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Why has an apostrophe been inserted as a mark of the possessive case singular of substantives in modern English, while it is not so inserted in the nominative case plural? Give some account of these two case-endings.

Write down and derive all words in extract (6) of question 5 that are not of Anglo-Saxon origin. Give some account of the word harnays.

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CHAUCER. THE KNIGHTES TALE.

Whence did Chaucer derive materials for his Knightes Tale? Give a brief account of the writings of Boccaccio.

In what play of Shakespeare is Theseus introduced, and how? What do you know about “King Capaneus” (1. 74), “Creon” (l. 80), and "Thebes” as referred to in the Knightes Tale?

3. Explain the scansion of the following lines :-117, 176, 248, 267, 513, 688, 785.

Give three instances in which “ Arcite" is accented on the first syllable.

4. Write out, in modern English prose, the passages 147– 166; also 298–310; also 663—681; with a few notes on expressions that seem remarkable.

5. Give from memory, in your own words, a good description of the temple and statue of Mars.

6. In lines 1282—1319, explain the words-cote-armure, harnays, for-blak, alauntz, mosel, torettz, fyled, dyapred, cowched, bret-ful, cytryn, freknes, yspreynd, ymeynd, deduyt. Give, if you can, the derivations of dyapred, cowched, bret-ful, ymeynd, and deduyt.

7. In 11. 417–432, make a list of all the purely English words, not of French origin. Give the German words answering to them, as well as you can, where cognate German words can be found.

8. Beginning at 1. 320, explain why the finale should be pronounced in foughte, kyte, wrothe, leeve, moote, tweye, hadde (330), highte.

9. Explain fully the phrases-
(a) for to deyen in the peyne (275).
(6) Wel hath fortune ytorned the the dys (380).
(c) We witen nat, &c.- -mows (402, 403).
(d) And writen--graunte (447, 448).
(e) I noot which hath the wofullere myster (482).

his selle fantastyk (518). (8) Ne sette I nought (712). (h) his thonkes (768).

Explain and derive the words dereyne or darrayne ; purveans, breeme, waymenting, felonye, schode, qualme, outhees (1154).

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CHAUCER. THE MAN OF LAWES TALE. THE CLERKES

TALE. THE FRANKELEYNES TALE.

2.

1. Distinguish between the definite and indefinite forms of declension of adjectives, and between strong and weak verbs, in Early English. Give the past tenses singular and plural, in the third person, of the verbs heren, callen, hiden, leden, tellen, breken, speken, binden, helpen.

Translate the passages :

(a) Se pe sæwą, word he sæw. Sozlice pa synt wið þone weg þar þæt word is gesawen; and bonne hi hit gehyrað, sona cymd satanas and afyrt þæt word te on heora heortan asawen ys.

(6) Lasse ! dit-elle, quant me fera Dieu cette grace que veoir le puisse une fois avant ce que la mort me prengne ?

How does Chaucer, in his Prologue, describe the Man of Lawe, the Clerke, and the Frankeleyn? Whence does the Man of Lawes Tale seem to have been taken, and where are similar stories to be found ?

3. Write out, in modern English prose, the following passages from the Man of Lawes Tale (Harl. MS.], with notes upon the etymology or grammatical construction of the words italicized. (a) Your bagges beth nat fuld with ambes aas,

But with sys synk, that renneth on your chaunce. (6) Ful pale arist, and dresseth hir to wende.

Ther thou were wel, fro thennes artow weyved.
(d) For we reneyed Mahound oure creaunce.
(e) The unwar woo that cometh ay bihynde.
(f) That he nas al to-hewe or he asterted.
Also explain fully the passage:
(8) O firste mevyng cruel firmament,

With thi diurnal swough that crowdest ay,
And hurlest al fro est to occident,
That naturelly wolde hold another way;
Thyn crowdyng sette the heven in such array
At the begynnyng of this fiers viage,
That cruel Martz hath slain this marriage.

4. Explain the following words occurring in the Man of Lawes Tale, giving (where you can), their derivations :-grefhed, almesse, yore, in-feere, welful, wissch, triacle, agrise, eggement, renegat, herberjourz.

Explain the phrases :-no fors they I spille-strayte of Marrok-wel his gurdel underpight-it am I. Who was the

Egipcien Marie"? Who was “Semyram”? What is meant by "Jubalter and Septe"?

5. Briefly sketch the story of Grisildes. Whence did Chaucer obtain it, and what other stories resemble it? Where is Saluces ? Trace the course of the river Po.

