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(6) -8; viz. dië, Plaut.; re, Plaut. Trin. 635, 657; ade, Corp. Am, I. R. 1. 170, Plaut. Aul. 659, Amph. 391, Pers. 193; comp. Trin. 117, 128, 142, Hor. S. 1. 3. 95; pernicie, Liv. 5. 13, $ 5; facie, Lucil. “In casu dandi qui purissime locuti sunt, non faciei' uti nunc dicitur sed • facie' dixerunt," Gell. 9. 14.

(C) -1; viz. pernicii, Nep. 8. %; fami, Plaut. Stich. 158; facil (cf. Gell. 9. 14).

3. Stems in -0. The oldest form was -of; e.g. hoc, quoi, 361 populoi. Perhaps also oe in pilumnoe, poploe, Fest. p. 205.

ABLATIVE. In early times the ablative ended in -d; e.g. oquol- 362 tod (occulto); Benventod (Benivento), praidad (præda), sententiad (sententia). The latest inscription containing such ablatives is the S.C. de Bacc. B.C. 186. Plautus probably used it or not as he chose. See § 160 and Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Exc. I. 106.


Plurál Number,
NOMINATIVE: Stems in -a. The ending -as is quoted from 363
Pomponius, Quot lætitias insperatas modo mi inrepsere in sinum.'
(See Ritschl, N. P. Exc. I. 117.)
Stems in -0.

The earliest forms of ending in inscriptions are -es (not beyond cir. 90 B.c.) and very rarely -e or -oe; e.g. Atilies, magistres, ploirume, Fescenninoe: from 200 B.C. or earlier to about the birth of Christ, more frequently -ei, and from about the Gracchi till cir. 90 B.C. -eis, or sometimes -is; e.g. Italicei, oinvorsei (universi), 2. M. Minucieis, Q. F. Rufeis (i.e. l. (et) M. Minucii, Quinti fu, Rufi), gnateis, heisce. So in Plautus hisce, ulisce.

The ordinary form in -ī appears since the Gracchi, and becomes exclusively used in the Augustan age.

The only instances of dual forms (compare the Greek) are duo and ambo, which are the forms used in the masc. and neut. (duæ feminine as in plur).

ACCUSATIVE: Duo, ambo, masc. and neut.; duos, ambos, alsu masc. (duas, ambas, fem.).

GENITIVE: Future participles except futurus are very rarely 364 found in the genitive plural, probably on account of the unpleasantness of repeated r ($ 185).

Stems in -a. The ending -um for cărum (comp. Oscan -azum; Umbr. -arum or -aru; old Greek -awy) is found;

(a) in some names derived from the Greek; viz.: amphorum, (e.g. trium amphorum), drachmum.


(6) in proper names, especially patronymics, but almost exclusively in dactylic verse (esp. Vergil); e.g. Lapithum, Dardanidum, Æneadum.

(c) The only strictly Latin words in which it occurs are (masculine) compounds of signo and colo, and these are so used in dactylic verses only; e.g. Grajugenum, terrigenum, cælicolum. The forms in -arum are also used.


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Stems in -0. The ending -um (apparently similar to the 365 Umbrian and Oscan forms, and the Greek -wv) was perhaps the original Italian form, except in the pronouns, and was gradually superseded in Latin by -ōrum, which is common in inscriptions of the second century B.C. and later. In and after Cicero's time (see Cic. Or. 46) the genitive in -um for ordinary language was found only in certain words. Thus it is found:

(a) in names of weights and measures (chiefly Greek) in combination with numerals. Thus nummum (e.g. tria millia nummum; but nummorum accessionem), sestestlum, denarium, talentum, medimnum, stadium.

(6) in deum, divum, the compounds of virum (e.g. quinquevirum, duum virum, &c.), and in poetry virum itself; liberum (children), fabrum (in phrases as præfectus fabrum, collegium fabrum), socium (in prose rarely except of the Italian allies, or with prefectus), equum (often written ecum).

(c) in names of peoples (in poetry); e.g. Achivum, Argivum, Teucrum, Celtiberum (sometimes in prose), Rutulum, Italum, &c. Other words, e.g. fluvium, famulum, Juvencum, are found occasionally.

