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eighteen. After three years of this hard writer of fiction has utilized as matelabor there was a period of employment rial” for his opening chapters. The by a carriage painter, and of the emer hero of the escape soon found himself in gence from this work into that of the those thickly trodden paths of schoolwriter there is no more definite account teaching which have so often led on to than the statement with which the story eminence. On the avenues by which it of his courtship comes to a climax : “Be was reached

- through work on the Nauing married, I set resolutely to work to tical Almanac, in the Naval Observatory learn the only trade for which I seemed at Washington, in many important astrofitted — literature.” The rarely con nomical undertakings he came into genial life of the married poets, the good contact with many men of distinction in and evil fortunes which they faced with the world of science. Of them, and of equal courage, the intimacies with such the various scientific enterprises with men from the front rank of the second which Washington and the national govorder in letters as G. H. Boker, T. B. ernment have had to do, Professor NewRead, and Bayard Taylor, the frequent comb has written with enthusiasm and a glimpses of others with more abiding contagious sympathy. To some readers claims to greatness, these are the chief it will be a matter of surprise to find how themes of Mr. Stoddard's reminiscences. many of the names which are instantly Interesting as many of them are, they recognized as important mean less to the fail as a whole to impress one with the uninstructed in scientific lore than corimportance which would attach to a small responding, or even less important, names collection of the very best lyrics from the in almost any of the arts would signify. published writings of Mr. and Mrs. Stod With the realization of this fact comes a dard.

sense of the usefulness of Reminiscences Of a type of boyhood quite as unfami- like these of Professor Newcomb's : they liar in American annals as that of Mr. will bring into the clearer light of recog. Stoddard Professor Newcomb’s Reminis- nition some of the most valuable phases of cences afford a striking example. The intellectual activity in America through Canadian provinces have so far supplied the generations which may now fairly be. but few of our men of distinction. Yet gin to be reminiscent. the picture of Nova Scotia in the fourth The beginning and the long continuand fifth decades of the century is drawn ance of Whittier's career are matters of against a background like that of the re profuse and familiar record. One does moter parts of New England at an earlier not look, therefore, for many surprises time. The anomaly of Professor New in the new attempts to picture his life. comb's formative period was his appren It is more interesting to compare the ticeship through the important years points of view of two writers who bring between sixteen and eighteen to a quack to their task respectively the qualificabotanic doctor whose theory of life was tions of the younger contemporary and summed up in his declaration :

6. This

of the very much younger student who world is all a humbug, and the biggest belongs to a later generation. humbug is the best man. That's the Colonel Higginson's book has already Yankee doctrine, and that's the reason been a year before the public. The perthe Yankees get along so well.” It was a sonality of the writer finds expression in good augury for the future of the appren- it perhaps a little less freely than one tice that this man and his theory filled might wish. Like one without the adhim with increasing disgust, which finally

1 John Greenleaf Whittier. By THOMAS expressed itself in just such a running Wentworth Higginson. English Men of Letaway to seek his fortunes as many a New York: The Macmillan Co. 1902.

ters.

“Your sympathy is more help than "I don't know why it should be you realize," he replied sadly. “Cus- made easier for me any more than other tard, did you say? Yes, mother used men,” he said aloud. "I guess I won't to make those too."

eat any, miss. You just pass the sweet The six worthy prisoners dined upon stuff round among the boys wherever custards next day. “For I ain't goin' you think it's needed most, and give to show partiality even if he is differ- the flowers to Uncle Petingill. He'll ent,” Roxella decided.

like 'em to play with, poor old soul. The day following there was ice For me, I'll take jail life just as it cream. “The county can afford it,” comes." Roxella assured herself, resolutely sti- Roxella delivered the lilacs to the Aling a guilty pang.

delighted old man, then carried the She went one afternoon to answer an basket straight to No. 9. unaccustomed peal of the front door “The sheep man don't feel worthy bell, and received from the hands of a of all this which his folks has sent,” ten-year-old girl a large basket and a she explained. “And I'm glad to see bouquet of lilac blossoms. “For pa,” him show a little proper feelin'. Could the child explained. “Hiram Risley, you relish a piece ?” He finally acyou know. He's stoppin' here a spell.” cepted the entire loaf of cake under

Roxella hesitated. “I don't know protest. “The others like doughnuts whether it's against the rules or not,” best, so I will leave them all for them," she acknowledged frankly, “and Mis' he said. “The cake is n't frosted as Thomas is havin’ a poor day, so I can't mother used to do, but it may be I can ask her. Her lumbago 's developed into eat a piece.” He slipped a folded paper nervous prostration. Never mind, sis, through the grate. I'll risk it. What 's your pa's num- “This will show you how I brighten ber did you say?"

the weary hours,” he explained. The child looked puzzled. “What's It was a little poem, written upon he in for? ” Roxella continued.. a sheet of letter paper and entitled A

“Nothin' at all,” the child returned Fettered Bird. “It was just lovely,” hotly. “They said he stole John Fre- Roxella assured him next day as she mont's sheep ; but he never, for ma passed a tiny dish of early strawberries says he never.”

