. Although these '69, 5} ; '70,4} ; '71, 3}; ’72, 2 ; '73,1; various forms of advertising were em '74, 0; '75, 0); '76, 0); '77, 0); '78, 0; ployed, but little thought and care seem '79, 0; '80, 0; '81, 0 ; '82, 11 ; '83, 8}; to have been expended upon them. Post- '84, 8; '85, 11}; '86, 20 ; '87, 37 ; '88, ers, painted signs, street - car placards, 54; '89, 48 ; '90, 73 ; '91, 80}; ’92, 87 ; booklets, calendars, almanacs, handbills, '93, 77}; '94, 754; '95, 781; '96, 73 ; magazine and newspaper advertising '97, 803; '98, 817; '99, 1064; 1900, have now become forms of advertising 97}; '01, 93}; '02, 128; '03, 141. 80 well established that we look upon It will be noticed in the data as given them as a necessity, and are surprised to above that during the years of special learn that most of them are modern in- prosperity there was a very great innovations.
crease in the volume of advertising while The first advertisement printed in there was but a slight falling off followEnglish appeared in the Imperial In- ing a financial depression. The increase telligencer in March, 1648. Advertis was not pronounced until about 1887, ing in magazines was not begun until but from that time on it has been very comparatively recent times. For in- marked, not only in Harper's, but in alstance, the first advertisement appeared most all of our publications.
There has not only been an increase and over one million dollars in adverin the number of advertising pages in tising Peruna. the individual publications, but the num The advertising rate has been adber of publications has increased enor vanced repeatedly in many magazines mously of recent years. The increase of during the last few years. Firms which population in the United States has been formerly paid but one hundred dollars rapid during the last fifty years, but the for a full-page advertisement in the Cenincrease in the total number of copies of tury Magazine now pay two hundred the different publications has been many and fifty dollars for the same amount of fold greater. Thus the distribution of
The Ladies' Home Journal has the copies of these periodicals to each increased its advertising rate to six dolindividual was as follows :
lars for a single agate line (there are In 1850 each individual received on fourteen agate lines to the inch), the the average 18 copies from one or more width of one column, for a single inserof these periodicals ; in 1860, 29; in tion. The cost of a full
for a single 1870, 39; in 1880, 41; in 1890, 74; issue is four thousand dollars. The Procin 1900, 107.
ter & Gamble Co. have made a three A significant cause of this increase is years' contract for a single page in each the reduction in the subscription price issue, to be devoted to the advertisement which is made possible because of the of Ivory Soap. For this space they pay profit accruing to such publications from four thousand dollars a month, forty-eight their advertisements. The total income thousand dollars a year, and one hundred secured from subscriptions for all these and forty-four thousand dollars for the publications last year was less than the term of three years. Think of the risk amount paid for the advertising pages. a firm runs in investing four thousand We have this current year about 20,000 dollars in a single page advertisement ! periodicals carrying advertisements, each How can they expect to get back the with a constantly increasing number of equivalent of such a sum of money from pages devoted to them, and with a rapidly a single advertisement ? advancing rate secured for each adver There are very many advertisements tisement. In addition to this, the in that do not pay. One man has roughly crease is phenomenal in the use of book- estimated that seventy-five per cent of lets, posters, painted signs, street-car all advertisements do not pay ; yet the placards, almanacs, and many other other twenty-five per cent pay so well forms of advertising. One firm is sup that there is scarcely a business man posed to have distributed 25,000,000 who is willing to stand idly by and allow almanacs in a single year.
his competitors to do the advertising. The expense connected with these
The expense connected with advertising various forms of printed advertising has increased ; the competition between reaches far into the millions. One au rival firms has become keener; and conthority puts the total annual expense of sequently the demand for good advertisprinted forms of advertising at six hun- ing has become imperative. The number dred million dollars. This sum does not of unsuccessful advertisements are many, seem to be an exaggeration. Mr. Post and yet the loss incurred in an unsuccessspends as much as six hundred thousand ful advertising campaign is so great that dollars annually in advertising his food many firms stand aghast at the thought of products. One million dollars was spent such an undertaking. Many merchants last year in advertising Force. Over
see the necessity of advertising their busisix hundred thousand dollars is spent ness, but feel unable to enter the arena annually in advertising Ayer's remedies; and compete with successful rivals.
