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public affairs in England at the time? In what way was Chaucer connected with the political movements of the day? At what time of life did he write this poem?

Give as vivid a portraiture as you can of the Host, the Prioresse, and the Sompnour. What was a Sompnour's business?

3. Specify all the different sources from which the final e in Chaucer arises, and quote lines containing instances in every case. In what words is the final e not sounded?

4. What name has been given to the verse of the Canterbury Tales? On what principle should you divide the verse into measure? What is the cæsura? Quote lines in which it falls in different positions, marking the place by a dash.

5. What is the derivation of the term Sergeant-at-Law? What was his position and professional status? Quote a passage from Chaucer's prologue shewing that in one important point their status was similar to what it still is. Explain the terms, parvys, purchasyng, caas, domes, by roote, which occur in the description of the Sergeant in the Prologue.

6. Paraphrase in prose the passage—“But first” down to "understonde” (11. 725—746), and give full explanations of the words rette, vilanye, cheere, moot, and degre.

7. At what time of the day and on what day of the journey do you suppose the Man of Lawes Tale to be told?

Write a sketch of the story in the best style you can, introducing quotations when you think fit.

8. Explain the following passages, pointing out the grammatical construction, derivation, or meaning of the words which are in Italics. (a) By cause that it was old and somdel streyt,

This ilke monk leet olde thinges pace (174). (6) He was not pale as a forpyned goost (205).

Seynt Julian he was in his countré.

His breed, his ale, was alway after oon (340).
(d) His table dormant in his halle alway (353).
(e) In daunger hadde he at his owne assize

The yonge gurles of the diocise (663).

His herbergh and his mone, his lodemenage (403).
(g) Ne makede him a spiced conscience (526).
(1) Acquyteth yow, and holdeth youre byheste;

Than have ye doon your devour atte leste. (Man of L. P.) What are Chaucer's usages as to the second pronoun plural, and the imperative mood ?

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9. Explain similarly the following passages from the Man of Lawes Tale. (See Specimens of English, ed. Morris and Skeat, p. 249.] (a) In Surrye whilom dwelte a companye

Of chapmen riche, and therto sadde and trewe (134). (6) I wrecche womman, no fors though I spille (285). (c) Thou knyttest thee ther thou art not receyued,

Ther thou were wel, fro thennes artow weyued (307). (d) A maner Latyn corrupt was hir speche (519).

Give instances of Chaucer's use of words denoting kind or quantity without a preposition after them. (e) But He that starf for oure redempcioun,

And bond Sathan, and yit lith ther he lay,
So be thy stronge champioun this day;
For but if Crist open myracle kithe

Withouten gilt thou shalt be slayn as swithe (633). (5) Toward his deth, wher as him gat no grace (647).




FRANKELEYNES TALE. To what kind of literary work did Chaucer first apply himself? Name his principal works, pointing out such as were translations or adaptations, and giving in such cases as far as you can the name, age, and country of the original authors.

What was the position of a Franklin, as to his social condition and the tenure of his lands? Give as vivid a description as you can of the Franklin of the Pilgrimage.

3. Write as full an account as you can of Chaucer's usages as regards the imperative mood, giving examples in illustration of them.

4. What notices have we as to the time of day at the different points of the journey? How many days do you suppose the journey to have occupied, and how should you divide it?

5. Paraphrase in prose the following passage, and write notes on all the words in italics, explaining the meanings and giving the derivations where you can do so: (a) The Mellere was a stout carl for the nones,

Ful big he was of braun, and eek of boones;
That prevede wel, for overal ther he cam,
At wrastlynge he wolde have alwey the ram.

He was schort schuldred, brood, a thikke knarre,
Ther nas no dore that he nolde heve of harre,
Or breke it at a rennying with his heed.
His berd as ony sowe or fox was reed,
And therto brood, as though it were a spade.
Upon the cop right of his nose he hade
A werte, and theron stood a tuft of heres,
Reede as the berstles of a sowes eeres.
His nose-thurles blake were and wyde.
A swerd and bocler baar he by his side.
His mouth as wyde was as a gret forneys.
He was a jangler, and a golyardeys,
And that was most of synne and harlotries.
Wel cowde he stele corn, and tollen thries;
And yet he hadde a thombe of gold, pardé.
A whit cote and a blewe hood werede he.
A baggepipe cowde he blowe and sowne,

And therwithal he broughte us out of towne. (Pr. 545.) (6) He to his hous is gon with sorweful herte.