(d) But few instances of neuters are found; e.g. somnium, armum, &c., oppidum (Sulpicius ap. Cic. Fam. 4. 5. $ 4).

(e) In adjectives instances are few, e.g. centum doctum hominum consilia, celatum indagator, &c. (Plaut.); motus superum atque inferum, meum factum pudet (Ennius); prodigium horriferum portentum pavor (Pacuv.); amicum, iniquom, æquom (Ter. Haut. 24, 27); &c., and the old phrase liberum sibi quæsendum (or quærendum) gratia, &c. So in Vergil magnanimum generator equorum.

(f) Duum (frequently), ducentum, quingentum, sescentum, &c. So usually distributives; e.g. binum, quaternum (never binorum, quaternorum with milium), senum, ducenum, quadragenum, &c.

(8) For nostrum, vestrum, &c., see $ 388.

DATIVE, ABLATIVE. I. Stems in -a and-o. 1. The oldest form, 366 of which any instances are found, was -oes; e.g. oloes for illis. But the form most used in præ-Augustan inscriptions is -eis. The ending -is is found since the Gracchi, and, almost exclusively, in and after the Augustan time.

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2. Stems in -ia, -io are found sometimes with -18 instead of -iis 367 in inscriptions; e.g. suffragis, prædis, provincis. So in Cic. Rep. socis, præsidis, pecunis, &c. Plautus has gaudis, filis (from filius); Vergil has tænis; Seneca supplicis; Martial denaris. In Mon. Ancyr. both forms occur not unfrequently; e.g. municipiis, municipis.

3. An ending in -bus, as in the second class of nouns, is found 368 in a few words: viz,

(a) Ambo, duo, always make ambobus, ambābus; duobus, duābus.

(6) Dībus is found in inscriptions for Dis. (So also Ibus, hībus, from is and hic.)

(c) In prose, chiefly in inscriptions and legal expressions, -abus for -is is found in a few substantives; viz. deabus (chiefly in phrases, dis deabusque), filiabus, libertabus in opposition to the (usually) masculine filiis, libertis; rarely, conservabus, natabus. . In late writers also animabus, equabus, mulabus, and (sometimes in inscriptions) nymphabus.

A few adjectives occur with this form in Rhenish inscriptions; e.g. matronis Gabiabus, Junonibus silvanabus, &c.

The following words of this class are defective or redundant in 369 certain cases. (All words of this sort which in any way belong to the 2nd class have their peculiarities mentioned, where they occur in the enumeration of that class.) See also $ 330.

avom (n.), also used as acc. m.; balneum (n.), also plur. balneæ, of the bath house; balteus (m.), also balteum (n.), esp. in plur.; buxus (f.), also buxum (n.); cælum (n.), no plur. except cælos once in Lucret., where the meaning compels it; callus (m.), also callum (n.); carbăsus (m.), plur. carbăsa; cāseus (m.), also cāseum (n.); căvum (n.), a hollow, also căvus, m. (sc. locus); clipeus (m.), also clipeum (n.); collum (n.), also in old language collus (m.); crocus (m.), in sing. also crðcum (n.); cýtisus (m. f.), in sing. also cýtisum (n.); dēlicium (n.) or delicia (f.), plur. deliciæ, sing. not frequent; dica, dicam, dicas, dicīs, law suits (dikń), no other forms; ě půlæ (pl.), also sing. špúlum (n.); stmus (m.), in sing. also ffmum (n.); frênum (n.), plur. frēni (mi) and frēna (n.); hordeum (n.), of plural only nom. acc.; infitias, acc. pl. only with verb ire, used in no other case; intibus or intůbus (m.), also intúbum (n.); Jocus (m.), in plur. joci and joca; jógúlus (m.), in sing. also jugulum (n.); jus jurandum (n.), both parts of the word are declined, e.g. juris jurandi, jure jurando, &c.; lòcus (m.), in plur. also loca, of places,

