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so marked as their united stand against intercourse, or drive them by force of perthe capital. The city has had, at least sonality, but he instructed and convinced twice, both United States Senators; but them, through an appeal to reason and governors have usually been summoned without the lure of specious oratory. He from the country. Harrison was defeated stood finely as a type of what was best for governor by a farmer (1876), in a in the old and vanishing Indianapolis, heated campaign, in which “ Kid-Gloved for the domestic and home-loving eleHarrison” was held up to derision by ment that dominated the city from its the adherents of “ Blue Jeans Williams.” beginning practically to the end of the And again, in 1880, a similar situation last century. was presented in the contest for the same The spirit of independence that office between Albert G. Porter and gained a footing in the Blaine campaign Franklin Landers, both of Indianapo- of 1884 came to stay. Marion Counlis, though Landers stood for the rural ty, of which Indianapolis is the seat, was “ Blue Jeans ” idea.

for many years Republican ; but neither The high tide of political interest was county nor city has for a decade been reached in the summer and fall of 1888, “safely” Democratic or Republican. when Harrison made his campaign for There is a considerable body of indethe presidency, largely from his own pendent voters, and they have rebuked doorstep For a man who was reckoned incompetence, indifference, and vice recold by acquaintances, his candidacy peatedly and drastically ; and they have evoked an enthusiasm at home that was resented the effort often made to introa marked tribute to Mr. Harrison's dis- duce national issues into local affairs. tinguished ability as a lawyer and states- At the city election held in October, man. The people of Indiana did not love 1903, a Democrat was elected mayor him, perhaps, but they had an immense over a Republican candidate who had admiration for his talents. Morton was been renominated in a “snap” convena masterful and dominating leader; Hen- tion, in the face of aggressive opposition dricks was gracious and amiable; while within his party. The issue was tautly Gresham was singularly magnetic and drawn between corruption and vice on more independent in his opinions than the one hand and law and order on the his contemporaries. William H. English other. An independent candidate, who had been a member of Congress from a had also the Prohibition support, resouthern Indiana district before remov- ceived over 5000 votes. In this connecing to Indianapolis, and an influential tion it may be said that the Indianapolis member of the constitutional convention public schools owe their marked excelof 1850. He was throughout his life lence and efficiency to their complete di. a painstaking student of public affairs. vorcement from political influence. This When he became his party's candidate for has not only assured the public an intelVice President on the ticket with Han ligent and honest expenditure of school cock in 1880, much abuse and ridicule funds, — and the provision is generous, were directed against him on account of but it has created a corps spirit among his wealth ; but he was a man of rugged the city's 750 teachers, admirable in itnative force, who stood stubbornly for self, and tending to cumulative benefits old-fashioned principles of government, not yet realized. A supervising teacher and labored to uphold them. Harrison

was lately offered a like was the most intellectual of the group, position in another city at double the and he had, as few Americans have ever salary paid her at Indianapolis, and she had, the gift of vigorous and polished declined merely because of the security speech. He did not win men by ease of of her tenure. The superintendent of

- a woman

schools has absolute power of appoint- five Indiana regiments contributed to ment, and he is accountable only to the the American army in the war with commissioners, and they in turn are en Mexico, and 7400 men enlisted for the tirely independent of the mayor and Spanish war are remembered. It is, other city officers. Positions on the however, the war of

of the Rebellion, school board are not sought by politi whose effect on the social and political cians. The incumbents serve without life of Indiana was so tremendous, that pay, and the public evince a disposition gives the monument its great cause for to find good men and keep them in office. being. The population of Indiana in

The soldiers' monument at Indianapo 1860 was 1,350,000; the total enlistlis, which testifies to the patriotism and ment of soldiers and sailors during the sacrifice of the Indiana soldier and ensuing years of war was 210,497; and sailor, is a testimony also to the deep the names of these men lie safe for posimpression made by the civil war on the terity in the base of the gray shaft. people of the state. The monument is A good deal of humor has in recent to Indianapolis what the Washington years been directed toward Indiana as a Monument is to the national capital. The literary centre, but Indianapolis as a vilincoming traveler sees it afar, and within lage boasted writers of at least local the city it is almost an inescapable thing. reputation, and Coggeshall's Poets and It stands in a circular plaza that was Poetry of the West (1867) attributes originally a park known as the Govern half-a-dozen poets to the Hoosier capital. or's Circle. This was long ago aban The Indianapolis press has been distindoned as a site for the governor's man- guished always by enterprise and desion, but it offered an ideal spot for a cency, and in several instances by vigormonument to Indiana soldiers, when, in ous independence. The literary quality 1887, the General Assembly authorized of the city's newspapers was high, even its construction. The height of the mon in the early days, and the standard has ument from the street level is 284 feet, not been lowered. Poets with cloaks and it stands on a stone terrace 110 feet and canes were, in the eighties, pretty in diameter. The shaft is crowned by prevalent in Market Street near the Post a statue of Victory thirty-eight feet Office, the habitat then of most of the high. It is built throughout of Indiana newspapers. The poets read their verses limestone. The fountains at the base, to one another and cursed the magazines. the heroic sculptured groups “War" and A reporter on one of the papers, who “ Peace," and the bronze astragals re had scored the triumph of a poem in presenting the army and navy, are ad the Atlantic, was a man of mark among mirable in design and execution. The the guild for years. The local wits whole effect is one of poetic beauty and stabbed the fledgeling bards with their power. There is nothing cheap, tawdry, gentle ironies. A young woman of social or commonplace in this magnificent trib- prominence printed some verses in an ute of Indiana to her soldiers. The Indianapolis newspaper, and one of her monument is a memorial of the soldiers acquaintances, when asked for his opinof all the wars in which Indiana has par- ion of them, said they were creditable ticipated. The veterans of the civil war and ought to be set to music, - and protested against this, and the contro- played as an instrumental piece! The versy was long and bitter ; but the wide popularity attained by Mr. James ture of Vincennes from the British in Whitcomb Riley quickened the literary 1779 is made to link Indiana to the war impulse, and the fame of his elders and of the Revolution ; and the battle of predecessors suffered severely from the Tippecanoe, to the war of 1812. The fact that he did not belong to the cloaked