through the grate. Roxella carried the basket to the She was becoming very good friends door of No. 6 and tapped gently, with most of the prisoners, even while

“Your folks have sent you some lit. following Sheriff Thomas's command to tle tokens," she explained. The tall say little to them. “You can get pretty prisoner's face lighted.

well acquainted with folks by just lis"Well, now, that's something I was tening,” Roxella decided. She brought n't lookin' for,” he said.

to the gray-haired man in No. 2 a daily “Most people get more or less that offering of spring blossoms, wrote occathey don't really deserve,” remarked sional letters for illiterate No. 3, and Roxella. “I hope 't will lead you to one June afternoon paused triumphantserious thoughts of a better life.” She ly before the door of No. 5, bearing crowded the lilacs through the grating upon Mrs. Thomas's best china platter as she spoke and looked doubtfully at a frosted mound encircled by exactly the basket. “This won't go through; two dozen wild roses. Upon the snowy shall I open the basket and pass the surface of the cake, wrought in pink things in ? ” she asked. He looked with candy, was the inscription “No. 5 aged interest at the doughnuts and sponge 24.” “It 's angel underneath,” Roxcake.

ella announced. “Too bad you can't have it whole, but I've brought a long my neighbors, and I would n't for the knife so you could cut it yourself through world carry tales to Peterson Thomas the grating and then take in the pieces. as mebbe I ought to do, but I want to I heard you holler to No. 4 this morn- advise you as a wellwisher not to go in' about to-day bein' your birthday.” too far with any of us fellows in here,

No. 5 sliced the cake carefully, con- or to take too much stock in what we cealing beneath a gay exterior some real say. Our judgment gets warped till emotion. “There never was any wo- we think too well of ourselves and too man livin' ever made me a birthday little of other folks, and we ain't to be cake before,” he said solemnly as he trusted. I would n't listen to that felswallowed the last pink crumb of the low in No. 9 quite so long to a time, “5," "and this 's the first time I ever if I was you." even tasted angel. I would n't be sur- Roxella's cheeks blazed. “That's prised if it went clear through and made about what I should have expected from another fellow of me. Now, miss, you,” she said with indignation. “If please pass some of it to the other I want advice, thank you, I can get it boys.

outside the jail.” Even No. 6, after a moment's hesi- Next day she defiantly spent a full tation, accepted a piece, and No. 9, hav- half hour in conversation with No. 9. ing eaten his, spent the rest of the af. The political prisoner was looking ill ternoon in writing a poem entitled The from his long confinement. “I am Angel of the Prison.

wasting for want of sunshine and fresh A week later Nos. 4 and 5, having air,” he reluctantly admitted when served their ninety days' sentence for Roxella anxiously remarked upon his drunkenness and disorderly conduct, failing health. “Roxella, would it not were dismissed, and the gray-haired be possible for you to grant me a brief prisoner finished his term for vagrancy hour in the open air, sometimes ? It soon after. Roxella found her midday would be perfectly safe. The wall is duties lightened. She was becoming far too high for me to scale in my weak deeply interested in the political pris- condition even were other bonds than oner, who confided to her by degrees long my word necessary. Let me have an portions of his early history and blighted hour there with you in the moonlight, career.

since sunlight is no more for me.” "My real name is Philip Cart- Roxella assented eagerly. “It's . wright,” he whispered one day. “I just what you need,” she declared. wanted you to know, though for politi- “I'll ask Sheriff Thomas this very eal reasons I am now bearing another. night.” It does n't matter, since the rest of He stopped her sadly. “That is my life will undoubtedly be passed in worse than useless,” he said. “It would prison. If I could only be brought to only end in depriving me of the one trial all might yet be well. But my pleasure left in life — your visits. No, enemies prevent that, knowing that my if you do not pity me enough to grant innocence could soon be proved." this little boon without the knowledge

“I did n't know those things ever of any one, I must still languish here.” happened outside of story books," Rox- For a week Roxella held firm against ella assured him with distressed face. pleading and reproaches, while No. 9

No. 6 beckoned to her one day as she grew paler and weaker each day. Then passed his door. “It's none of my af- she yielded. fair,” he said kindly, “but I sh'd want “Broad daylight 's the best time,” somebody to meddle if 't was a sister she said shortly. “Sheriff's gone all of mine. I'm no hand to talk about day, and Mis' Thomas's room is on the

son.

vantages of a contemporary, Colonel Hig- lished, which passed between Whittier ginson has availed himself freely of the and such men as John Quincy Adams, previous records of Whittier and his Henry Clay, and William Lloyd Garritimes, not even eschewing his own good These, together with what appears story of the Atlantic Club dinner in to be the justitiable emphasis laid upon honor of Mrs. Stowe. But in addition Whittier's reluctant celibacy, place certo his use of the more obvious sources, he tain pages of the book among the “ origihas drawn with advantage

as befits so nal sources” for future study. There is a constant a champion of the sex - upon fresh value also in the author's discussion the short sketches of Whittier by his of the anti-slavery question as it affected friends Mrs. Fields and Mrs. Claflin. not only Whittier, but all his fellow counThe passages

from their little books con trymen. The book, from its very nature, firm all one's impressions of the true sym makes no attempt at the completeness pathy which existed between Whittier of the Lives and Letters which are sure and his feminine friends, and therefore to follow the death of a great man.