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properly speaking; loci, chiefly of places, metaphorically; macte, indecl. adj. or adverb, once in Pliny macti, but not in all MSS.; margărita (f.), also margărītum (n.); mendum (n.), also menda (f.); nāsus (m.), also in Plaut. nāsum (n.); nauci only gen. sing.; nihil (n.) only in nom. acc. S.; often contracted nil: of the fuller form nihilum are used nihili as gen. (or loc.?) of price; nihilo after prepositions, comparatives, and as abl. of price; and ad nihilum in ordinary language we have nullius rei, &c.); ostrea (f.), also ostreum (n.); palātus (m.), usually palātum (n.); pědum (n.), a crook, only found in acc. s.; pessum, bottom, only acc. s. after verbs of motion, e. g. Īre, dăre; pileus (m.), also pīleum (n.); pondo, properly abl. s., also used as indeclinable, pounds'; porrus (m.), also in sing. porrum (n.); púteus (m.), also rarely påteum (n.); rāmentum (n.), also in Plaut. rämenta; rastrum (n.), also in plur. rastri (m.); rēticulus (m.), more frequently reticulum; scalper, scalpellus (m.), also scalprum, scalpellum (n.); sībilus (m.), also sībllum (n.); suppětias, acc. pl., no other case; tergus (m.), usually tergum (n.); vallus (m.), usually vallum (n.); vēnum (n.), acc. sing. after verbs of motion: Tacitus alone has veno, venui. For virus, vulgus see 338.

For numeral adjectives, some of which are indeclinable, see App. D. i.



AND ADJECTIVES. Some nouns adjective, and all pror.ouns adjective (except 370 possessive pronouns, meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester), have for all genders the genitive singular ending in -īus, the dative in -ī. In the other case the inflexions are the same as ordinary stems in -o and -a. The words belonging to this class are ūnus, ullus, nullus, sölus, tõtus, alter, úter (and its compounds uterque, &c.), alius, we, iste, ipse, hic, is, idem, qui and its compounds (quivis, &c.).

Of these alius, ille, iste, is, qui have neuter nom. and acc. ending in -d instead of -m. Other irregularities are named below. 1. tõtus, whole. SINGULAR.


f. Nom. totás tötă. tötům toti totāe

totă Acc. totum totam totum totos totās Gen. totits in all genders totorum totārum totoram Loc. toti in all genders

totīs in all genders Abl. toto tota toto








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In the same way are declined sõlus, alone, ûnus, one, ullus (i.e. undlus), any at all, nullus, none.

Also altěr (the other), altěra, alterum, gen. alterius, dat. altări. átěr, utră, utrum, whether, i.e. which of two, gen. utrius, dat. utri.

altěrůter, alterutra, or altěra utra, altěrutrum, or alterum utrum; gen. alterius utrius (post-Aug. alterutrius), dat. altero utri or alterutro.

återque, utrăque, utrumque, each; återcumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, which so ever (of two).

återvis, utrăvis, utrumvis, which (of two) you please; återlibet, utrălibet, utrumlibet, which (of two) you like.

neuter, neutră, neutrum, neither.
1pně (in early writers frequently ipsus), ipsă, ipsum, he himself.

The genitive has usually a long penultimate?; but all (except 372 sollus, utrius, and neutrius) are frequent in poetry with -fus: so utrsusque always: solius once in Terence.

soli is found as gen. masc. (Cato); toti as gen. fem. (Afran.); nulli is once or twice used for the masc. and neut. genitive; and nullo for the dative; ulll once (Plaut.) for gen. masc.; neutri, is used in the gen. neut. in the sense of neuter gender. The feminine datives unæ, nullæ, solæ, totæ, alteræ, are (rarely) found in early writers to the time of, and including, Cicero and Nepos. Toto for dat. masc. is used once by Propertius.

The genitive nullius and abl. nullo are rarely used substantively of things, but frequently of persons ; neminis being only found in præ-Ciceronian writers, and nemine being only used by Tacitus and Suetonius, except once in Plautus.

2. 11e, that; iste, that near you (declined like 111e); alús, 373 another. SINGULAR.


f. Nom. 1118 illă

aliůs alla illúd

allåd Acc. illum illam

ålium alium Gen. ilīus in all genders

alīús in all genders (rare) ilī in all genders

ållī in all genders Dat. Abl. 1117 ulla 1118

alio alia allo The plural is regular in both.

1 In the comic poets - Ius and -īus are both found. Cicero (Or. 3. 47. 183) implies that iuus was in his time pronounced Wius; Quintilian

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