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[REFERENCES TO CLARENDON PRESS' EDITION. 1. Distinguish between the Vision of Piers the Plowman and the Ploughman's Crede. To what authors may the “Deposition of Richard II.” and the “Plowman's Tale” be probably assigned?

In what various forms is the poem of the Vision of Piers the Plowman found? What is the probable date of the second form of it? What was the design of the author, and what estimate do you form of the work?

3. Explain very briefly what is meant by alliterative metre; and name some poems which have been written in it.

4. Enumerate the four cardinal virtues, and the seven deadly sins with their opposites. Distinguish between a monk, a friar, a pardoner, and a pilgrim.

5. Paraphrase and explain the following passages, with brief notes where required: (a) I fonde pere Freris. alle be foure ordres,

Preched be peple for profit of hem-seluen,
Glosed be gospel · as hem good lykęd,
For coueitise of copis · construed it as bei wolde.
Many of þis maistres Freris · mowe clopen hem at

For here money and marchandise · marchen togideres.
For sith charite hap be chapman and chief to shryue

Many ferlis han fallen in a fewe yeris.
But holy chirche and hij · holde better togideres,
The most myschief on molde · is mountyng wel faste.

(Prol. 58.)
(6) Loue is leche of lyf · and nexte owre lorde selue,
And also þe graith gate · þat goth in-to heuene.

(i. 202.)
(c) Ouer al yhowted - and yhote trusse. (ii. 218.)
(d) Cowardliche þow, conscience conseiledst hym þennes,

To leuen his lordeschip. for a litel siluer,
That is be richest rewme · þat reyne ouer houeth.

(iii. 205.) (e) Forstalleth my feyres and fighteth in my chepynge... And taketh me but a taile • for ten quarteres of otes.

(iv. 56.) (s) And til seynt Iames be soughte · þere I shal assigne,

That no man go to Galis . but if he go for euere;
And alle Rome-renneres · for robberes of by-yonde
Bere no siluer ouer see pat signe of kynge sheweb.

(iv. 126.)
(8) Two risen vp in rape ·and rouned togideres,
And preised pese penyworthes apart bi hem-selue.

(v. 333.) (h) Laboureres þat haue no lande • to lyue on but her

Deyned nought to dyne a day.nyght-olde wortes;
May no peny ale hem paye .ne no pece of bakoun,
But if it be fresch flesch other fische • fryed other bake,
And þat chaud or plus chaud. for chillyng of here mawe.

(vi. 309.)
(i) Catoun and canonistres · conseilleth vs to leue
To sette sadnesse in songewarie · for sompnia ne cures.

(vii. 149.) (k) Biennales and triennales and bisschopes lettres.

(vii. 170.) 6. Explain the phrases:-I shope me in shroudes (pr. 2)— tho roberdes knaues (pr. 44)—worth bothe his eres (pr. 78)— blered here eyes (pr. 74)-lat pe catte worthe (pr. 187)—loue is triacle of heuene (i. 146)-purfiled with pelure (ii

. 9 and leten sompne alle segges (ii

. 158)--toke hym a noble (iii. 45)—brenne hem to ded (iii. 265)-drynke myd be doke (v. 75)-peny ale and podyng ale (v. 220)—nempned hym for a noumpere (v. 337)-a somer game of souteres (v. 413)-mele tyme of seintes (v. 500)— in a withewyndes wise (v. 525)—I ne wot where pei bicome (v. 651)-bis wastoures wolueskynnes (vi. 163) —lete lighte of þe lawe (vi. 170).

7. Explain and (where you can) derive the words:-fauel ---regrateres-louedayes-baslarde--gadelynges—bayard-hokkerye — burdoun - ampulles — kerneled — caroigne-losengerie courtpies—chibolles-coket and clerematyn-hailsed-sweuene.


Give some account of the various editions, and of the MSS., of this poem. What is its probable date, and what other poem may be attributed to the same author?

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2. Explain clearly the difference between this poem and “The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman," What different estimates do the authors take of the ploughman?

3. Give some account of the four principal orders of Mendicant Friars. Distinguish between a friar and a monk, and between secular and regular clergy.

