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Tho heo was therinne ido, the vrthe quakede anon,
Suythe grisliche aboute, that that folc dradde echon;
That maide yeode out of the water, tho hit seothinge was,
Among al that folc, that no the wors hire nas.
Louerd, moche is thi mighte, as me mai aldai iseo,
That eni thing in such tourment alyue mighte beo.
Vyf thousend in the place, tho hi that iseghe,
Tournde anon to cristendom, and herede oure louerd heghe.
Tho the iustise that isegh, he gan to grede and grone,
He:nom this men that tournde so, and smot of hire heuedes echone,
And let nyme ek this holi maide, and smyte of hire heued also,
That heo were ibroght of lyue, and be out of wo.

SEINTE MARGARETE, 1, 245 (ed. Cockayne, p. 31).





State what you know of the two great Italian writers to whom Chaucer may be supposed to be indebted, and of their works. How do we know that Chaucer visited Italy? What was the date and what the occasion of his visit? Could he then have seen the writers referred to above?

Give a narrative of the circumstances of the Pilgrims' journey, quoting where you can the lines in which the different places on the route are named, and give and support your views as to the resting-places at night, and the number of days occupied in the journey. How do you reconcile the line

Lo heer is Depford, and it is passed prime (Reves P.) with I wol not tarien you, for it is prime, which occurs in the Squire's Tale? Explain fully the word "prime,”

3. Quote, or give the substance of the description of Chaucer himself. What tale does he tell, and what is the Host's opinion of it? Can you account for Chaucer's own tale being of the kind it is?

4. What is meant by a “measure” in versification? Of how many measures did Chaucer's verse consist ? What are masculine and feminine rhymes? In what does the cæsura consist? Select six lines from any of the passages cited in this paper, exemplifying varieties in the position of the cæsura. Accentuatë the following line so as to shew the versification :

That on his schyne a mormal hadde he. (Prol. 386.) What particular effect has the cæsura here?

5. Paraphrase the following passages so closely as to shew that you understand the full drift, as well as the meaning and grammatical construction of every word.

(a) Chaucer's Prologue, beginning A fewe termes” (1. 639), ending “al here red” (1. 665); ed. Morris.

Which personage is here described ?

(6) The Milleres Prologue; first 19 lines.

Discuss, with reference to the derivations, the meanings of the words : namely, avale, unnethe, quyte. Explain "unbokeled is the male,” and “Pilates voys.”

6. State the sources from which the final e arises in Chaucer, and refer all the cases in the assages given in question (5) to their proper head.

Render into Chaucer's English these sentences. The wife of Bath's tale. He was thirty winters old. I do not at all know why, but I had rather sleep, than have the best gallon of wine that is in Cheapside. 7. Explain the following lines, especially the words in italics:

Yet in oure aisshen old is fyr i-reke. (Reves P.): Give the familiar quotation answering to this, stating where it comes from.

The streem of lyf now droppeth on the chymbe,
The sely tonge may wel rynge and chimbe
Of wrecchednes, that passed is ful yoore. (Reves P.)
Al pomely gray. (Prol. 616.) Dun is in the myre. (Mancip. P.)
Ne makede him a spiced conscience. (Prol. 526.)
As doth a dowfe sitting on a berne. (Pard. P.)
What maner man that casteth him therto,
If he continue, I holde his thrist i-do. (Chan. Yem. P. 185.)
For Catoun saith, that he that gulty is
Demeth al thing be spoke of him I-wis. (Chan. Yem. P.)
That oughte like yow, as I suppose,
Or elles certes ye be to daungerous. (Pr. to Mel.)

Now good men,' quod our Hoste, ‘herkneth to me,
I smell a loller in the wind,' quod he. (Shipm. P.)
Wher as the Poo out of a welle smal
Takith his firste springing and his sours....
To Emylward, to Ferare, and to Venise. (Cler. P.)

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In youthe he made of Ceys and Alcioun. (Man of Lawes P.)
Of whom is this said ?
8. Derive and explain the following :

Jeupardie, nightertale, queynte, peytrel, metayn, doughty, constabil, cheere (cheere of court), abhominable.

Point out the situation of the following places:

Fynestere, Ypres, Gaunt, Lettowe, Gernade, Middelburgh, Orewelle.



THE CLERKES TALE. THE SQUYERES TALE. I. What were the chief political and religious movements in England in Chaucer's time? In what way was he connected with any of them? Are any traces of his own leanings observable in his writings?

Enumerate the personages in the party of pilgrims to Canterbury. Where did they first halt? Relate the incidents of the journey. At what period does the poem break off?

