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and Vergil. It is frequent in Horace, rare in Livy; and is usually avoided by all writers where the form would then be the same as the present infinitive active. Hence -ris is retained in pres. indic. with rare exceptions in verbs which have an active voice; but in deponents (where there is no risk of confusion, as the infinitive ends in i) -re is frequent in Plautus, sometimes found in Cicero; -ris is usual in Vergil and Horace.

Plural. The plural suffix -Itis contains the personal pronoun 571 of the second person (t), and the syllable -is, which is either a pronoun of the second person in its other form, or a suffix of plurality.

In the present tense of the four verbs named above (§ 567) the initial i of the suffix is again omitted: fertis, vultis, estis, for fĕritis, võlitis (§ 213 a), ĕdītis (§ 151. 2), ye eat, and for (originally) ĕsītis, So also in dă-tis.

ye are.

In the perfect s is simply suffixed to the singular form.

In the passive voice the suffix -imini is probably a masculine 572 plural participial form. The Greek present passive participle is of the same form; viz. -ŏměnòs, plur. ŏměnoi. Originally, perhaps, estis was used with it, as in the perfect passive. (This form may have been resorted to because of the unpleasant forms which the course observed in forming the passive of other persons would have produced; e.g. regitis-er, amātis-er would become règĭtěrĕr, amātěrěr, or, if the analogy of the 2nd pers. sing. were retained, regitĕris, amātĕris, which would then have come to regetris, amātris (§ 235. 2), or regiter, amāter (§ 184. 5); both of which forms look more like adjectives or adverbs than verbs.)


The -t in the suffix of the 3rd person, both singular and plural 573 in all tenses, is a demonstrative pronoun, as is seen in the Greek (so-called) article, and in iste, tot, talis, tantus, &c.

Singular. In the present tense of sum, ědo, fèro, volo, the short vowel before -t is omitted; viz. est (both for sum and ědo), fert, vult, or (older) volt.

The third person sing. active of a-, e-, and i- verbs was originally long, as may be inferred from the passive voice (amāt-ur, monēt-ur, audit-ur), and is actually found not unfrequently in Plautus, and sometimes in Augustan poets.


In the perfect active the suffix is the same as in the present 575 (It). Plautus sometimes, and moie rarely Augustan poets, have this it long.

To form the passive, -ur is suffixed to the active form.

Plural. The plural suffix is usually -unt, but in præ-Augustan 576 inscriptions, in Plautus, and Varro, the older -ont was retained after v (or u); e.g. vivont, confluont, loquontur. The forms nequinont and sont are also found (for nequeunt, sunt). Of this suffix the t is probably the same as in the singular; the origin of the n is uncertain.

The passive is formed (as in the singular) by suffixing -ur to the active form.

The perfect suffix is the same as the present, the ending being 577 er-unt, of which the -er is the same (cf. § 184. 3) as the -is (before

t) of the second person. The penult (-er) is usually long, but the dactylic poets, beginning with Lucretius (not Ennius) often, and others occasionally, shorten it; e.g. dormiěrunt, locāvĕrunt, subēgĕrunt, &c. (Plaut.), ĕměrunt (Ter.).

For -erunt is rarely found -eront (cf. Quint. I. 4. 16); but -ēre 578 is found in some of the earliest inscriptions, and is not uncommon in Plautus and Terence, rare in Cicero and Cæsar, but frequent in dactylic poets and Livy.

In the completed future indic. the suffix-vowel is i instead of 579 u (-erint for -erunt); probably in order to avoid confusion with the perfect.



1. Indicative Mood.

THE indicative mood contains no special inflexions to distin- 580 guish it. The imperative and subjunctive moods are distinguished from it by certain modifications.

2. Imperative Mood. (a) Present. The imperative present shortened forms of the indicative present. off, and -1 is changed to -ě (or rather, as the

appears to consist of 581 The final s is thrown form originally ended

in -es, the s is simply thrown off, cf. § 234. 2). Hence the active régis (older régés) becomes règě; règītis (older regėtės), regite; the passive regĕris (older régères), règěrě: the 2nd pers. plural regimini is the same as in the indicative. But from verbs with vowel stems in a-, e-, i- (not Ĭ-) the s is thrown off in the singular without further change; e. g. ama, monē, audī. The exceptional form noli is formed from the 2nd pers. sing. of the subjunctive present.

In the verbs duco, fero (and their compounds), fácio (with 582 compounds which retain the radical a), and dico, the final e of the singular was always dropped after Terence's time; e. g. duc, fèr, făc, călefac, dic. In Plautus and other poets the imperatives often occur before words beginning with a. vowel, in which case it is difficult to decide between duc and duce; &c.

ēs (from sum and ědo) was used for the imperative 2nd pers. sing. as well as for the indicative.

In verbs with short penult, and having vowel stems in a-, e-, i-, 583 and also in the compounds of eo, the imperative-forms in Plautus and Terence often shortened the final vowel (cf. § 295); e.g. commödă, mõně, jùbě, ădă, ǎbí; especially in colloquial forms; e.g. mănědum, tăcědum, mõněsis, viděsis.

