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his race.

No one can watch the carriages in Hyde with the white race, besides the merePark, still less in Continental capitals, ly animal temptations. There is the without recognizing the merely local love of fine clothes, for instance; the quality of all extreme social antagonism partiality for multiplying sects in relibetween races. In a letter to the Bos gion, and secret societies in secular life; ton Herald, dated September 17, 1903, the tendency toward weakening forces the writer, Bishop Douet of Jamaica, by too much subdivision; the intolerance testifies that there is a large class of shown toward free individual action. It colored people who there fill important is only the last which takes just now a positions as ministers of religion, doc somewhat serious form. It is a positive tors, and lawyers. He says: “This ele calamity that a few indiscretions and ment in our society that I have alluded exaggerations on each side have develto is the result of miscegenation, which oped into a bitter hostility to Booker the writers from the South seem to look Washington on the part of some of the upon with so much horror. We have most intelligent and even cultivated of not found that the mixing of the races

Internal feuds among philanhas produced such dire results. I num thropists are, alas, no new story, and ber among my friends many of this few bodies of reformers have escaped mixed race who are as accomplished this peril.

When we consider the bitand intelligent ladies and gentlemen ter contest fought by Charles Sumner as you can find in any society in Bos and his opponents in the Prison Disciton or the other great cities of Amer pline Society; the conflicts in the early ica."

temperance meetings between Total AbIn connection with this, Bishop stainers and Teetotalers; those in the Douet claims that the masses of the Woman Suffrage Movement between colored population in all parts of the Mrs. Woodhull and her opponents, and island are absolutely orderly, and that in the anti-slavery movement itself bea white woman may travel from one end tween the voting and non-voting Aboliof the land to the other with perfect tionists, we must not censure the warsafety. All traces of the terrible pe- ring negro reformer too severely. Nay, riod of the Maroon wars seem to have consider the subdivisions of the Garrison vanished, wars which lasted for nine Abolitionists themselves, after slavery years, during which martial law pre itself was abolished, at a period when I vailed throughout the whole island, and remember to have seen Edmund Quincy high military authorities said of the walk halfway up a stairway, and turn Maroons that "their subjugation was suddenly round to descend, merely to more difficult than to obtain a victory avoid Wendell Phillips, who was coming over any army in Europe.” These reb downstairs. Having worked side by els, or their descendants, are the people side together through storm and through who now live in a condition of entire calm, denounced, threatened, and even peace and order, in spite of all the pre mobbed side by side, the two men had dicted perils of freedom. One of these yet separated in bitterness on the mere perils, as we know, was supposed to be interpretation of a will made by a felthat of a mixture of blood between the low laborer, Francis Jackson. When races, but even that is found no longer we look, moreover, beyond the circle of a source of evil, this witness thinks, moral reformers, and consider simply when concubinage has been replaced by the feuds of science, we see the same legal marriage.

thing: Dr. Gould, the eminent astronoAmong the ways in which the col. mer, locking his own observatory against ored race shows itself intensely human his own trustees to avoid interference; are some faults which it certainly shares and Agassiz, in the height of the DarVOL. XCIII. — No. 559.



winian controversy, denying that there the same method might be repeated. was any division on the subject among Yet it seems scarcely more credible that scientific men, on the ground that any the young hero, Colonel Shaw himself, man who accepted the doctrine of evolu- when I rode out to meet him, on his tion ceased thereby to be a man of sci arrival with his regiment, seriously

If questions merely intellectual asked me whether I felt perfectly sure thus divide the leaders of thought, how that the negroes would stand fire in line can we expect points dividing men on of battle, and suggested that, at the the basis of conscience and moral service worst, it would at least be possible to to be less potent in their influence? In drive them forward by having a line of the present case, as in most cases, the white soldiers advance in their rear, so trouble seems chiefly due to the diffi that they would be between two fires. culty found by every energetic and en He adinitted the mere matter of indithusiastic person, absorbed in his own vidual courage to have been already setpursuits, in fully appreciating the equal. tled in their case, and only doubted ly important pursuits of others. Mr. whether they would do as well in line Washington, in urging the development of battle as in skirmishing and on guard of the industrial pursuits he represents, duty.

duty. Nor do I intend to imply that has surely gone no farther than Freder- he had any serious doubt beyond this, ick Douglass, the acknowledged leader but simply that the question had passed of his people, who said, “Every colored through his mind. He did not suffimechanic is by virtue of circumstances ciently consider that in this, as at all an elevator of his race.” On the other other points, they were simply men. hand, the critics of Mr. Washington are We must also remember that a comwholly right in holding that it is as mon humanity does not by any means important for this race to produce its exclude individual variety, but rather own physicians, lawyers, preachers, and protects it. At first glance, in a black above all, teachers, as to rear mechanics. regiment, the men usually looked to a It is infinitely to be regretted that every- newly arrived officer just alike, but it body cannot look at every matter all proved after a little experience that they round, but this, unhappily, is a form varied as much in face as any soldiers. of human weakness in which there is It was the same as to character. Yet at no distinction of color.