6. Write out, in modern English prose, the following passages from the Clerkes Tale, pt. vi., with any notes that you may deem necessary : (a) I have no womman suffisant certeyne

The chambres for tarray in ordinance
After my lust, and therfor wold I feyne
That thin were al such maner governaunce ;
Thou knowest eek of al my pleasaunce ;
Though thyn array be badde, and ille byseye,

Do thou thy dever atte leste weye.
(6) She ferd as sche had stert out of a sleepe,

Til sche out of hir masidnesse abrayde.
(c) For swich a womman was so pacient

Unto a mortal man, wel more us oughte
Receyven al in gre that God us sent;

For gret skil is he prove that he wroughte.
(d) Lest Chichivache yow swolwe in hir entraille.

7. Explain and derive the words :-to Emyl-ward, curtesie, flokmel, fonde, richesse, sadnesse, to-race, herie, roughte, throp, threisshfold, nowches, undern, chamayle; also the phrases :-on hunting rood—al had hir lever han had a knave childe-in every maner wise—but it be falle of newe-couche as doth a quayleas light as lef on lynde. (All from the Clerkes Tale).

8. Give some account of the “Breton laies." What is there peculiar about the Frankeleynes Prologe? Where is Penmark?

9. Explain, with notes, the following passages from the Frankeleynes Tale :

(a) To liven in ese suffrance hir behight.

(6) Phebus wax old, and hewed lyk latoun,

That in his hoote declinacioun
Schon as the burned gold, with stremes brighte;
But now in Capricorn adoun he lighte,

Wher as he schon ful pale.
(c) He knew ful wel how fer Allnath was schove

Fro the heed of thilk fixe Aries above,
That in the fourthe speere considred is.
[Is "fourthe speere” (from the Harleian MS.) the right

reading?]
(d) Lo, which a wif was Alceste, quod sche.
(e) The parfyt wyfhod of Artemesye

Honoured is thurgh al the Barbarie. 10. Explain and derive the words - delitables, virelayes, warisshed, guerdon, sursanure, Tollitanes, yonde, wiste, remenaunt, tregetoures, lissed, nowell. [From the Frank. Tale].

CHAUCER. THE MAN OF LAWES TALE.

THE MONKES TALE,

I.

2.

State clearly the position of Mæso-Gothic amongst the Indo-European languages, and the value of it in comparative philology. Who was Ulfilas?

Translate: þa com to him his modor and his gebroðra and þar-ute stodon and to him sendon and to him clypedon. And mycel menigu ymb hine sæt and to him cwædon, her is þin modor and pine gebrofra ute and secaþ þe.

Which of these words are now obsolete?

3. What inflexions are found in Chaucer to denote the indicative plural, the imperative plural, the infinitive mood, and the past participles of strong and of weak verbs? Give two instances in every case.

4. How does Chaucer describe the Man of Lawe in his Prologue ? On what day of the month and at what time of the day do you suppose the Man of Lawes Tale to have been told? Briefly sketch the contents of the tale, as far as the marriage of Constance.

5. Whence did Chaucer probably derive the Man of Lawes Tale? What other tales resemble it? Point out any anachronisms in the story.

6. Give the exact sense of the following passages from the

Man of Lawes Tale, with notes upon the etymology or grammatical construction of the words italicized.

(a) For we reneyed Mahoun oure creaunce.
(6) Flemer of feendes out of hym and here.
(c) But he, that starf for our redempcioun

And bond Sathan, (and yit lyth ther he lay).
(d) For, but if Crist open myracle kithe.

He drank, and wel his girdel vnderpight.

Up peine of hanging and of high juwise.
(g) She herieth God an hundred thousand sithe.

7. Explain and derive the words—grenehede, sweigh, infere, Alkaron, Atazir, fonge, tohewe, frete, asterte, algates, agryse, sonde, gauren, vnwemmed, herbergeours, halwes.

Explain the allusions to Semiramis, Judith, the 'Egipcien Marie,' Lucan, the strayte of Marrok,' and 'Jubalter and Septe.'

8. How does Chaucer define 'tragedie'? Upon what work by Boccaccio is Chaucer's Monkes Tale founded, and by whom was that work translated ? Give some account of Zenobia, Antiochus, and Ugolino of Pisa.

How do we know that the story of Cresus ought to be the last of the series, as in the Harleian MS. ?

9. Explain clearly these lines from the Monkes Tale:
(a) He slow, and al to-rente the leon. (Sam.)

Out of a wang-toth sprang anon a welle. (id.)
Crouned she was, as after hire degree,

And ful of pierrie charged hire clothing. (Zen.)
(d) Thy sis fortune hath turned into an as. (Alex.)
(e) And eke a sweven upon a night he mette. (Cres.)

10. Explain and derive the words-querne, loute, sikernesse, pierrie, stoures, wlatsom, bodekins, guerdoun. Discuss the prefix to- in compound verbs.

CHAUCER. THE CLERKES TALE. THE SQUYERES TALE.

I.

What letters were used in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet that are not employed now? How were accents used in Anglo-Saxon? Explain how the words ways, way's, and ways' came to assume their present form.

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