3. Give an account of the position occupied or the calling followed by a Franklin, a Frere, a Sompnour, a Manciple, a Pardoner, a Reeve, and a Sergeant-at-Law in Chaucer's time.

4. Sketch out a description of the Squire and of the Clerk of Oxenford as vividly as you can, keeping true to Chaucer's conception.

5. Point out the various significations of the final e in Chaucer with regard to nouns and adjectives, both as marking derivation and inflexion, and quote an example of every case.

6. What grammatical forms are used by Chaucer for :
The plural of the present indicative,
The imperative mood in all its parts,
The infinitive mood,
The participles ?
Give an instance in every case.

7. On what principle do you suppose the metre of the Prologue to be constructed ? Quote the first twelve lines. Shew by vertical bars the metrical divisions of each line, and by a short dash the position of the cæsura.

8. Explain any grammatical peculiarities in the following lines :

In hope to stonden in his lady grace (88).
Hire grettest oothe nas but by seynt Loy (120).


Ther as this lord was kepere of the selle (172).
Woo was his cook, but if his sauce were
Poynaunt and scharp, and redy al his gere (351).
Ye schapen yow to talen and to pleye (772).
Ye ryde as stille and coy as doth a mayde
Were newe spoused, sittyng at the bord. (Cler. P.)
For Goddis sake! as beth of better cheere. (Cler. P.)
He leet the fest of his nativite
Don cryen, thurghout Sarray his cite. (Sq. Ta. 37.)

9. Explain the following terms and expressions, giving the application of them and the derivation, where it is necessary : wastel breed-a for-pyned goost-a lymytour-a thikke knarrenose-thurles—flok-mel—lodemenage-a spiced conscienceQuestio quid jurisa Significavitto Emyl-ward-dere y-nough a jane-bachelerie--throp-unnethe-chamber of parementz. Give the legend attaching to the word vernicle.

Give short explanations of the following passages :
Seynt Julian he was in his countré,
His breed, his ale, was alway after oon (340).
In daunger hadde he at his owne assise
The yonge gurles of the diocise,
And knew here counseil, and was al here red.
A garland hadde he set upon his heed,
As gret as it were for an ale-stake;
A bokeler hadde he maad him of a cake (663).
Ye woot youre forward, and I it you recorde (829).
The tyme of undern of the same day. (Cl. Ta. pt. ii.)
Houses of office stuffid with plente. (id.)
In werk, ne thought, I nyl yow disobeye
For to be deed, though me were loth to deye. (id.)
Deth may make no comparisoun
Unto your love. (Cl. Ta. pt. iv.)
For sith a womman was so pacient
Unto a mortal man, wel more us oughte
Receyven al in gre that God us sent.
For gret skil is he prove that he wroughte,
But he ne temptith no man that he boughte,
As saith seint Jame, if ye his pistil rede;
He provith folk al day, it is no drede. (Cl. Ta. pt. vi.)
Lest Chichivache yow swolwe in hir entraile. (id.)
Ay clappith as a mylle, I yow counsaile. (id.)
That Gaweyn with his olde curtesye,


They he were come agein out of fayrye,
Ne couthe him nought amende with no word. (Sq. Ta. pt. i.)
So peynteth he and kembeth, point devys,
As well his wordes as his continaunce. (Sq. Ta. pt. ii.)

Give the derivations of countré, daunger, fayre, Sergeant-atLaw, fleur-de-lys.

Relate briefly the story of Griselda. State anything you know of the works from which Chaucer obtained it. What is the general effect of the touches which he himself gives? How would you describe the metre? Whence is it taken? What other tales are written in the same ?

12. Paraphrase the following passages, and write short notes explaining the allusions, and any grammatical or other difficulties:

Another answers, and sayd, it might wel be
Naturelly by composiciouns
Of angels, and of heigh reflexiouns;
And sayde that in Rome was such oon.
They speeke of Alhazen and Vitilyon,
And Aristotle, that writen in her lyves
Of queynte myrrours and of prospectyves,
As knowen they that han her bokes herd.
And other folk have wondred on the swerd,
That wolde passe thorughout every thing;
And fel in speche of Thelophus the kyng,
And of Achilles for his queynte spere,
For he couthe with it bothe hele and dere,
Right in such wise as men may with the swerd,
Of which right now ye have your-selven herd.

(Sq. Ta. Pt. i.)
Al were he ful of tresoun and falsnesse,
It was i-wrapped under humble cheere,
And under heewe of trouthe in such manere,
Under plesaunce, and under besy peyne,
That no wight wende that he couthe feyne,
So deep in greyn he deyed his colours. (Sq. Ta. pt. ii.)




What is the period at which the journey of Chaucer's Pilgrims is supposed to take place? What was the condition of

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