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most effective throughout Europe was it would withdraw its refusals before the the solemn protest drawn by Sarpi and Pope withdrew his penalties. All in vain. issued by the Doge. It was addressed The Venetians insisted that they had nominally to the Venetian ecclesiastics, committed no crime and had nothing to but really to Christendom, and both as to retract. The Vatican then urged that the matter and manner it was Father Paul Senate should consent to receive absoluat his best. It was weighty, lucid, pun tion for its resistance to the Pope's augent, and deeply in earnest, - in every thority. This the Senate steadily refused; part asserting fidelity to the Church and it insisted, “ Let His Holiness put things loyalty to the papacy, but setting com as before, and we will put things as bepletely at naught the main claim of Pope fore; as to his absolution, we do not need Paul: the Doge solemnly declaring him- it or want it; to receive it would be to self " a prince who, in temporal matters, acknowledge that we have been in the recognizes no superior save the Divine wrong." Even the last poor sop of all Majesty."
was refused : the Senate would have no The victory of the friar soon began to great “ function " to celebrate the termibe recognized far and near. Men called nation of the interdict ; they would not him by the name afterward so generally even go to the mass which Cardinal Joygiven him, - the terribile frate.” The euse celebrated on that occasion. The Vatican seemed paralyzed. None of its only appearance of concession which the measures availed, and it was hurt, rather Republic made was to give up the two ecthan helped, by its efforts to pester and clesiastics to the French Ambassador as annoy Venice at various capitals. At a matter of courtesy to the French king; Rome, it burned Father Paul's books and and when this was done, the Ambassador declared him excommunicated ; it even delivered them to the Pope; but Venice sought to punish his printer by putting especially reserved all the rights she had into the Index not only all works that he exercised. All the essential demands of had ever printed, but all that he might the papacy were refused, and thus was ever print. At Vienna, the papal Nuncio forever ended the papal power of laythought to score a point by declaring that ing an interdict upon a city or a people. he would not attend a certain religious From that incubus, Christendom, thanks function in case the Venetian Ambassa to Father Paul and to Venice, was at last dor should appear; whereupon the Vene- and forever free. tian announced that he had taken physic The Vatican did, indeed, try hard to and regretted that he could not be pre- keep its old claim in being. A few years sent, - whereat all Europe laughed. after its defeat by Fra Paolo, it endea
Judicious friends in various European vored to reassert in Spain the same aucabinets now urged both parties to re thority which had been so humbly accede or to compromise. France and Spain knowledged there a few years before. both proffered their good offices. The It was doubtless felt that this most pious offer of France was finally accepted, of all countries, which had previously and the French Ambassador was kept been so docile, and which had stood running between the Ducal Palace and steadily by the Vatican against Venice the Vatican until people began laughing in the recent struggle, would again set at him also. The emissaries of His Holi
an example of submission.
Never was ness begged hard that, at least, appear there a greater mistake: the Vatican reances might be saved ; that the Republic ceived from Spanish piety a humiliating would undo some of its measures before refusal. the interdict was removed, or at least Next it tried the old weapons against would seem to do so, and especially that the little government at Turin. For
many generations the House of Savoy this petty government, annulled in Venehad been dutifully submissive to religious tian fashion and even less respectfully.1 control; nowhere out of Spain had here. Thus the world learned how weak the sy been treated more cruelly ; yet here, Vatican hold had become. Even Pope too, the Vatican claim was spurned. But Paul learned it, and, from being the the final humiliation took place some most strenuous of modern pontiffs, he years later under Urban VIII., — the became one of the most moderate in same pontiff who wrecked papal infalli- everything save in the enrichment of his bility on Galileo's telescope. He tried family. Thus ended the last serious to enforce his will on the state of Lucca, effort to coerce a people by an interdict, which, in the days of Pope Paul, had sub- and so, one might suppose, would end the mitted to the Vatican decrees abjectly; work of Father Paul. Not so. There but that little republic now seized the was to come a second chapter in his bioweapons which Sarpi had devised, and graphy, more instructive, perhaps, than drove the papal forces out of the field : the first, - a chapter which has lasted the papal excommunication was, even by until our own day.
A. D. White.
[Although the author of this paper has been chiefly known to the readers of the ATLANTIC as a writer of stories of the Klondike, he has given many years to the study of social problems. The People of the Abyss is one of his latest productions in this field. The present article is an interesting contribution, from a radical point of view, to the ATLANTIC's series of papers on the Ethics of Business. It is to be followed in February by an article, Is Commercialism in Disgrace ? by John Graham Brooks. – THE EDITORS.)