the same time they were on the whole It must always be remembered that more gregarious and cohesive than the all forward movements have their ex whites; they preferred organization, perimental stage. In looking over, at whereas nothing pleased white American this distance of time, the letters and troops so much as to be out skirmishing, printed editorials brought out by the each on his own responsibility, without original enterprise of arming the blacks being bothered with officers. There in our civil war, I find that it was re was also a certain tropical element in garded by most people as a mere ex black troops, a sort of fiery utterance periment. It now seems scarcely credi- when roused, which seemed more Celtic ble that I should have received, as I than Anglo-Saxon.

than Anglo-Saxon. The only point did, one letter from a well-meaning where I was doubtful, though I never sympathizer in Boston, recalling to my had occasion to test it, was that they memory that Roman tradition of a body might show less endurance under proof rebellious slaves who were brought longed and hopeless resistance, like Naback to subjection, even after taking poleon's men when during the retreat up arms, by the advance of a body of from Russia they simply drooped and men armed with whips only. This cor

died. respondent anxiously warned me that As to the general facts of courage and

reliability, I think that no officer in our that I frequently had reason to be gratecamp ever thought of there being any ful for it as a blessing, were it only for essential difference between black and the fact that those who saw colored white; and surely the judgment of these soldiers for the first time always noticed officers, who were risking their lives at it and exaggerated its importance. Beevery moment, month after month, on cause the negroes kept a better step, the fidelity of their men, was worth more after forty-eight hours' training, than than the opinion of the world besides. did most white regiments after three As the negroes were intensely human or four months, these observers exat these points, they were equally so in pressed the conviction that the blacks pointing out that they had more to fight would fight well; which seemed to me, for than the white soldier. They loved perhaps, a hasty inference. As to the the United States flag, and I remember Irish-Americans, I could

say truly that one zealous corporal, a man of natural a single recruit of that race in my ori. eloquence, pointing to it during a meet- ginal white company had cost me more ing on the Fourth of July, and saying trouble in training him to keep step with more zeal than statistical accuracy, than all my black soldiers put together. “Dar 's dat fag, we hab lib under it On the other hand, it was generally for eighteen hundred and sixty-two agreed that it was impossible to conceive years, and we ’ll lib and die for it now.” of an Irish coward; the Irish being, But they could never forget that, besides perhaps, as universally brave as any the flag and the Union, they had home race existing. Now, I am not preand wife and child to fight for.


pared to say that in the colored race was a very serious matter to them. cowardice would be totally impossible, They took a grim satisfaction when nor could that be claimed, absolutely, orders were issued that the officers of for the Anglo-Saxon race.

On the colored troops should be put to death other hand, to extend the comparison, on capture. It helped their esprit de it would not have been conceivable to corps immensely. Their officers, like me that a black soldier should be a themselves, were henceforward to fight traitor to his own side, and it is unqueswith ropes around their necks. Even tionable that there were sometimes Irish when the new black regiments began to deserters. All this variety is accordcome down from the North, the Southern ing to the order of nature. The world blacks pointed out this difference, that would be very monotonous if all human in case of ultimate defeat, the Northern beings had precisely the same combitroops, black or white, must sooner or nation of strong and weak points. It later be exchanged and returned to is enough that they should all be hutheir homes, whereas, they themselves must fight it out or be reënslaved. All In the element of affectionateness this was absolutely correct reasoning, and even demonstrativeness, the

negroes and showed them human.

and the Irish have much in common, and As all individuals differ, even in the it is an attribute which makes them same family, so there must doubtless both attractive. The same may be held be variations between different races. true of the religious element. No matIt is only that these differences balance ter how reckless in bearing they might one another so that all are human at be, those negroes were almost fatalists last. Each race, like each individual, in their confidence that God would may have its strong point. Compare, watch over them; and if they died, it for instance, the negroes and the Irish would be because their time had come. Americans. So universal among ne “If each one of us was a praying man, groes is the possession of a musical ear said one of my corporals in a speech,



the negroes.

He was


“it appears to me that we could fight has lain untouched for forty years. It as well with prayers as with bullets, for is still inclosed in a quaint envelope of the Lord has said that if

you have faith a pattern devised in Philadelphia at even as a grain of mustard seed cut into that day, and greatly in demand among four parts, you can say to the sycamore