(t) Future. The future imperative active is distinguished by 584 a suffix, originally -ōd1. In the form which is common to the second and third persons, e.g. reg-it-ō, and the form for the third person plural, e.g. regunto, the -d has fallen off, as in the ablative case of nouns (cf. § 160. 6). The suffix appears to have been simply added to the present indicative forms of the third person singular and plural. (The use of this form for the second person singular was probably due to -t being a characteristic of the second personal pronoun.) The plural second person is formed by appending -e (for -es, later is) as the sign of plurality in this person to a modified form of the singular; e.g. règ-it-ōt-e (for règIt-ōd-e). Others (e.g. Schleicher) consider the -tote to be simply the demonstrative pronoun doubled (as in the Vedic Sanskrit -tāt).

The passive forms substitute -r for the final -d; e.g. regit-or 585 for regit-od; regunt-or for regunt-od.

The form in -to (for t-od) was apparently at one time also used 586 as passive; e.g. censento, initianto, in præ-Augustan inscriptions; and from deponents; e. g. arbitranto, partiunto, utunto, &c., some of which verbs however had once an active voice, of which these forms may be relics.

Only one instance is actually found in Latin; viz. in Festus, P. 230 b. 14, 'Si nurus...sacra divis parentum estod.' The Oscan had this d; e.g. estud, licitud. (See Ritschl, Neu. Plaut. Exc. I. p. 100.)

In Plautus, Cato, and old inscriptions, a form in -mino is 587 (rarely) found for the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. of the imperative of deponents; e.g. profite-mino, præfa-mino, progredi-mino, fru-i-mino. One instance of a passive verb denuntiamino is found. This old form is formed just like the 2nd pers. plur. indicative in -mini.

3. Subjunctive Mood.

The subjunctive is characterised by a lengthened vowel imme- 588 diately before the consonant of the personal suffix.

Present. This vowel is a in the present tense of all verbs, except verbs with ā- stems, in which it is ē; e. g. reg-a-mus, regāmur; moneāmus, moneāmur; audiāmus, audiāmur; tribuāmus, tribuāmur; but amemus, amemur. Except also some in which it is ī; viz. sim, sīs, &c. from sum; velim, velis, &c. from volo; and the compounds of both; e.g. possim, absim, &c. nolim, malim.

So also (besides the more usual forms) edim, edīs, edit, edimus, 589 edītis, edint (Plaut. esp. in phrase 'habeo quod edim,' Cat., Hor.); comedim, comedis, comedint (Plaut.), exedint (Plaut.); also from duo (an old form of do?1), duim, duis, duit, duint (Plaut., Ter., and old law language); interduim (Plaut.); perduim, perduis, perduit, perduint (Plaut., Ter., chiefly in phrase 'Di te perduint,' which is also used by Cicero); creduis, creduit (Plaut., who has also forms from this verb with the more regular ā; e. g. duas, creduas, creduant, accreduas. Cf. fuat, § 722).

Sum and its compounds had an older form siem, sies (see 590 $722), from which sim, sis, &c. are contracted. The -es, `-et is perhaps only the older form of the personal suffix -Is, -It. (But comp. Gr. eïŋv, Sansk. syẩm.)

Imperfect and Pluperfect. The long vowel in these tenses is ē in 591 all verbs; e.g. regissēmus, amavissēmus, &c.

Perfect. The vowel (assumed to have been originally long) is I, 592 which however, probably from confusion with the completed future, is in dactylic poets as often short as long. The pertinent instances are as follows:

Perf. subj.


dederītis (Enn.); fueris (Hor. in hexam.);
respueris (Tib.); dederīs, crediderīs, contu-
leris (Ovid).

1 The forms interduo, Pl. Capt. 694, concreduo, Id. Aul. 577, are used apparently as completed futures ind.; concredui in Pl. Cas. 2. 8. 43, as a perfect indic. In Plin. H. N. 21. 3. 5, is duitur (comp. fut. pass.?), for which duitor (imper. pass.) is usually read. See Neue II. 339; Schöll, Leg. XII. tab. reliq. p. 82.

-ĕri- ēgerimus, respexeris (Verg.), dixeris (Hor.

in hexam.).

Comp. Fut. Ind. -ĕrī- dederītis, transierītis, contigerītis (Ovid), fecerimus (Catull. in a hendecasyllable), dederīs, occiderīs, miscuerīs, audieris (Hor. in hexam.), dederis (Prop., Ov. several times).

-ĕri- viderimus (Lucr.); videritis, dixeritis (Ovid); suspexeris, revocaveris (Verg.); vitaveris, detorseris, acceperis, cœperis

(Hor. in hexam.).

In Plautus and Terence there appears to be no instance incompatible with the rule of i for perf. subj., I for compl. fut. indic. (See Neue II. 196.)

The forms for the subjunctive appear best explicable by as- 593 suming the proper suffix to be I (seen in the Greek optative), which was contracted with a preceding a to ē. Thus amas, ama-i-s, amēs; amāra-s (an assumed indicative, see below, § 610), amāra-1-8, amarēs; amāvissa-s (an assumed indic.), amāvissa-i-s, amāvissēs (or esses for esa-i-s may be supposed to have been suffixed at once). But as I suffixed to the present indicative of other than ā verbs would have given still the same form when contracted, an ā (seen in the Greek subjunctive) was substituted in all such cases. Sis and velis, &c. retain the 1, because they have other points of difference from the indicative.



THE inflexions of tense are divisible into two classes; viz. those 594 which are common to several tenses or forms, and those which are peculiar to the particular tense.

The inflexions common to several tenses or forms may be referred to three forms of the verbal stem, called the Present stem, the Perfect stem, and the Supine stem.

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