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THE NEW AGE MAGAZINE

A Monthly Publication Devoted to Freemasonry and Its
Relations to Present Day Problems

THE NEW AGE MAGAZINE is the official organ of the Supreme Council of the Thirtythird Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, and is owned and published by it.

The offices of the Supreme Council are located in its "House of the Temple," Sixteenth and S Streets, Northwest, Washington, D. C.

George F. Moore, 33°, Grand Commander. John H. Cowles, 33°, Secretary General. THE NEW AGE MAGAZINE is published at Washington, D. C., and is under the control of a committee composed of the following members of the Council:

John F. Mayer, Richmond, Va.
John H Cowles, Louisville, Ky.

Charles E. Rosenbaum, Little Rock, Ark.
Horatio C. Plumley, Fargo, North Dakota.

John A. Riner, Cheyenne, Wyo.

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION. In the United States and Mexico, one dollar and fifty cents; in all other countries in the Postal Union, two dollars.

THE NEW AGE MAGAZINE is sent free of charge to all Scottish Rite Masons of the Southern Jurisdiction who are members of Consistories.

COPYRIGHT. All the articles and illustrations in this Magazine are protected under and by the copyright laws of the United States, and nothing from its pages must be reprinted without the permission of the Editor.

Address all correspondence and communications, and make all checks, drafts, etc., payable to John H. Cowles, Secretary General, 16th and S Sts., N. W., Washington, D. C.

Entered at the Washington, D. C., Postoffice, as second-class mail matter.

Copyright, 1918, by the Supreme Council of the 33d Degree A. and A. Scottish Rite, S. J., U. S. A.

NOTES AND COMMENTS

VOCATIONAL WORK AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE

"It has become indisputably clear to me how much more truly a person is molded through that which he does than through that which he hears. In the education of people serious and severe training for a life work must necessarily precede all word instruction.”—PESTALOZZI.

Prior to the so-called "industrial revolution" which ushered in the machine age, boys were trained in the home to do many useful and specific things. In the Colonial days pretty much everything that was used by a country household was made in that household. The very living in such a little community of workers was educative. "White collar" jobs were confined mostly to lawyers, preachers and teachers. In the schools emphasis was laid on cultural subjects, for the very reason that the trades and occupations were taught, to a great extent, in the homes. Speaking of this period, Puffer (Vocational Guidance) says:

"Every boy as he grew up, had virtually the whole of the world's work under his eye. Instead of vast factories, with 'No admittance' on every door, where he might not see even his own father

earn his bread, each lad had free run of a score of little shops, where every process lay open to his curious eyes. He knew masters and journeymen, he asked questions, and he learned. When it was time to select his own occupation he already knew a good deal about them all. If he did not come up in his father's trade, he might be apprenticed to his father's friend. At any rate, his elders probably knew the whole industrial field. They knew also their boy, who in a very real sense had already 'seen life'-the real working life of grown men-far more completely than does the most precocious of modern city youths, and had responded by some show of interest or fitness. In those simpler times, the chance was small that a square peg would try to fit a round hole. There was, moreover, vastly more education to be had from the general community life than now. In a thousand different, incidental ways each boy or girl had actually had a greater number of educative experiences than even the most favored of modern youth. We are too apt to forget, in these days of fetish worship of books, how effective was this ancient bookless, vocational training. “The daily doing of useful things' is in itself highly educative."

The passing of this age and with it the educative influences of the home, people began to throw the burdens of civilization upon the school, so far as the training for citizenship is concerned. But the school, alas, was still immersed in cultural studies, many of them utterly unrelated to the practical affairs of life, and could not fill the gap left by the abandonment of vocational occupations in the home. Finally, manual training was introduced into the public schools as a "sop to Cerberus," because advanced pedagogues recognized the fact that "eye training" was an important adjunct to education. But this was found to be insufficient, and today we have in a number of school systems, notably those of Boston, Mass., a wellorganized scheme of vocational education and guidance.

