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oric for the God-given right of an eight- employer. The employers' federations, hour day, and at the time be working associations, and trusts are nothing more their own business agent seventeen hours or less than unions. They are organized out of the twenty-four.

to destroy scabbing amongst themselves A capitalist, such as the late Collis P. and to encourage scabbing amongst Huntington, and his name is Legion, af others. For this reason they pool interter a long life spent in buying the aid of ests, determine prices, and present an countless legislatures, will wax virtuous unbroken and aggressive front to the ly wrathful and condemn in unmeasured labor-group. terms “the dangerous tendency of cry As has been said before, nobody likes ing out to the government for aid ” in to play the compulsorily generous rôle the way of labor legislation. Without a of scab. It is a bad business proposition quiver, a member of the capitalist-group on the face of it. And it is patent that will run tens of thousands of pitiful child there would be no capitalist scabs if there laborers through his life-destroying cot were not more capital than there is work ton factories, and weep maudlin and for capital to do. When there are enough Constitutional tears over one scab hit in factories in existence to supply, with octhe back with a brick. He will drive casional stoppages, a certain commodity, a “compulsory” free contract with an the building of new factories, by a rival unorganized laborer on the basis of a concern, for the production of that comstarvation wage, saying,

“ Take it or

modity, is plain advertisement that that leave it,” knowing that to leave it means capital is out of a job. The first act of to die of hunger; and in the next breath, this new aggregation of capital will be to when the organizer entices that laborer cut prices, to give more for less ; in short, into a union, will storm patriotically to scab, to strike at the very existence of about the inalienable rights of all men the less generous aggregation of capital, to work. In short, the chief moral con the work of which it is trying to do. cern of either side is with the morals of No scab capitalist strives to give more the other side. They are not in the busi for less for other reason than that he ness for their moral welfare, but to hopes, by undercutting a competitor and achieve the enviable position of the non driving that competitor out of the marscab who gets more than he gives. ket, to get that market and its profits for

But there is more to the question than himself. His ambition is to achieve the has yet been discussed. The labor scab day when he shall stand alone in the field is no more detestable to his brother both as buyer and seller, when he will laborers than is the capitalist scab to his be the royal non-scab, buying most for brother capitalists. A capitalist may least, selling least for most, and reducing get most for least in dealing with his all about him, the small buyers and selllaborers, and in so far be a non-scab; but ers (the consumers and the laborers), to at the same time, in his dealings with his a general condition of scabdom. This, fellow capitalists, he may give most for for example, has been the history of Mr. least and be the very worst kind of scab. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil ComThe most heinous crime an employer pany. Through all the sordid economies of labor can commit is to scab on his of scabdom he has passed until to-day he fellow employers of labor. Just as the is a most regal non-scab. However, to individual laborers have organized into continue in this enviable position, he groups to protect themselves from the must be prepared at a moment's notice peril of the scab laborer, so have the em to go scabbing again. And he is preployers organized into groups to protect pared. Whenever a competitor arises, themselves from the peril of the scab Mr. Rockefeller changes about from giv

any

ing least for most, and gives most for trade union agitation among workmen in least with such a vengeance as to drive any industry. The trouble is caused by the competitor out of existence.

the scab who is giving most for least. The banded capitalists discriminate The result of the American Scab's neagainst a scab capitalist by refusing him farious actions will be to strike at the trade advantages, and by combining food and shelter of Europe. The way against him in most relentless fashion for Europe to protect herself is to quit The banded laborers, discriminating bickering among her parts and to form against a scab laborer in more primitive a union against the Scab. And if the fashion, with a club, are no more merci union is formed, armies and navies may less than the banded capitalists.

be expected to be brought into play in Mr. Casson tells of a New York capi- fashion similar to the bricks and clubs talist, who withdrew from the Sugar in ordinary labor struggles. Union several years ago and became a In this connection, and as

one of scab. He was worth something like many walking delegates for the nations, twenty millions of dollars. But the M. Leroy-Beaulieu, the noted French Sugar Union, standing shoulder to economist, may well be quoted. In a shoulder with the Railroad Union and letter to the Vienna Tageblatt, he advoseveral others, beat him to his knees till cates an economic alliance among the he cried enough. So frightfully did they Continental nations for the purpose of beat him that he was obliged to turn over barring out American goods, an economic to his creditors his home, his chickens, alliance, in his own language, "which and his gold watch. In point of fact, he may possibly and desirably develop into was as thoroughly bludgeoned by the a political alliance." Federation of Capitalist Unions as ever It will be noted in the utterances of scab workman was bludgeoned by a labor the Continental walking delegates that, union. The intent in either case is the one and all, they leave England out of same, to destroy the scab's producing the proposed union. And in England power. The labor scab with concussion herself the feeling is growing that her of the brain is put out of business, and days are numbered if she cannot unite so is the capitalist scab who has lost all for offense and defense with the great his dollars down to his chickens and his American Scab. As Andrew Carnegie watch.