brigade. General Lew. Wallace never courts of the early times were touched lived at Indianapolis save for a few years

with it,

as witness all western chroniin boyhood, while his father was govern- cles. The middle western people are preor, though he has in recent years spent eminently humorous, particularly those his winters there. Maurice Thompson's of the Southern strain from which Linmuse scorned "paven ground," and he coln sprang. During all the years

that was little known at the capital even dur- the Hoosier suffered the reproach of the ing his term of office as state geologist, outside world, the citizen of the capital when he came to town frequently from never failed to appreciate the joke when Crawfordsville, the home of General it was on himself; and, looking forth Wallace also. Mr. Booth Tarkington, from the wicket of the city gate, he was a native of the city, has lifted the banner still more keenly appreciative when it anew for a younger generation.

was on his neighbors. The Hoosier is If you

do not meet an author at every a natural story-teller; he relishes a joke, corner, you are at least never safe from and to talk is his ideal of social enjoythe man that reads books. In a Mis ment. This was true of the early Hoosouri River town, a stranger must listen sier, and it is true to-day of his successor to the old wail against the railroads ; at at the capital. The Monday night meetIndianapolis he must listen to politics, ings of the Indianapolis Literary Club and possibly some one will ask his opin organized in 1877 and with a continion of a sonnet, just as though it were a uous existence to this time - have been cigar. A judge of the United States marked by bright talk. The original Court, sitting at Indianapolis, was for- inembers are nearly all gone; but the ever locking the door of his private of- sayings of a group of them — the stiletto fice, to the end that some attorney, call- thrusts of Fishback, the lawyer; the ing on business, might listen to an Hora- droll inadvertences of Livingston Howtian ode. There was indeed a time land, the judge; and the inimitable anconsule Planco when most of the ecdotes of Myron Reed, soldier and Federal office-holders at Indianapolis preacher — crept beyond the club's walls were bookish men. Three successive and became town property. This club clerks of the Federal courts were schol- is old and well seasoned. It is exclusive, ars ; the pension agent was an enthusi so much so that one of its luminaries astic Shakespearean; the district attorney remarked that if all of its members was a poet, and the master of chancery should be expelled for any reason, none a man of varied learning, who was so could hope to be readmitted. It has good a talker that, when he met Lord entertained but four pilgrims from the Chief Justice Coleridge abroad, the Eng- outer world, — Matthew Arnold, Dean lish jurist took the Hoosier with him on Farrar, Joseph Parker, and John Fiske. circuit, and wrote to the justice of the The Hoosier capital has always been American Supreme Court who had intro- susceptible to the charms of oratory. duced them, to “send me another man Most of the great lecturers in the goldas good.”

en age of the American lyceum were It is possible for a community which welcomed cordially at Indianapolis. The may otherwise lack a true local spirit to Indianapolis pulpit has been served by be unified through the possession of a many able men, and great store is still sense of humor; and even in periods of set by preaching. When Henry Ward financial depression the town has always Beecher ministered to the congregation enjoyed the saving grace of a cheerful, of the Second Presbyterian Church centralized intelligence. The first tav

The first tav. (1838–46), his superior talents were reern philosophers stood for this, and the cognized and appreciated. He gave a

young men

series of seven lectures to the

that the first woman's club in the West, of the city during the winter of 1843-44, at least, was organized on Hoosier soil on such subjects as Industry, Gamblers at Robert Owen's New Harmony and Gambling, Popular Amusements, in 1859. The Indianapolis Woman's etc., which were published at Indianapo- Club is thirty years old.