Among a crowd of boys there is always a good percentage of "tool-minded" chaps who take to tools and machinery like ducks do to water. To over emphasize cultural studies among such lads is to kill all ambition and initiative a nong them. Many indifferent lawyers, doctors and teachers should have been mechanics; but the so-called advantages of "white collar" jobs were impressed upon them when they were schoolboys and they missed their true vocations in life. Had they been properly guided and encouraged by their teachers they would not have lost out in the struggle of life. The school of the future will be like the old Colonial homesteads, a nucleus of occupations. The scholar will have presented to him vistas of trades and professions for a possible life choice. He will be warned against certain professions and trades for which he has manifested no physical or psychological leanings. Less will be left to chance, as it is today. An excellent scheme is the "part time school," where the pupil works part of his time in some chosen vocation-mechanical or commercial-and the other part in the school, the emphasis being laid upon those studies that have a direct bearing upon his factory or business career. In some of our Western cities this plan has proved very

successful.

The necessity of vocational training and guidance is thus discussed by President-Emeritus Eliot of Harvard University:

It is high time that our teachers and leaders of the people understand that every civilized human being gets the larger part of his life training in the occupation through which he earns his livelihood, and that his schooling in youth should invariably be directed to prepare him in the best way for the best permanent occupation for which he is capable. In other words, the motive of the life career should be brought into play as early and fully as possible.

The complexity and specialization of modern industrial life demand that intelligent guidance be given the youth of the land in order that they may find their way through the labyrinth. The lack of this guidance is seen in the army of "worn-outs" and "misfits" that haunt the county almshouse, crowd the benches in city parks, and find shelter in the cheap lodging houses of the municipality. Have you, dear Brother, ever witnessed the "vocational misfits" waiting in newspaper alley, Chicago, Ill., to learn of a possible job? Think of the youths who shuffle their way into "blind alley" jobs only to find themselves down-and-out in a few years. The British Royal Commission on the Poor Laws states the matter as follows: "It is unfortunately only too clear that the mass of unemployment

NOTES AND COMMENTS

67

is continually being recruited by a stream of young men from industries which rely upon unskilled boy labor, and turn it adrift at manhood, without any specific industrial qualification, and that it will never be diminished till this stream is arrested."

The thousands that leave school before completing the grade studies to take up their life work, unprepared and half-baked, bear mute testimony to the fact that "something is rotten in Denmark," to use a Shakespearean phrase. If we want to be a proficient and productive nation we cannot afford to neglect these things. The United States Government saw the necessity of encouraging and fostering vocational education when Congress passed the Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act, and established the Board for Vocational Education. On October 26, the first Federal grants of money (allotments totalling $423,532) to the States was made, seven States having complied with the law by submitting plans forthe promotion of vocational education and agreeing to match every Federal dollar with money publicly raised by the State or local community. Texas has complied with the law as far as agricultural education is concerned, and an allotment has been made for salaries of instructors in agricultural schools.

The payments are made through State boards for vocational education and are divided into three general classes, as follows: Money allotted on the basis of rural population for the salaries of teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricultural subjects; money allotted on the basis of urban population for the salaries of teachers of trade, home economics, and industrial subjects, and money allotted on the basis of total population for the maintenance of teacher-training courses in these branches

The total available for use during the current fiscal year is $1,800,000, and an equal amount must be raised by the States. Thirty-five States have so far submitted plans to the Federal Board for approval, and they are being passed upon as rapidly as possible. Negotiations are in progress between the Federal Board and States which have not yet submitted any plans.

States to which grants have been made, and the amounts, follow:

Arizona-For teachers of agriculture, $5,000; for teachers of trade and industrial subjects, $5,000; for teacher-training courses, $5,000.

Arkansas-Agriculture, $13,898; industrial, $5,000; training courses, $8,590.
California-Agriculture, $9,197; industrial, $17,375; training courses, $12,972.
Maine Agriculture, $5,000: industrial, $5,000; training courses, $5,000.

New York-Agriculture, $19,535; industrial, $84,950; training courses, $49,724.
Pennsylvania-Agriculture, $30,744; industrial, $54,745; training courses, $41,821.
Utah-Agriculture, $5,000; industrial, $5,000; training courses, $5,000.
Texas Agriculture, $29,974.

Although grants are made on a relative population basis, the law provides that the miminum shall be $5,000.

WAS ABRAHAM LINCOLN AN AGNOSTIC?