said some time ago, “ The only course But the rôle of scab passes beyond the for Great Britain seems to be reunion individual. Just as individuals scab on with her grandchild, or sure decline to a other individuals, so do groups scab on secondary place, and then to comparative

And the principle in- insignificance in the future annals of the volved is precisely the same as in the English-speaking race.” case of the simple labor scab. A group, Cecil Rhodes, speaking of what would in the nature of its organization, is often have obtained but for the pig-headedness compelled to give most for least, and, so of George III., and of what will obtain doing, to strike at the life of another when England and the United States are group. At the present moment all Eu- united, said, “ No cannon would ... rope is appalled by that colossal scab, be fired on either hemisphere but by the United States. And Europe is clam- permission of the English race.” orous with agitation for a Federation of would seem that England, fronted by National Unions to protect her from the the hostile Continental Union and flanked United States. It may be noted, in by the great American Scab, has nothing passing, that in its prime essentials this left but to join with the Scab and play the agitation in no wise differs from the historic labor-rôle of armed Pinkerton.

other groups.

seem.

but

of men,

Granting the words of Cecil Rhodes, the on those other publishers. The reporter United States would be enabled to scab

on a newspaper who feels he should be without let or hindrance on Europe, while receiving a larger salary for his work, England, as professional strike-breaker says so, and is shown the door, is reand policeman, destroyed the unions and placed by a reporter who is a scab; kept order.

whereupon, when the belly-need presses, All this may appear fantastic and the displaced reporter goes to another erroneous, but there is in it a soul of

paper and scabs himself. The minister truth vastly more significant than it may who hardens his heart to a call, and waits

Civilization may be expressed for a certain congregation to offer him to-day in terms of trade unionism. In say five hundred a year more, often dividual struggles have largely passed finds himself scabbed upon by another away, group struggles increase pro and more impecunious minister ; and the digiously. And the things for which next time it is his turn to scab while a the groups struggle are the same as of brother minister is hardening his heart old. Shorn of all subtleties and com to a call. The scab is everywhere. The plexities, the chief struggle of men, and professional strike-breakers, who, as a of groups

is for food and shelter. class, receive large wages, will scab on And, as of old they struggled with tooth one another, while scab unions are even and nail, so to-day they struggle, with formed to prevent scabbing upon scabs. teeth and nails elongated into armies There are non-scabs, but they are and navies, machines, and economic usually born so, and are protected by the advantages.

whole might of society in the possession Under the definition that a scab is of their food and shelter. King Edward one who gives more value for the same is such a type, as are all individuals price than another, it would seem that who receive hereditary food-and-shelter society can be generally divided into the privileges, such as the present Duke of two classes of the scabs and the non Bedford, for instance, who yearly rescabs. But on closer investigation, how- ceives $75,000 from the good people of ever, it will be seen that the non-scab is London because some former king gave almost a vanishing quantity. In the some former ancestor of his the market social jungle everybody is preying upon privileges of Covent Garden. The irreeverybody else. As in the case of Mr. sponsible rich are likewise non-scabs, and Rockefeller, he who was a scab yester by them is meant that coupon-clipping day is a non-scab to-day, and to-morrow class which hires its managers and brains may be a scab again.

to invest the money usually left it by its The woman stenographer or book ancestors. keeper who receives forty dollars per Outside these lucky creatures, all the month where a was receiving rest, at one time or another in their lives, seventy-five is a scab. So is the woman are scabs, at one time or another are enwho does a man's work at a weaving gaged in giving more for a certain price machine, and the child who goes into the than any one else. The meek professor mill or factory. And the father, who is in some endowed institution, by his meek scabbed out of work by the wives and suppression of his convictions, is giving children of other men, sends his own more for his salary than the other more wife and children to scab in order to outspoken professor gave, whose chair save himself.

he occupies. And when a political party When a publisher offers an author dangles a full dinner-pail in the eyes of better royalties than other publishers the toiling masses, it is offering more for have been paying him, he is scabbing a vote than the dubious dollar of the op

man

posing party. Even a money-lender is American foremen, and the British bricknot above taking a slightly lower rate of layer swiftly attained an average of 1800 interest and saying nothing about it. bricks per day, with a maximum of 2500

Such is the tangle of conflicting inter- bricks for the plainest work. ests in a tooth-and-nail society that peo But the British laborer's policy of ple cannot avoid being scabs, are often Ca' Canny, which is the very honormade so against their desires, and un able one of giving least for most, and consciously. When several trades in a which is likewise the policy of the Eng. certain locality demand and receive an lish capitalist, is nevertheless frowned advance in wages, they are unwittingly upon by the English capitalist whose making scabs of their fellow laborers in business existence is threatened by the that district who have received no advance great American Scab. From the rise of in wages. In San Francisco the bar the factory system, the English capitalist bers, laundry workers, and milk-wagon gladly embraced the opportunity, wherdrivers received such an advance in ever he found it, of giving least for most. wages. Their employers promptly add He did it all over the world wherever he ed the amount of this advance to the enjoyed a market monopoly, and he did selling price of their wares. The price it at home, with the laborers employed of shaves, of washing, and of milk went in his mills, destroying them like flies till up. This reduced the purchasing power prevented, within limits, by the passage of the unorganized laborers, and, in point of the Factory Acts. Some of the proudof fact, reduced their wages and made est fortunes of England to-day may trace them greater scabs.

their origin to the giving of least for Because the British laborer is disin most to the miserable slaves of the facclined to scab, that is, because he restricts

tory towns.

