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चौखम्बा राजा मलय,
मो० वाक्स ८, मारस-१, .
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The present work, although based on the well-known dictionary of Shakespear, is by no means a mere condensation of that work. The changes introduced and the additions made have
been so ñumerous and extensive that it may justlý claim to be considered a new dictionary.
•The compiler's primary aim was to provide the public with a compact and portable volume within the means of every student of a the language. Bat in carrying out this purpose he has kept in
mind the rapid growth and expansion of Urdu literature of recent years, and has striven to keep his work fully abreast of the times. Low far he has succeeded will be apparent to all who will take the trouble to carefully compare the present work with any previously existing dictionary.
Twelve years have been spent on the preparation of the work. All the standard dictionaries have been searched for needful suggestions; and the compiler has had the assistance of eminent Muhammadan scholars, well-versed in Urdu, Persian and Arabic, and experienced in the teaching of these languages. To make it more useful, many Dakhani words have been included. The chief missions have been of words which are used neither in polite society nor in classical writings. The compiler trusts that the result will be a work that shall prove a real boon to military officers, Government officials, missionaries, merchants, travellers and students, and all others who have to make use of the Urdu language.
The Urdu language, as is well-known, arose out of the necessities of the camp and court of the Muhammadan invaders of Hindustan, by means of a fusion of the Persian and Arabic spoken by, the conquerors with the Sanskritic languages of the Hiadus. It has been said of it that "it has in it the sweetness of Persian, the grandeur of Sanskrit, and the sublimity of Arabic." It is now spoken by one-third of the inhabitants of India, and has for long been, and for thuse who do not know English must still, continue to be, the lingua franca of India. At first, Mukammadan authors