4. Write out, in modern English prose, the following passages, with notes on the etymology or grammatical construction of the words italicized: (a) But what glut of tho gomes · may any good kachen,

He will kepen it hym-self and cofren it faste,
And theigh his felawes fayle good · for him he may

Her money may biquest. & testament maken,

And no obedience bere but don as hem luste. (67.) (6) And all was walled that wone · though it wid were,

With posternes in pryuytie .to pasen when hem liste;
Orcheyardes and erberes · euesed well clene,
And a curious cros · craftly entayled,

With tabernacles y-tight. to toten all abouten. (164.) (c) Tombes opon tabernacles · tyld opon lofte,

Housed in hirnes · harde set abouten,

Of armede alabaustre · clad for the nones. (181.)
(d) All y-hyled with leed • lowe to the stones,

And y-paued with peynt til .iche poynte after other;
With kundites of clene tin • closed all aboute,
With lauoures of latun. louelyche y-greithed.
I trowe the gaynage of the ground in a gret schire
Nolde aparaile that place. oo poynt til other ende.

(193.) (e) So of that beggers brol.a bychop schal worthen,

Among the peres of the lond. prese to sitten,
And lordes sones lowly .to tho losells aloute ;
Knyghtes crouketh hym to:& crucheth full lowe;
And his syre a soutere'y-suled in grees,
His teeth with toylinge of lether • tatered as a sawe!

(748.) 5. Explain the following words, with derivations:

awyrien, betaughte, chapolories, crochettes, gleym, pomels, pylion, wolward. What is the meaning of the phrases—as digne as dich waterto be at lone and bode-a terre powgheunder a pot he schal be put-gold by the eighen ?



6. Give a brief account of the scansion of unrimed alliterative

What is the ordinary average number of syllables in a line, and how much may this number vary?

7. Give some account of the Golias poems, and of Walter Mapes. Also, some account of Walter Brute.

8. What was the opinion of the author of the “Crede” on the subject of transubstantiation? How was this opinion treated in the earliest printed edition?

9. The glossary to the earliest printed edition explains frayning by forsaking-graith by truthdreccheth by drouneth, mystremen by nedy men. Correct these explanations.

From what poem is the following extract? Carefully paraphrase and explain it.

That one side is, that I of tell,

Popes, cardinals, and prelates,
Parsons, monkes, and freres fell,

Priours, abbots, of great estates;

Of heaven and hell they keepe the yates,
And Peters successours they been all;

This is deemed by old dates;
But falshed, foule mote it befall!
The other side ben poore and pale,

And people put out of prease,
And seeme caitives sore a-cale,

And ever in one without encrease;

Icleped lollers and londlese;
Who toteth on hem, they ben untall,

They ben araied all for the peace;
But falshed-foule mote it befall!




Give the substance of Ascham's account of the circumstances under which he undertook to write the “ Scholemaster."

What are the advantages and disadvantages of "quick" and “hard wits” respectively? How does Ascham make use of Socrates to support his opinion on this matter?

3. Recapitulate the complaints of the corruption of manners, contained in the first book. How do you account for the fact that


the Elizabethan age appeared to the author to be more degenerate than that of the early Tudor monarchs ?

4. What are the demerits of Paraphrase as a method of learning a language? (p. 96.)

5. Describe Ascham's project of a treatise on "Imitation," and the benefits he expected to result from it. (p. 128.)

6. Criticize the author's opinion about “meter" with especial reference to the two following quotations, and discuss the question of introducing Classical metres into English.

“The meter and verse of Plautus and Terence be verie meane and not to be followed.” (p. 144.)

M. Cheke and M. Watson...wished that we Englishmen would acknowledge and vnderstand rightfully our rude beggerly ryming, brought first into Italie by Gothes and Hunnes" (p. 145.)

7. Comment on the spelling of the following words: chaunge, beholding, barbariousnesse, shamefast, leesing, hable, abhominable, chanons, misteries, exchewe.

8. Explain the following passages:
“Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese.” (p. 54.).

“Euen the best translation is but an euill imped wing to flie withall.” (p. 127.)

“He could turn his Portesse and pie readilie.” (p. 136.)

“So moch is spent in finding out fine fetches and packing vp pelting matters.” (p. 143.)

“A postillating Polyanthean clergyman.” (Ed. Mayor, p. 237.)

“Such beggarlie gatheringes as Horman, Whittington, and other like vulgares for making of latines” (p. 110.)

9. Illustrate from Shakespeare the use made of the following words, viz. :-rascall, commoditie

, shrewd, filed, good cheape, an other maner care," " to trust of a person,moe, fet.

Give some account of the following men: Sir John Cheke, Sir W. Cecill, Gabriel Harvey, Nicolas Udal, Johannes Sturmius, and Desiderius Erasmus.

Write a short Essay on “Cambridge during the sixteenth century” from the materials supplied by the “Scholemaster.”




Trace clearly the pedigree of the English language. Is Anglo-Saxon grammar mainly synthetic or analytic? Explain what is meant by those terms.


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