But at the present time his output in order to give less for the the English capitalist is outraged because wage he receives, it is to a certain extent his laborers are employing against him made possible for the American capital- precisely the same policy he employed ist, who receives a less restricted output against them, and which he would emfrom his laborers, to play the scab on the ploy again did the chance present itself. English capitalist. As a result of this Yet Ca' Canny is a disastrous thing (of course, combined with other causes), to the British laborer. It has driven the American capitalist and the Ameri- ship-building from England to Scotland, can laborer are striking at the food and bottle-making from Scotland to Belgium, shelter of the English capitalist and la- flint-glass-making from England to Gerborer.

many, and to-day it is steadily driving The English laborer is starving to-day industry after industry to other counbecause, among other things, he is not a tries. A correspondent from Northampseab. He practices the policy of "Ca' ton wrote not long ago:

“ Factories are Canny,” which may be defined as working half and third time. ... There easy.” In order to get most for least, in is no strike, there is no real labor trouble, many trades he performs but from one but the masters and men are alike suffourth to one sixth of the labor he is well fering from sheer lack of employment. able to perform. An instance of this is Markets which were once theirs are now found in the building of the Westing American.” It would seem that the unhouse Electric Works at Manchester. fortunate British laborer is 'twixt the The British limit per man was 400 bricks devil and the deep sea. If he gives most per day. The Westinghouse Company for least, he faces a frightful slavery such imported a “driving” American con as marked the beginning of the factory tractor aided by half-a-dozen “ driving” system. If he gives least for most, he

66 go

drives industry away to other countries, the superior energy, skill, and willingand has no work at all.

ness of the American laborer. The EngBut the union laborers of the United lish laborer is faithful to the policy of States have nothing to boast of, while, Ca' Canny. He refuses point blank to according to their trade-union ethics, they get the work out of a machine that the have a great deal of which to be ashamed. New World scab gets out of a machine. They passionately preach short hours and Mr. Maxim, observing a wasteful handbig wages, the shorter the hours and the labor process in his English factory, bigger the wages the better. Their ha- invented a machine which he proved tred for a scab is as terrible as the hatred capable of displacing several men. But of a patriot for a traitor, of a Christian workman after workman was put at the for a Judas. And in the face of all this machine, and without exception they they are as colossal scabs as the United turned out neither more nor less than States is a colossal scab. For all of their a workman turned out by hand. They boasted unions and high labor-ideals, they obeyed the mandate of the union and are about the most thorough-going scabs went easy, while Mr. Maxim gave up in on the planet.

despair. Nor will the British workman Receiving $4.50 per day, because of run machines at as high speed as the his proficiency and immense working American, nor will he run so many. An power, the American laborer has been American workman will “give equal atknown to scab upon scabs (so called) who tention simultaneously to three, four, or took his place and received only $.90 per six machines or tools, while the British day for a longer day. In this particular workman is compelled by his trade union instance, five Chinese coolies, working to limit his attention to one, so that emlonger hours, gave less value for the price ployment may be given to half-a-dozen received from their employer than did men.” one American laborer.

But to scabbing, no blame attaches itIt is upon his brother laborers over self anywhere. All the world is a scab, seas that the American laborer most out- and, with rare exceptions, all the people rageously scabs. As Mr. Casson has in it are scabs. The strong, capable shown, an English nailmaker gets $3.00 workman gets a job and holds it because per week, while an American nailmaker of his strength and capacity. And he gets $30.00. But the English worker holds it because out of his strength and turns out 200 pounds of nails per week, capacity he gives a better value for his while the American turns out 5500 wage than does the weaker and less capounds. If he were as “fair” as his pable workman. Therefore he is scabEnglish brother, other things being equal, bing upon his weaker and less capable he would be receiving, at the English brother workman. This is incontroverworker's rate of pay, $82.50. As it is, tible. He is giving more value for the he is scabbing upon his English brother price paid by the employer. to the tune of $79.50 per week. Dr. The superior workman scabs upon

the Schultze-Gaevernitz has shown that a inferior workman because he is so conGerman weaver produces 466 yards of stituted and cannot help it. The one, by cotton a week at a cost of .303 per yard, fortune of birth and upbringing, is strong while an American weaver produces 1200 and capable; the other, by fortune of yards at a cost of .02 per yard.

birth and upbringing, is not so strong or But, it may be objected, a great part capable. It is for the same reason that of this is due to the more improved one country scabs upon another. That American machinery. Very true ; but, country which has the good fortune to none the less, a great part is still due to possess great natural resources, a finer

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