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word in its positive state-thns, if the quality in its positive state is black, in the comparative degree it is blacker, or more black, and in the superlative degree, or the utmost increase or diminution of its first quality, it is blackest, or most black.

III.-OF AFFIRMATIONS.

Affirmations, which have been called verbs, express being, doing, or suffering, viz. being, as John is; doing, as I love; suffering, as I am beaten.

There are three times or tenses, the present, past, and future, or things now doing, that have been done, or will be done hereafter; these are again subdivided into the times not perfectly past, and time long past.

The present time affirms the thing, as love, dance; the past time generally ends in ed, as loved, danced; the other times are expressed by have, shall, will; as I do love, he shall love, she will love ; thus the personal names I, thou, he, she, they, &c. are assistant to the affirmations, and denote their number and person. As only two times, or tenses, are expressed by the affirmative itself, its other times and manners are denoted by the nine following words, do, will, shall, may, can, must, ought, have, or be, which are called helping affirmatives.

IV.-OF PARTICIPLES.

Participles denote some circumstance of an action, and join words together; hence they are called the manners of words, and are of four sorts, viz.

Adverbs denote the manner or quality of the affirmation, or verb, as I fought well, which shows in what manner I fought.

Prepositions denote some circumstance of action, and show the relation of words to each other, as I'll go OVER the bridge, you live WITHOUT the city, where over and without are prepositions.

Conjunctions join words and sentences together, as Bob went to the fair, AND I went with him. In which sentence the word and is a conjunction, and joins its two distinct parts together.

Interjections denote some sudden emotion or passion of the soul, and are independent of any other words, as oh! alas ! indeed! ah! hush! hark! &c.

18

A PLAIN AND EASY ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

OF SYNTAX.

Syntax, or the composition of sentences, teaches you to apply what you have learnt in the following rules.

A sentence must contain absolutely, at least one affirma. tion and one name, of which something is affirmed, as God is just. This is called a simple sentence, but if we say God is just, but man is unjust, it is a compound sentence, as it contains two simple sentences joined together by the conjunction but.

The chief rule in the construction of sentences is, that the affirmation must agree with the name in number and person, as John runs well, where the proper name JOHN and the affirmation runs, are both in the third person singular, and consequently agree; to find the name in any sentence which should agree with the affirmation, ask the question, Who? and the answer given it, as in the above sentence, say, Who runs well ? Answer, John John is therefore the name to agree with the affirmation runs.

The name of the multitude must be singular; thus the crowd is great, not are great, because it is but one, crowd.

When two singular names are joined together by a conjunction, the affirmation must be plural; thus, Bill AND Tom fight, not fights.

The article a, or an, and the come before names and qualities; a is placed before a consonant, an before a vonel, and the indifferently before both; but sometimes in construction they are placed between the quality and name, as 80 fair a face so good an example, how great the gift.

SUITABLE DIRECTIONS

FOR ADDRESSING PERSONS OF ALL RANKS,

BOTH IN WRITING AND DISCOURSE.

To the King's most Excellent Majesty, Sire, or, May it please your Majesty.

To his Royal Highness, Frederick, Duke of York, Sir, May it please your Royal Highness. In the same manner to the rest of the Royal Family.

To the Nobility: To his Grace the Duke of 8. My Lord Duke, or, May it please your Grace, or, Your Grace,

To the most Noble the Marquis of B. My Lord Marquis, Your Lordship. To the Right Honourable the Earl of B. My Lord, Your Lordship.

To the Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Þ. My Lord, Your Lordship.

To the Right Honourable the Lord F. My Lord, Your Lordship. The Ladies are addressed according to the rank of their husbands.

The Sons of Dukes, Marquises, and the eldest Sons of Earls, have, by the courtesy of England, the title of Lord and Right Honourable; and the title of Lady is given to their daughters.

The youngest Sons of Earls, and Sons of Viscounts, and Barons, are styled Esquire, and Honourable, and all their Daughters

Honourable. The title of Honourable is likewise conferred on such persons as have the King's Commission, and upon those Gentlemen who enjoy places of trust and honour.

The title of Rght Honourable is given to no Commoner, excepting those who are members of His Majesty's Most Honouralle Privy Coun. cil, and the three Lord Mayors of London, York, and Dublin, and the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, during their office.

To the Parliament. To the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parlin. ment assembled, My Lords, or, May it please your Lordships.

To the Honourable the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses in Parliament assembled, Gentlemen, or, May it please your Honours.

To the Right Hon, C. W.c. Speaker of the House of Commons, who is generally one of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy Cou Sir.