In a competitive society, where men hours. To hold his place (which is to struggle with one another for food and live), he must offset this offer by another shelter, what is more natural than that equally liberal, which is equivalent to generosity, when it diminishes the food giving away somewhat from the food and shelter of men other than he who and shelter he enjoys. To sell his day's is generous, should be held an accursed work for two dollars instead of two dolthing? Wise old saws to the contrary, lars and a half means that he, his wife, he who takes from a man's purse takes and his children will not have so good a from his existence. To strike at a man's roof over their heads, such warm clothes food and shelter is to strike at his life, on their backs, such substantial food in and in a society organized on a tooth- their stomachs. Meat will be bought and-nail basis, such an act, performed less frequently, and it will be tougher though it may be under the guise of and less nutritious; stout new shoes will generosity, is none the less menacing go less often on the children's feet ; and and terrible.
disease and death will be more imminent It is for this reason that a laborer is in a cheaper house and neighborhood. so fiercely hostile to another laborer who Thus, the generous laborer, giving offers to work for less pay or longer more of a day's work for less return
1 The proofs — and from Catholic sources — that it was the Pope who condemned Galileo's doctrine of the earth's movement about the sun, and not merely the Congregation of the
Index, the present writer has given in his History of the Warfare of Science with Theology, vol. i. chap. iii,
(measured in terms of food and shelter), strength, or skill, for the same wage, than chreatens the life of his less generous another, or equal time, or strength, or brother laborer, and, at the best, if he skill, for a less wage, is a scab. This does not destroy that life, he diminishes generousness on his part is hurtful to his it. Whereupon the less generous laborer fellow laborers, for it compels them to looks upon him as an enemy, and, as an equal generousness which is not to men are inclined to do in a tooth-and- their liking, and which gives them less nail society, he tries to kill the man who of food and shelter. But a word may is trying to kill him.
be said for the scab. Just as his act When a striker kills with a brick the makes his rivals compulsorily generous, man who has taken his place, he has no so do they, by fortune of birth and trainsense of wrong-doing. In the deepesting, make compulsory his act of generholds of his being, though he does not
He does not scab because he reason the impulse, he has an ethical wants to scab. No whim of the spirit, sanction. He feels dimly that he has no burgeoning of the heart, leads him to justification, just as the home-defending give more of his labor-power than they Boer felt, though more sharply, with for a certain sum. each bullet he fired at the invading Eng It is because he cannot get work on lish. Behind every brick thrown by a the same terms as they that he is a scab. striker is the selfish “ will to live" of There is less work than there are men himself and the slightly altruistic will to do work. This is patent, else the scab to live of his family. The family-group would not loom so large on the laborcame into the world before the state market horizon. Because they are group, and society being still on the stronger than he, or more skilled, or more primitive basis of tooth and nail, the fortunate, or more energetic, it is imposwill to live of the state is not so com sible for him to take their places at the pelling to the striker as the will to live
To take their places he of his family and himself.
must give more value, must work longer In addition to the use of bricks, clubs, hours, or receive a smaller wage.
He and bullets, the selfish laborer finds it does so, and he cannot help it, for his necessary to express his feelings in will to live is driving him on as well speech. Just as the peaceful country as they are being driven on by theirs, dweller calls the sea-rover a “pirate,” and to live he must win food and shelter, and the stout burgher calls the man who which he can do only by receiving perbreaks into his strong-box a “robber,” mission to work from some man who so the selfish laborer applies the oppro owns a bit of land or piece of machinery. brious epithet “scab ” to the laborer who And to receive permission from this man, takes from him food and shelter by being he must make the transaction profitable more generous in the disposal of his la for him. bor-power. The sentimental connotation Viewed in this light, the scab who of scab is as terrific as that of “trai gives more labor-power for a certain tor” or “ Judas," and a sentimental de price than his fellows is not so generous finition would be as deep and varied as after all. He is no more generous with the human heart. It is far easier to ar his energy than the chattel slave and the rive at what may be called a technical convict laborer, who, by the way, are definition, worded in commercial terms, the almost perfect scabs. They give as, for instance, that a scab is one who their labor-power for about the minimum gires more value for the same price possible price. But, within limits, they than another.
may loaf and malinger, and, as scabs, The laborer who gives more time, or are exceeded by the machine, which
never loafs and malingers, and which is ter builder would be crushed by the the ideally perfect scab.
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, It is not nice to be a scab. Not only is it In the group-struggle over the division not in good social taste and comradeship, of the joint-product, labor utilizes the but, from the standpoint of food and union with its two eat weapons,
the shelter, it is bad business policy. No strike and boycott; while capital utilizes body desires to scab, to give most for the trust and the association, the weapons least. The ambition of every individual of which are the blacklist, the lockout, is quite the opposite, — to give least for and the scab. The scab is by far the most; and as a result, living in a tooth- most formidable weapon of the three. and-nail society, battle royal is waged He is the man who breaks strikes and by the ambitious individuals. But in its causes all the trouble. Without him most salient aspect, that of the struggle there would be no trouble, for the strikover the division of a joint-product, it is ers are willing to remain out peacefully no longer a battle between individuals, and indefinitely so long as other men but between groups of individuals. Cap are not in their places, and so long as ital and labor apply themselves to raw the particular aggregation of capital with material, make something useful out of which they are fighting is eating its head it, add to its value, and then proceed to off in enforced idleness. quarrel over the division of the added But both warring groups have reserve value. Neither cares to give most for
weapons up their sleeves.