He saith, he may not from his deth asterte.
Him semeth, that he felt his herte colde.
Up to the heven his hondes gan he holde,
And on his knees bare he set him doun,
And in his raving seid his orisoun.
For verray wo out of his wit he braide,
He nyst nouht what he spak, but thus he seide;
With pitous herte his pleynt hath he begonne
Unto the goddes, and first unto the sonne
He seid, "Apollo, God and governour
Of every plante, herbe, tre, and flour,
That givest after thy declinacioun
To eche of hem his tyme and seasoun,
As that thin herbergh chaungeth low and hihe;
Lord Phebus, cast thy merciable eye
On wrecche Aurilie, which that am for-lorn.
Lo, lord, my lady hath my deth y-sworn
Withouten gilt, but thy benignité
Upon my dedly herte have some pité.
For wel I wot, lord Phebus, if you lest,
Ye may me helpen, sauf my lady, best. (Fran. Ta. Harl. MS.)

6. Select from the above passages the cases in which the e final must be pronounced where it would not be so in modern English, and give in each case the rule or reason for this. In what words or classes of words is the final e not sounded in Chaucer?

7. Explain the following lines, and write notes on the grammar, meaning, and etymology of the words in Italics: (a) His purchas was wel better than his rente;

And rage he couthe and pleyen as a whelpe,
In love-dayes couthe he mochel helpe (256).

Why has helpe a final e?
(6) Wel couthe he in eschaunge scheeldes selle.

This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette;
Ther wiste no man that he was in dette,
So estately was he of governaunce,

With his bargayns, and with his chevysaunce (278). (c) And ran to Londone, unto seynte Poules,

To seeken him a chaunterie for soules,
Or with a bretherhede to ben withholde (509).
It were me lever than twenty pound worth lond. (Fran. P.)

Give analogous instances of Chaucer's use of the word maner. (d) Which layes with here instrumentes thei songe,

Other elles redden them for her plesaunce. (Fran. P.)

Derive elles. Explain other. (e) Colours of rethorik ben to me queynte. (Fran. P.)

Discuss the etymology of queynte. (f) And on his way forthward than is he fare,

In hope to ben ylissed of his care. (Fr. Ta. 439.) (8) Amyd the toun, right in the quyke strete,

As sche was boun to go the wey forthright
Toward the gardyn, ther as sche had hight. (Fr. Ta. 758.)

8. Give the meanings and, where you can, the etymology of the following words and phrases:

Bacheler, haburgeoun, somdel, flour-de-lys, lodemenage, by culpons on and oon, latoun, warissched, in every halke and every herne, tregetoures, nowel.



Discuss briefly some of the chief pecularities of the syntax and vocabulary (1) of the Anglo-Saxon, and (2) of the Norman tongues. Shew how the Knightes Tale illustrates the customs of the age in which it was written.

2. What chief writers immediately preceded, or were con

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temporary with, Chaucer in England and Italy? Mention some of their works.

3. Give a short account, with dates, of the life of Chaucer.

4. Sketch briefly the plan upon which the Canterbury Tales were written. What was a Manciple? a Reeve? a Sompnour? a Pardonere? a Frankeleyn? Enumerate the chief of the minor works of Chaucer.

5. Write out into good modern English prose the following passages:

(a) “The doreś were,” 1. 1132, down to "gapyng upright,” 1. 1150; ed. Morris.

(6) "Ful heye upon a char,”l. 1280, down to "fyled rounde,"

1. 1294.

(c) “Ther seen men,” l. 1746, down to "adoun,” l. 1758.

6. Explain and discuss (giving where you can the etymology) the words italicized in the following phrases.

(a) I have, God wot, a large feeld to ere (28).
(b) When sche had swowned with a dedly chere (55).
(c) The pilours diden businesse and cure (149).
(d) And wilnest to dereyne hire by batayle (751).
(e) That foughten breeme (841).

Ne may with Venus holde champartye (1091).
(8) In a brest-plat and in a light gypoun (1262).
(h) I wol do sacrifice, and fyres beete (1395).
(i) I am thi ayel (1619).
7. Explain the following phrases:
(a) It is ful fair a man to bere him evene,

For al day meteth men atte unset stevene (665). (6) He mot go pypen in an ivy leef (980). (c) A herowd on a skaffold made an hoo (1675). (d) And in two renges faire they hem dresse (1736). (e) Men may the eelde at-renne, but nat at-rede (1591). Why, in extract (a), is the form meteth used? 8. Parse the words italicized in the following phrases: (a) For whom that I mot needes leese my lyf (432). (6) For in his hontyng hath he such delyt (821). (c) With mighty maces the bones thay to-breste (1753). (d) Who couthe ryme in Englissch proprely

His martirdam? for sothe it am nat I (601). 9. Why is could, in modern English, spelt with an l? Is it correct?

Why is rhyme now spelt with an h? Is it correct?

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