. lis immediately, in response to an urgent

The citizens like their Indianapolis, request signed by thirteen prominent and with reason. It is a place of charm men of the city and state.

and vigor, — the charm and ease of conThe women of Indianapolis have aided tentment dating from the old days, mingrea in fashioning the city into an en- gled with the earnest challenge and rolightened community. The wives and bust faith of to-day. Here you have an daughters of the founders were often wo admirable instance of the secure building men of cultivation, and much in the char of an American city with remarkably acter of the city to-day is plainly trace little alien influence,

- a city of sound able to their work and example. Dur credit abroad, which offers on its coming the civil war they did valiant service mercial and industrial sides a remarkable in caring for the Indiana soldier. The variety of opportunities. It is a city that Indiana Sanitary Commission was the brags less of its freight tonnage than of first organization of its kind in the its public schools ; but it is proud of both. United States. The women of Indian At no time in its history has it been inapolis built for themselves in 1888 a different to the best thought and achievebuilding-the Propylæum-where many ment of the world ; and what it has found clubs meet; and they have been the good it has secured for its own. A kind. mainstay of the Indianapolis Art Asso- ly, generous, hospitable people are these ciation, which, by a generous and unex of this Western capital, finely representapected bequest a few years ago, is now tive of the product of democracy as deable to build a permanent museum and mocracy has exerted its many forces school on the charming site of an old and disciplines in the broad, rich Ohio homestead. It is worth remembering Valley.

Meredith Nicholson.


It is a pity that we cannot get on If political economists find it hard to without definitions, but there is too much determine the meaning of words like convenience in them, too much safety. “money” and “property,” how shall They accoutre us, they marshal us the critics agree in defining such imponderway that we are going, they help us able objects as genius, art, literature ? along the difficult middle path of argu- Is literature broadly “the printed word, ” ment, they comfort our declining pe the whole body of recorded speech? Or riods. Poor relations, to be sure, and is it the product of a conscious and regnot to be made too much of; but, at least, ulated, but not inspired, art? Or is it, one ought not to be ashamed of them with other products of art, due to that in company.

If there are abstract expression of personality through craftsterms which can safely be employed off- manship which we call genius? To the hand, the terms of literary criticism are last put question I should say yes; conhardly among them. What wonder ? fessing faith in personal inspiration as


the essential force in literature, and in fords him a surer foothold at the outset. the relative rather than absolute charac- Pure journalism has no need of genius; ter of such personal inspiration, or gen- it is an enterprise, not an emprise. It ius. I think of literature not as ceas records fact, and on the basis of such ing to exist beyond the confines of poetry fact utters the opinion of partisan conand belles-lettres, but as embracing what sensus, of editorial policy, or, at its point ever of the printed word presents, in of nearest approach to literature, of inany degree, a personal interpretation of dividual intelligence.) life. What he is and has,

some touch

But it happens that pure journalism of genius, some property of wisdom, is hardly more common than pure litersome hold (however partial and uncon ature. The “spark of genius” is, one scious) upon the principles of literary must think, more than a metaphor. If art, — these things enable a writer for it did not often appear in writers whose interpretative or “creative ” work. principal conscious effort is given to the

utilization of talent, there would be no

question of anything more than contrast From this point of view journalism between literature and journalism. has, strictly, no literary aspect; it has There is a mood in which every thoughtcertain contacts with literature, and that ful reader or writer is sure to sympais all. The real business of journalism is thize with a favorite speculation of the to record or to comment, not to create or late Sir Leslie Stephen's. “I rather to interpret. In its exercise of the record- doubt,” he expressed it not long ago in ing function it is a useful trade, and in the pages of the Atlantic, " whether the its commenting office it takes rank as a familiar condemnation of mediocre poetprofession ; but it is never an art. As ry should not be extended to medioca trade it may apply rules, as a profes- rity in every branch of literature. ... sion it may enforce conventions ; it The world is the better, no doubt, even not embody principles of universal truth for an honest crossing-sweeper. But I and beauty as art embodies them. {It is often think that the value of second-rate essentially impersonal, in spirit and in literature is not small, but — simply method.) A journalist cannot, as a jour. zero. . . . If one does not profess to be nalist, speak wholly for himself; he a genius, is it not beșt to console one's would be like the occasional private cit self with the doctrine that silence is izen who nominates himself for office. golden, and take, if possible, to the spade A creator of literature is his own can or the pickaxe, leaving the pen to one's didate, his own caucus, his own argu- betters ?” ment, and his own elector. It is aut One's betters, it is, after all, an inCæsar aut nullus with him, as with the definite phrase. Are they only the best? aspirant in

any other form of art. This Attempts to establish an accurate rankis why an unsuccessful author is so much ing of genius have proved idle enough. more conspicuous an object of ridicule It is not altogether agreed whether the than other failures. He has proposed greatest names can be counted on the finhimself for a sort of eminence, and gers of one hand or of two; it is fairly has proved to be no better than a Chris- well understood that they are worth all tian or an ordinary man. He might, the other names “put together.” But perhaps, have been useful in some more does it follow that all the other names practical way, — for instance, in journal- are, therefore, worth nothing? The footism, which offers a respectable mainte- hills have never been quite put to shame nance, at least, to the possessor of verbal by the loftiest summits. I do not see talent. Its ex parte impersonality af- that it is altogether admirable, this in


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