To the Clergy. To the Most Reverend the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, My Lord, or, Your Grace.

To the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of S. My Lord.

To the Rev, the Dean of C. or Archdeacon or Chancellor of D. or Prebendary, &c. Mr. Dean, Reverend Sir, &c.

All Rectors, Vicars, Curates, Lecturers, and Clergymen of other infe. rior denominations, are styled Reverend.

To the Officers of his Majesty's Household. They are for the most part addressed according to their rank and quality, though sometimes agreeably to the nature their office: as, My Lord Steward, My Lord Chamberlain, Mr. Vice Chamberlain, &c. and in all superscriptions of letters, which relate to gentlemen's em. ployments, their style of office should never be omitted ; and if they have more offices than one,

you need mention only the highest.

To the Soldiers and Navy. In the army, all noblemen are styled according to their rank, to which is added their employ.

To the Honourable A B. Esq. Lieutenant-General, Major-General, Brigadier-General of his Majesty's Forces, Sir, Your Honour.

To the Right Honourable the E, of s. Captain of his Majesty's first Troop of Horse Guards,

Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, Band of Yeomep of the Guards, &c. My Lord, Your Lordship.

All colonels are styled Honourable; all inferior officers should have the name of their employinent set first; as for example, to Major W.0., to Captain T. B., &c.

In the navy, all admirals are styled Honourable, and Noblemen ac. cording to quality and office. The other officers as in the army.

To Ambassadors, Secretaries, and Consuls, All Ambassadors have the title of Excellency added to their quality, as have also Plenipotentiaries, Foreign Governors, and the Lord Lieu. tenant and Lord Justices of Ireland.

To his Excellency Sir B. C. Baronet, his Britannic Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary, and Plenipotentiary to the Ottoman Porte, Sir, Your Excellency.

To his Excellency E. F. E3q. Ambassador to his Most Christian Ma. jesty, Sir, or, Your Excellency.

To his Excellency the Baron d'A., his Prussian Majesty's Resident at the Court of Great Britain, Sir, Your Excellency.

To Seignor W. G., Secretary from the Republic of Venice, Sir.
To G. D. Esq. his Britannic Majesty's Consul at Smyrna, sir,

To the Judges and Lawyers. All the judges, if privy counsellors, are styled Right Honourable; as for instance :

To the Right Honourable A. B., Lord High Chancellor of Great Bri. trin, My Lord, Your Lordship.

To the Right Honourable P. V. Master of the Rolls, Sir, Your Honour, you, Sir.

To the Right Honourable Sir G. L., Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, or of the Common Pleas, My Lord, Your Lordship.

To the Honourable A, B., Lurd Chief Baron, Sir, or, May it please

To the Right Honourable A, D, Esq. one of the Justices, or to Judge M., Sir, or May it please you, Sir.

To Sir R, D., his Majesty's Attorney, Solicitor, or Advocate-General, Sir.

All others in the law, according to the offices and rank they bear, every Barrister having the title of Esquire given him.

To the Lieutenantcy and Magistracy. To the Right Honourable G. Earl of C., Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Durham, My Lord, Your Lordship. To the Right

Honourable T. S. Esq. Lord Mayor of the City of London, My Lord, Your Lordship.

All gentlemen in the commission of the peace have the title of Esquire and Worshipful, as have also all Sheriffs and Recorders.

The Aldermen and Recorders of London are styled Right Worshipful, as are all

Mayors of Corporations, except Lord Mayors. To A, B, Esq. High Sheriff of the county of York, Sir, Your Worship.

To the Right Worshipful W. D. Esq. Alderman, óf Tower Ward, London, Sir, Your Worship.

To the Right Worshipful J. A., Recorder of the City of London, Sir, Your Worship.

The Governors of Hospitals, Colleges, &e. which consist of Magistrates, or have any such among them, are styled Right Worshipful, or Worshipful, as their titles allow.

To the Governors of the Crown, To his Excellency C. M. Duke of R., Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, My Lord, Your Excellency.

To the Right Honourable Lord N., Governor of Dover Castle, &c. My Lord, Your Lordship.

The second Governors of Colonies appointed by the King, are called Lieutenant-Governors.

Those appointed by proprietors, as the East India Company, &c. are called Deputy Governors.

To Incorporate Bodies. To the Honourable Court of Directors of the United Company of Merchants, trading to the Enst Indies, Your Honours.

To the Honourable the Sub-Governors, Deputy-Governors and Di. rectors of the South Sea Company, Your Honours.

To the Honourable the Governors, Deputy-Governors, and Directors of the Bank of England, Your Honours,

To the Masters and Wardens of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, Your Worships.

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