Were it not least. Each is intent on giving less than for the scab, these weapons would not be the other and on receiving more. brought into play. But the scab takes
Labor combines into its unions; capi- the places of the strikers, who begin at tal into partnerships, associations, cor once to wield a most powerful weapon, porations, and trusts. A group-struggle terrorism. · The will to live of the scab is the result, in which the individuals, as recoils from the menace of broken bones individuals, play no part. The Brother and violent death. With all due rehood of Carpenters and Joiners, for in spect to the labor leaders, who are not stance, serves notice on the Master Build to be blamed for volubly asseverating ers' Association that it demands an in otherwise, terrorism is a well-defined and crease of the wage of its members from eminently successful policy of the labor $3.50 a day to $4.00, and a Saturday unions. It has probably won them more half-holiday without pay. This means
strikes than all the rest of the weapons that the carpenters are trying to give less in their arsenal. This terrorism, howfor more.
Where they received $21.00 ever, must be clearly understood. It is for six full days, they are endeavoring to directed solely against the scab, placing get $22.00 for five days and a half, him in such fear for life and limb as to that is, they will work half a day less drive him out of the contest. But when each week and receive a dollar more. terrorism gets out of hand and inoffensive
Also, they expect the Saturday half- non-combatants are injured, law and holiday to give work to one additional order threatened, and property destroyed, man for each eleven previously employed. it becomes an edged tool that cuts both This last affords a splendid example of ways.
This sort of terrorism is sincerely the development of the group idea. In deplored by the labor leaders, for it has this particular struggle the individual probably lost them as many strikes as has no chance at all for life. The indi have been lost by any other single cause. vidual carpenter would be crushed like The scab is powerless under terrorism. a mote by the Master Builders' Associa As a rule he is not so good or gritty a tion, and like a mote the individual mas man as the men he is displacing, and he
lacks their fighting organization. He “It is not probable that employers can stands in dire need of stiffening and destroy unionism in the United States. backing. His employers, the capitalists, Adroit and desperate attempts will, howdraw their two remaining weapons, the ever, be made, if we mean by unionism ownership of which is debatable, but the undisciplined and aggressive fact of which they for the time being happen to vigorous and determined organizations. control. These two weapons may be If capital should prove too strong in this called the political and judicial machin- struggle, the result is easy to predict. ery of society. When the scab crumples The employers have only to convince ap and is ready to go down before the organized labor that it cannot hold its fists, bricks, and bullets of the labor-group, own against the capitalist manager, and the capitalist-group puts the police and the whole energy that now goes to the soldiers into the field, and begins a gen
union will turn to an aggressive political eral bombardment of injunctions. Vic- socialism. It will not be the harmless tory usually follows, for the labor-group sympathy with increased city and state cannot withstand the combined assault of functions which trade unions already gatling guns and injunctions.
feel; it will become a turbulent political But it has been noted that the owner force bent upon using every weapon of ship of the political and judicial machin taxation against the rich.” ery of society is debatable. In the Ti This struggle not to be a scab, to avoid tanic struggle over the division of the giving more for less, and to succeed in joint-product, each group reaches out for giving less for more, is more vital than every available weapon. Nor are they it would appear on the surface. The blinded by the smoke of conflict. They capitalist and labor groups are locked tofight their battles as coolly and collected- gether in desperate battle, and neither ly as ever battles were fought on paper.
side is swayed by moral considerations The capitalist-group has long since real more than skin-deep. The labor-group ized the immense importance of con
hires business agents, lawyers, and ortrolling the political and judicial machin- ganizers; and is beginning to intimidate ery of society. Taught by gatlings and legislators by the strength of its solid injunctions, which have smashed many vote, and more directly, in the near an otherwise successful strike, the labor- future, it will attempt to control legislagroup is beginning to realize that it all de- tion by capturing it bodily through the pends upon who is behind and who is be- ballot-box. On the other hand, the capfore those weapons. And he who knows italist-group, numerically weaker, hires the labor-movement knows that there is newspapers, universities, and legislaslowly growing up and being formulated tures, and strives to bend to its need all a clear, definite policy for the capture of the forces which go to mould public the political and judicial machinery. opinion.
This is the terrible spectre which Mr. The only honest morality displayed by John Graham Brooks sees looming por- either side is white-hot indignation at tentously over the twentieth - century the iniquities of the other side. The world. Noman may boast a more intimate striking teamster complacently takes a knowledge of the labor-movement than scab driver into an alley and with an iron he, and he reiterates again and again the bar breaks his arms so that he can drive dangerous likelihood of the whole labor no more, but cries out to high heaven group capturing the political machinery for justice when the capitalist breaks his of society. As he says in his recent book:1 skull by means of a club in the hands of
1 The Social Unrest. New York: The Mac a policeman. Nay, the members of a millan Co.
union will declaim in impassioned rhet