"Lincoln was not a type. He stands alone-no ancestors, no fellows, and no successors." -ROBERT G. INGERSOLL.

One of the greatest tributes ever paid to a public man was paid to Abraham Lincoln, by Robert G. Ingersoll, the great agnostic. "Lincoln," he said, "was not a type. He stands alone- -no ancestors, no fellows, and no successors. Wealth could not purchase, power could not awe, this divine, this loving man. . . He spoke, not to inflame, not to upbraid, but to convince. He raised his hands, not to strike, but in benediction." In speaking of Lincoln as this "divine, this loving man," Ingersoll struck the keynote of the great publicist's character. We are all, in one sense of the word, divine. We are incarnations upon this planet of the Source of All Things, the one resplendent Life that constitues the Soul of the Universe. In some men the fire of divinity is blown into a white heat, in others it merely smoulders. It is never quite extinct in any individual, needing only some terrible crisis, some social or political cataclasm to fan it into a scorching flame. The recognition of one's divine origin, of one's dependence upon a Divine Providence has always distinguished the truly great man. The mere materialist, the agnostic, cannot rise to heights sublime in any walk of life. Our great agnostic, Colonel Ingersoll, had command of a wealth of rhetoric, but the divine afflatus never descended

upon him to make his words immortal, for he was the doubter of his age. But he spoke of Lincoln as "this divine man," and we feel constrained to interpret the phrase to mean Lincoln's full appreciation and recognition of a Divine Providence, of an infinite "I" within himself and an infinite "I" outside of him, be Ingersoll's meaning what it may.

Ever since the death of Lincoln a controversy has been waged regarding his religious views. It is discussed in books, in the daily press, and in magazine literature. It flames up and dies down, only to rise again. Some writers have proclaimed Lincoln to have been an agnostic, an infidel, and a skeptic in religious matters. Only recently in the New York press has the discussion taken on an acute stage. Like Banquo's ghost it will not "down." Freethinkers, on their "soap-boxes," have glorified in the supposed fact of Lincoln's infidelity.

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Again we ask the question: "Was Abraham Lincoln an agnostic? And we answer most emphatically, "No!" That he was a believer in dogmatic Christianity admits of considerable doubt. But that he denied the existence of God and the immortal destiny of the soul-bed-rock doctrines of Freemasonry-we do not admit for a single instant. In all his published speeches and official documents there is not a line of evidence to disprove his faith in an over-ruling Providence. The story of his alleged infidelity (that is to say doubt as regards "revealed religion") springs from the assertion of his former law partner, William H. Herndon, who alleges that Lincoln, during his early manhood, wrote a manuscript directed against religion, but afterwards destroyed it. As he matured and came fully into his own, his views changed; he became a deeply religious man as all have testified who came into personal contact with him. But being a religious man does not necessarily bind a man to any particular creed or church. And yet Lincoln did not scorn the church, but constantly went to the Presbyterian Church, while President, and joined with others in openly confessing God before men.

Ida M. Tarbell, in her "Life of Abraham Lincoln" says:

For a short period of his life when he was about 25 years of age, it is certain that he revolted against the Christian system, and even went so far as to prepare a pamphlet against it. The manuscript of this work was destroyed by his friend, Samuel Hill. This period of doubt passed, and though there is nothing to show that Mr. Lincoln returned to the literal interpretation of Christianity (the italics are mine) which he had been taught, and though he never joined any religious sect, it is certain that he regarded the Bible and the church with deep reverence. He was a regular attendant upon religious services, and one has only to read his letters and speeches to realize that his literary style and his moral point of view were both formed by the Bible.

It was after his election to the presidency that we begin to find evidences that Mr. Lincoln held to the belief that the affairs of men are in the keeping of a Divine Being, who hears and answers prayer, and who is to be trusted to bring about the final triumph of the right. He publicly acknowledged such a faith when he bade his Springfield friends good-bye in February, 1861. In his first inaugural address, he told the country that the difficulty between North and South could be adjusted in "the best way," by "intelligence, patriotism, Christianity, and a firm reliance in Him who has never yet forsaken this favored land." When he was obliged to summon a Congress to provide means for a civil war, he started them forth on their duties with the words, "Let us renew our trust in God, and go forward without fear and with manly hearts." In August, 1861, he issued a proclamation for a National Fast Day which is most impressive for its reverential spirit.