It have even a greater biographic value than is merely an admirable specimen of those that which appears on the surface. For products of a later day which give posthe light the volume throws upon the an terity what it really wishes and needs to ti-slavery period one welcomes especial- know, and render the more voluminous ly such pages as those in which Colonel records necessary in the course of time Higginson discriminates between the vot to special students only. ing and the non-voting abolitionists, and It has been said in England that the shows how possible he himself found it supreme test of citizenship in the United to work with both. It is because these States is found in the record of a man's pages have so marked a value that the relation to the civil war. Both Whitreader finds himself regretting that there tier and Henry Ward Beecher were of are not more of them.

the generation to which the remark apThe writer of a later generation cannot plies. A full third of Dr. Lyman Abrely upon the aid of these personal re bott's new life of Beecher ? deals with membrances. The necessity is therefore the period which begins with the antilaid upon him of putting to the best slavery agitation and ends with the probpossible use all the existing sources of in- lems of reconstruction. Beecher's part formation. Before Professor Carpenter's in the great struggle of our national life book 1 was finished Colonel Higginson's is set forth with a fullness and comprecould be added to the list of authorities. hension which make these pages like What he has done is not so much to draw the best of Colonel Higginson's and Proupon their pages for quotation — though fessor Carpenter's — a genuine addition of course they must frequently be used to the history of the period. The unique

as to make them his own, service of Beecher to his country was and to give forth in a fresh form their as everybody knows the series of essential elements. Professor Carpenter, speeches in England which had so readdressing the younger generation in its markable an effect in bringing the British own language, has accomplished this dif- middle and laboring classes into symficult task with uncommon success. He pathy with the Union cause. has been fortunate, moreover, in securing self-imposed duty undertaken with some really important letters, not hitherto pub- doubt regarding its wisdom. The

1 John Greenleaf Whittier. By George Rice 2 Henry Ward Beecher. By LYMAN ABBOTT. CARPENTER. American Men of Letters. Bos Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & ton and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Co. 1903.

in this way

It was a

speeches, but five in number, were de pressed, the author has permitted himself livered under circumstances of the utmost the fluency of one whose constant pracphysical difficulty. But their success, tice has made it easy to expatiate on any first with the audiences that had to be theme. Some condensation might thereconquered, and then with a half-hostile fore have been well. Yet the book public, was one of the notable triumphs leaves a clear impression of an extraorof our heroic period; and Dr. Abbott is dinary personality : — the preacher who, to be thanked for putting it so effective- using his text, as he said himself, as a ly on record. For the rest of Beecher's gate not to swing upon, but to push open career — it is no easy task to write of and go in, made his pulpit a living power; the most conspicuous member of the the editor, who observed no rules or family which inspired the remark that office hours, yet profoundly affected the mankind is divided into “the good, the type of journalism with which he had to bad, and the Beechers.” It would be do; the writer and public speaker, of harder for most biographers than it has persuasive wit and eloquence. The figbeen for Dr. Abbott, for, except in such ure of Beecher could not be spared from a chapter as the discreet and restrained an American gallery of the last century, ** Under Accusation,” into which the and Dr. Abbott's picture bids fair to whole miserable Tilton business is com- stand as the authoritative portrait.

M. A. De Wolfe Howe.

THE BLUE COLOR OF THE SKY.

The blue color of the sky on a clear caped the attention of philosophers to day is familiar to all. And yet how such an extent that even now their many have considered the source of this causes are not fully understood, while delicate mantle of azure which Nature other phenomena much more remote, spreads over the dome of the heavens? and having little connection with daily The beautiful tints of the sky are uni- life, excite such wonder that they have versally admired, and every one has wel- long since been duly explained and comed with mental relief the break in appreciated. These latter phenomena the clouds which gives a glimpse of obviously are cases where “distance the firmament when gloom and darkness lends enchantment to the view,” and have long hovered over the Earth. The therefore after all are not so unnatural color of this blue naturally appears the as they at first appear. more striking when seen in immediate It is undeniable that a singular charm contact with the clouds.

often attaches to objects remote from us Probably our very familiarity with either in time or space, and a similar the every-day appearance of the sky mental attitude is frequently illustrated diminishes our wonder at one of the in the history of the Physical Sciences. most exquisite colors in the physical This subtle psychological tendency world, and for this reason we seldom in- arises from a natural disposition to enquire into its origin. It certainly is a dow those things which we see in the remarkable circumstance in the history distance, or learn of only by report, of the human mind that some of the with all the perfections of descriptive most obvious of natural phenomena, language so framed as to convey the which every one notices and no one salient qualities of interest, without the especially dwells upon, should have es- imperfections usually revealed by per

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