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(c) A song of Placebo. (xx.)
(d) The turning of the cat in the pan. (xxii.)
(e) The Helmet of Pluto. (xxi.)

Translate, and fully explain :-
(a) Dolendi modus, timendi non item. (xv.)

(6) Se non diversas spes, sed Incolumitatem Imperatoris simpliciter spectare. (xxii.)

(c) Mi venga la muerte de Spagna. (xxv.)

13. In what senses does Bacon use the words :-plausible, convince, assay, engrossing, assured, allow, triumphs, adamant, infamed, apposed, pretty looses, shrewd, pairs (verb), bravery?

ESSAYS. XXV–XXXV.

I.

“If

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dissemble sometimes your knowledge of that you are thought to know, you shall be thought another time to know that you know not." (xxxii.) Compare this passage with a similar one in the essay on “Seeming Wise."

Give the substance of Bacon's remarks on Solitude. What are the three principal fruits of friendship? Discuss the maxim : "Animi imbecilli est, partiri fortunam." (xxvii.)

3. Give Bacon's caution on the increase of nobility. What reasons does he give for the fall of Sparta ? And why did he think that Spain would prove an exception to his theory? (xxix.)

4. “Those states that have professed armes but for an age have commonly attained that greatness in that age, which maintained them long after, when their profession and exercise of arms hath growen to decay.” (xxix.)

Illustrate this observation.
5. What are the uses and justification of war? (xxix.)

6. Suspicions are “defects not in the heart, but in the braine.” Explain this statement. What use should be made of suspicions ?

(xxxi.) 7. Wherein may a man commend himself with a good grace ? What are the things privileged from jest?

A good continued speech without a good speech of interlocution, shews slownesse.” Explain this, and give Bacon's continuation of the sentence with the illustration. (xxxii.)

8. “It is a shamefull thing to take the scumme of people to be the people with whom you plant." Illustrate this by reference to the history of the British Colonies. (xxxiii.)

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9. Why may riches be called the baggage of virtue ?

Comment on the different means of gain. What is the objection to parsimony? Distinguish between parsimony, frugality, and economy. (xxxiv.)

Give Bacon's examples of remarkable prophecies. (xxxv.)
Illustrate the following quotations :-

Terra potens armis atque ubere glebæ. (xxix.)

Sospetto licencia fede. (xxxi.)

In what senses does Bacon use the words sufficiency: curious: blanche: quarrel : check: prospective: perish : offence : flout: touch : experience?

What examples of loss in the English language do these essays show?

13. "Plutus, when sent from Jupiter, limps, and goes slowly, but when he is sent from Pluto, he runnes, and is swift of foot.” (xxxiv.) Give Bacon's explanations.

14. Epimenides the Candian (xxvii.); Apollonius of Tyana (xxvii.); Tigranes the Armenian (xxix.); Duke Charles the Hardy (xxvii.). What use does Bacon make of these names ?

15. Write a short essay in imitation of the style of Bacon on "Fortitude."

ESSAYS. XXXVIII–LVIII.

I.

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Whence did Bacon derive the remark that “Force maketh Nature more violent in the Returne”? What degrees of management may obtain a victory over nature ? How should one order one's studies ? (xxxviii.)

Who were Friar Clement, Ravaillac, Jaureguy, and Baltazar Gerard ? Give examples of the force of custom. (xxxix.)

3. In what respect is Fortune like the Milken Way? Contrast Timoleon's Fortune with that of Agesilaus and Epaminondas. (xl.)

4. “It is against Nature for Money to beget Money.” Illustrate this from Shakespeare. Contrast the discommodities of Usury with its commodities. What restrictions does Bacon propose to put upon Usury? (xli.)

5. Who were Cosmus duke of Florence, and Gaston de Foix? What does a certain Rabbin infer from the text_“Your Young Men shall see visions," &c. ? (xlii.)

6. “There is no excellent Beauty that hath not some

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Strangenesse in the Proportion.” Give reasons for this. What does Bacon say of Ismael, Sophy of Persia? (xliii.)

7. How does Bacon prove that “all Deformed Persons are extreme Bold”? Give examples of deformed persons who have proved excellent. (xliv.)

8. What things make an ill seat for a house ? Describe the two sides of Bacon's “Princely Pallace.” What does he say about fountains and pools? (xlv.) 9.

“ All Practise is to Discover or to Worke." How does Bacon explain what he means by this ? (xlvii.)

“ The Vale best discovereth the Hill.” How does Bacon apply this? Is friendship greater, in your opinion, between equals or between unequals, and why? (xlviii).

Give Bacon's rules for reading and the use of books. (1.)

“When One of two Factions is Extinguished, the Remaining Subdivideth.” Illustrate this from history. What is referred to in the words—“As was to be seene in the League of France”? (li.)