The day of reckless, sporadic, haphaze of the leading advertising journals apard advertising is rapidly coming to an peared the following editorial : “ Probend so far as magazine advertising is ably when we a little more enconcerned. Although the number of lightened, the advertisement writer, like pages devoted to advertising in our best the teacher, will study psychology. For, magazines has increased during the last however diverse their occupations may ten years, the number of firms adver- at first sight appear, the advertisement tising in these same magazines has de- writer and the teacher have one great creased. The struggle has been too object in common to influence the hufierce for any but the strongest. The man mind. The teacher has a scientific inefficient advertisers are gradually being foundation for his work in that direction, eliminated, and the survival of the fittest but the advertisement writer is really seems to be a law of advertising as it is also a psychologist. Human nature is a of everything else that develops. great factor in advertising success; and
The leaders of the profession feel that he who writes advertisements without their work has grown till it is beyond reference to it is apt to find that he has their control and comprehension. They reckoned without his host.” The man who have been successful, and hardly know penned this editorial was a practical how it has all come about. The men advertiser, but he admitted of no inconwho have been the most successful are gruity between the practical and the often the ones who feel most deeply their theoretical. inability to meet new emergencies. They In Publicity, for March, 1901, apbelieve that there should be some under peared a leading article on psychology lying principles which could help them in and advertising. The following is a quoanalyzing what they have already accom tation from it: plished, and assist them in their further “The time is not far away when the efforts. As their entire object is to pro- advertising writer will find out the induce certain effects on the minds of
estimable benefits of a knowledge of psysible customers, it is not strange that chology. The preparation of copy has they have turned to psychology in search usually followed the instincts rather than of such principles. Traditionally the the analytical functions. An advertisepractical business man scouts at theo ment has been written to describe the ry. Psychology, to the popular mind, is articles which it was wished to place something devoid of all practical appli- before the reader; a bit of cleverness, cation, related to metaphysics, and suited an attractive cut, or some other catchy only to the recluse and the hermit. If device has been used, with the hope that ever there was ground to expect sarcastic the hit or miss ratio could be made as and pessimistic prophecies from the hard- favorable as possible. But the future headed business man, it was when it was must needs be full of better methods proposed to establish advertising on a the- than these to make advertising advance oretical basis deduced from psychology with the same rapidity as it has during Such adverse criticism has, however, been the latter part of the last century. And the exception. The American business this will come through a closer knowman is not afraid of theories. He wants ledge of the psychological composition them, and the more the better.
of the mind. The so-called students of The best thought of the advertising human nature' will then be called sucworld finds expression in the advertising cessful psychologists, and the successful journals and in the addresses delivered advertisers will be likewise termed psyby various experts at gatherings of pro- chological advertisers. The mere menfessional advertisers. In 1895 in one tion of psychological terms, habit, self,
conception, discrimination, association, advertisements to discover what there is memory, imagination and perception, in them that may or may not awaken the reason, emotion, instinct and will, should activity desired. This method can best create a flood of new thought that should be understood from an example. For appeal to every advanced consumer of an illustration we shall consider Mental advertising space."
Imagery as understood by the psycholoIn an address before the Agate Club gist and in its application to advertising. of Chicago the speaker said : “As adver- The man who is born blind is not only tisers, all your efforts have been to pro- unable to see objects, but he is equally duce certain effects on the minds of pos- unable to imagine how they look. After sible customers. Psychology is, broadly we have looked at objects we can see them speaking, the science of the mind. Art in our mind's eye with more or less disis the doing and science is the under tinctness, even if our eyes are closed or standing how to do, or the explanation the object is far removed from us. When of what has been done. If we are able we imagine how an absent object looks to find and to express the psychological we are said to have a visual image of it. laws upon which the art of advertising We cannot imagine how a thing looks is based, we shall have made a distinct unless we have actually seen it in our advance, for we shall have added the previous experience. The imagination science to the art of advertising." can take the data of former experience
In a recent address before the Atlas and unite them into new forms, but all Club of Chicago the speaker said: “In the details of the new formation must be passing to the psychological aspect of taken from the former experience of the our subject, advertising might properly individual. be defined as the art of determining the The man who is born deaf can neither will of possible customers. . . . Our acts hear nor imagine what sounds are like. are the resultants of our motives, and it Whatever we have heard, we can live is your function in commercial life to over again in imagination,- we can form create the motives that will effect the auditory images of it. We cannot imsale of the producer's wares."
agine any sound which we have not acIn response to this felt need on the tually heard, although we can unite into part of the advertiser, several students new combinations the sounds and tones of psychology have tried to select those which we have experienced. principles of psychology which might be I can imagine how beefsteak tastes, of benefit to the advertiser, and to present but I cannot imagine the taste of hashish, them to the advertising world through for in all my past experience I never pamphlets,' magazine articles, public ad- have tasted it, and do not even know dresses, and, in one case at least, by which one of my former experiences it means of a book.
is like. If I knew that it tasted like The method employed by the psycho- pepper, or like pepper and vinegar mixed, logist in attempting to give advertising a I could form some sort of an image of theoretical basis has been quite uniform. its taste; but as it is I am perfectly helpHe has first analyzed the human mind less when I try to imagine it. I can, into its various activities, then analyzed with more or less success, imagine how
1 On the Psychology of Advertising. Professor HARLOW GALE, author and publisher: Minneapolis, Minn. 1900.
2 Mahin's Magazine, Chicago. This magazine contains monthly articles on The Psychology of Advertising.
8 Found in the published proceedings of the various advertising clubs.
4 The Theory of Advertising. By WALTER Dill Scott. Boston : Small, Maynard & Co. 1903.