After the death of his son, Lincoln was frequently seen with the Bible in his hand, and he is known to have prayed often. Says Miss Tarbell: "His personal relation to God occupied his mind much." There can be no doubt upon these points. Read the famous Gettysburg speech and witness Lincoln's dependence on God. No, Abraham Lincoln was no agnostic! No truly great, sincere and loving soul can be! The word "infidel" sometimes hurled against Lincoln, has been cast at many other great souls, aye, even at the Nazarene, by the dogmatists of his time. But this rather opprobrious word today means anything else but atheist; rather does it stand for a rebel against the social and religious order of the times. But agnostic means what it always has meant-a skeptic; one who professes not to know, and frequently places all other people in his own category.

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Galley-slave and Agamemnon, the great king, are shovelled under,

And the girl that combed the hair of Helen is dust with her golden mistress.
Cities of great pride, with their multitudes,

Have gone down,

And Spring, that called out the boy Dante into the streets of Florence,

Silent when Beatrice walked,

Opens wild roses in the ruins over the dead,

The snows where Saga heroes fought

Melted with those warriors,

69

And the desert girls of Arabia are only a song and an echo in our brains. -James Oppenheim: THE BOOK of Self. "History has no room for all those who throng about her gates without succeeding in getting in and leaving traces of their stay."-Guizot.

There is one degree of the Scottish Rite that always makes a great impression on the thoughtful aspirant-the Fifth, or Perfect Master. It trenches more or less on the Third Degree of the Symbolic Lodge, and yet tells the story in a different manner. Its lesson, in the main, is the duty we owe to the dead as regards their. sepulture and memory; and faith in the immortality of the soul. It has still another lesson: the insignificance of man and the immensity of God. We are but grains of sand on the seashore, the bubbles and froth of the wave, wreaths of smoke in the air. All this is poetically and wonderfully expressed in the book of Ecclesiastes of the Old Testament, from which Freemasonry has borrowed some of its most effective bits of ritualism; and in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam. The great silence of death and the utter oblivion that overcomes the vast majority of men appal the human heart. The English writer, W. S. Lilly, in his "Wisest of the Greeks," expresses himself as follows on this tremendous theme:

I suppose there are few thoughtful persons who from time to time have not been overwhelmed by the consideration of those two vast realms of silence, the past and the grave. Certainly, Nature herself invites our meditation upon them as we go on in life and draw near to its inevitable end. The truth of the Homeric comparison between men and leaves grows upon us when we begin to fade and realize, ever increasingly, that we too "shall follow the generations of our fathers and shall never see light." The generations of our fathers-how many generations since the dawn of human history, to say nothing of the countless ages which preceded it! And this is "their brief epitome." One after another they

Perish, and no one asks

Who or what they have been;
More than he asks what waves

In the midmost ocean have swelled,
Foamed for a moment and gone.

Yes, gone; and for the most part their memorial has perished with them. How sad and strange it is at least that is my experience-to wander about the ruins of some ancient city. There are the massive stones which once composed palaces and temples, mute witnesses to myriads of vanished lives: there are the stones, but where are the builders? A whole civilization, different from ours indeed, but unquestionably great from the tokens of it which remain, gone like an "insubstantial vision."

But the stillness of these far-off centuries is broken here and there. Over the waste of thousands of years great names, good and bad, have come down to us: "great deeds done endure." Of some of the chief benefactors of our race indeed we do not know even the names. We ask in vain who invented writing, who discovered fire, who first entrusted his frail bark to the sea. But their gifts unto men remain, and are the foundation of the civilization whereby we now live. And as the years advance, oblivion recedes. For centuries, while man was emerging from racial childhood, darkness covered the earth and gross darkness the people. But still light has traveled to us from ages very far off, revealing creative epochs which may yet be profitably studied: making known master spirits who yet "rule us from their urns." (19th Century, May, 1917.)

For the skeptic and naterialist life must indeed be sad as they descend into the Valley of the Shadow of Death without so much as the feeble light of a lamp

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