It shows a colored print tree Arise,' and it will come up." of the tree of liberty bearing in the And though Corporal Long's botany place of leaves little United States flags, may have got a little confused, his faith each labeled with the name of some proved itself by works, for he volun state, while the tree bears the date teered to go many miles on a solitary “1776” at its roots. The letter is adscouting expedition into the enemy's dressed to “Solomon Steward Company country in Florida, and got back safe H., 1st S. C. Vols., Beaufort, s. C., after he had been given up for lost. On this being the name of a soldier in my the whole, it may be said that the regiment who showed the letter to me colored and the Irish soldiers were a and allowed me to keep it. little nearer to one another than to the one of the Florida men, who were, as a white American - born type; and that rule, better taught and more intelligent both were nearer to the Western re than the South Carolina negroes. They cruits, among Americans, than to the were therefore coveted as recruits by all more reticent and self-controlled New my captains; and they had commonly England men. Each type had its char been obliged on enlistment to leave their acteristics, and all were intensely hu families behind them in Florida, not

nearly so well cared for as those under All these judgments, formed in war, General Saxton's immediate charge. have thus far sustained themselves in The pay of my regiment being, morepeace. The enfranchisement of the over, for a long time delayed, these negroes, once established, will of course families often suffered in spite of all never be undone. They have learned our efforts. I give the letter verbatim, the art, if not of political self-defense, and it requires no further explanaat least of migration from place to place, tion: and those states which are most unjust to them will in time learn to prize their FERNANDINA, FLORIDA, Feb. the 8 (1864). presence and regret their absence. The MY DEAR HUSBAND, This Hour chances are that the mingling of races I Sit Me Down To write you In a Litwill diminish, but whether this is or is tle world of sweet sounds The Choir In not the outcome, it is, of course, better The Chapel near Here are Chanting at for all that this result should be legal The organ and Thair Morning Hymn and not voluntary, rather than illegal across The street are sounding and The and perhaps forced. As the memories Dear Little birds are joining Thair of the slave period fade away, the mere

voices In Tones sweet and pure as an. fetich of color-phobia will cease to con gels whispers. but My Dear all The trol our society; and marriage may come songs of The birds sounds sweet In My to be founded, not on the color of the Ear but a sweeter song Than That I skin, but upon the common courtesies now Hear and That Is The song of a of life, and upon genuine sympathies of administing angel Has Come and borne heart and mind. To show how high My Dear Little babe To Join In Tones these sympathies might reach even in with Them sweet and pure as angels slavery, I turn back to a letter received whispers. My babe only Live one day by one of my soldiers from his wife, It was a Little Girl. Her name Is alice a letter which I have just unearthed Gurtrude steward I am now sick In bed from a chaos of army papers where it and have Got nothing To Live on The

Rashion That They Give for six days I but Give my Regards to all the friends Can Make It Last but 2 days They all the family send thair love to you dont send Me any wood They send The

no more at pressant others wood and I Cant Get any I dont

EMMA STEWARD Get any Light at all You Must see To That as soon as possible for I am In Does it need any further commenin want of some Thing To Eat tary to prove that the writer of a letter I have nothing more to say to you like this was intensely human?

Thomas Wentworth Higginson.


elf ton a rotten he wan house

Whilst their old mother lived, of “But ye know, yerself, Pether, an' course, the idea of bringing any other · can't deny, a woman's an oncommon woman into the house was as far from handy thing about a house.” them as the far-lands of Brenter. For “Handy? Ay! as a conthrairy pig they had all the nearness and lack of (not mainin' any comparishon), that sentiment that their Scotch ancestors 'ill go every way but the way ye want brought over (their only belongings) to it. Besides, have n't we our oul' moIreland.

ther?” When the neighbors, on a rare oc- “Right, Pether!” “Right, P casion, caught the Bachelors of Braggy ther!” quoth the other brothers. at a wake or festivity, they, in a wag. “Stillandall, a mother, ye know, is gish mood, must match-make for them. n't everything till a man!”

“Arrah, Pether Lowry, is n't it the “If a man depends on any one else shame for yerself, and for Paul, and nor himself to be the remaindher, for Richard, there beside ye, that wan he'll depend on a rotten rush. An' of yous has n't yet put the word to a a wife an' a mother in the wan house woman!”

’ud be as pleasant company as spittin' Peter and Paul and Richard would cats.” all hissle in their chairs from the un- “But the wife ’ill be with a man, comfortableness of the topic. But all Pether, when the mother 's gone.” eyes in the wakehouse were now on “Then God help the man!” them quizzically, so Peter would make “God help him!” from Paul, and answer snarlingly:

“God help him!” from Richard. “What the divil do we want with a “Now there's Marg'et McClane woman?”

above in Altidoo, and she 'd jump at “Ay!” from Paul. And “Ay!” the offer of any wan of the three of from Richard.

yous." “Well, ye know, it's a wee waik “It's thankful we are to both yerness some men has, — to be fond of self and Marg'et; but, as ye seem to the girls.”

have an inth’rest in her, better not let “Well, we are n't fond o' them; her jump, for feerd she might miss.” an’ would n't give a barleycorn if there “For feerd she might miss, — yis ! ” was n't a girl atween here an' Haly- choired Richard and Paul.

“A fine, stout, sthrappin' girl, on the “Yis !” “Yis ! ” from Richard and aisy side of fifty-five; an' a fine hand at Paul.

beetlin' praties, an' carin' calves.”

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