13. How should one use Ceremonies ? Explain the phrase laudando præcipere. (lii.)

14. Give the "true Marshalling of the Degrees of Soveraigne Honour," with examples. (lv.) 15.

Enumerate some of the principal duties of a judge, and the parts of a judge in hearing. (lvi.)

What were Bacon's opinions concerning the people of the New World, and concerning Comets ? Discuss the rise and probable success of new sects, and the changes and vicissitude in wars. (lviii.)

17. Explain the following words and phrases serpens, nisi serpentem comederit, non fit dracodesemboltura-poco di mattovena porta-queeching-take the plie-stonds-reiglement-usurers should have orange-tawney bonnets-men in appetite-a knap of groundwhich lurcheth all provisionscare not to innovateultima primis cedebant-newellcornelians- wardens - welts-gloriousprimum mobile-point devicesbirrerie-siete partidas-purprisearietations.

ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING.

1. Give a brief sketch, with dates, of the life of Bacon; ard mention some of his chief works.

2. Discuss the discredits of Learning arising from learned men themselves.

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3. “In arts mechanical the first deviser comes shortest, and time addeth and perfecteth ; but in sciences the first author goes furthest, and time leeseth and corrupteth” (ed. Wright, p. 37). How does Bacon shew this to be the case ?

4. “The greatest error of all the rest is the mistaking or misplacing of the last or furthest end of knowledge” (p. 42). Fully explain Bacon's meaning here.

5. In what ways is the dignity of Learning shewn by divine testimony? (44.)

6. Illustrate the felicity of times under learned princes by a survey of the age which passed from the death of Domitian until the reign of Commodus. (53.)

Shew that the monuments of wit are more durable than the monuments of power. (72.).

7. * Just and perfect history is of three kinds.” What are these kinds ? Note some deficiencies in them. Enumerate the "appendices to history." (91.)

8. What are the three divisions of poesy? Describe allusive or parabolical poetry, illustrating your description by the fables of the birth of Fame, Briareus helping Jupiter, and the education of Achilles by Chiron. (102.)

How did Aristotle expound the fable of Atlas ? and how does Bacon apply the fable of Jupiter's golden chain? (158; 109.)

9. How does Bacon report of physicians and of the. science of medicine? How does he define “artificial divination” and “ fascination"? (137 ; 144 ; 146.)

How does Bacon report of the “invention of arts and sciences”? Why are words like “a Tartar's bow”? (149 ; 163.)

Define "antitheta" and "formulæ." (181.)

II. Decide “the question touching the preferment of the contemplative or active life.” Explain the “household terms of promus and condus." (190; 193.)

12. Recite some precepts for ordering the exercises of the mind. Is the position "Faber quisque fortunæ suæ" a sound one? (202;227.)

13. Translate, and explain Bacon's use of, the following:

(a) Non uti ut non appetas, non appetere ut non metuas, sunt animi pusilli et diffidentis. (196.) (6) Qui finem vitæ extremum inter munera ponat

Naturæ. (197)
(c) Iter pigrorum quasi sepes spinarum. (222.)
(d) Omnia mutantur, nil interit. (107.)
(e) Di mentira, y sacaras verdad. (231.)

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14. Explain: (1) "some writings have more of the eagle than others” (225); and (2)“the opinion that man was microcosmus.(134.) Give the sense of the following words, with their etymologies :vermiculate, digladiation, platform, remora, grift, acatalepsia, illaqueation, redargution, longanimity, lidger, funambulo, baladine, bird-witted, colliquation, droumy, maniable, suppeditation.

MILTON'S COMUS.

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(THE REFERENCES ARE TO THE LINES, AS NUMBERED BY

D. CLEVELAND.] 1. Give some account of John Milton, and enumerate some of his principal works.

Give a sketch of the poem of “Comus,” and state the circumstances which gave rise to its composition. Where is Ludlow Castle situated ?

3. What sort of entertainment was a Mąsk”? What part did Henry Lawes take in the representation of Comus ?

4. Whom does Milton call the parents of Comus ? Give the story of Circe and Ulysses.

ś. Write out in ordinary English prose the following passages, so as to shew clearly their meaning, with explanations of any words that seem to require it; and state which words are now differently spelt.

Thus I hurl
My dazling Spells into the spungy ayr,
Of power to cheat the eye with blear illusion,
And give it false presentments, lest the place
And my quaint habits breed astonishment,
And put the Damsel to suspicious flight,
Which must not be, for that's against my course ;
I under fair pretence of friendly ends
And well plac't words of glozing courtesie,
Baited with reasons not unplausible,
Wind me into the easie-hearted man,

And hug him into snares. (153–164.)
(6)

Where els
Shall I inform my unacquainted feet

In the blind mazes of this tangl’d Wood? (179—181.) (c)

Coarse complexions
And cheeks of sorry grain will serve to ply

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