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The present stem is very often identical with the verbal 595 stem, but not unfrequently is more or less modified. From this present tense are formed all the tenses and verbal forms which express incomplete action; viz. both in Active and Passive voice,

Indicative. Present, Future, Imperfect.
Imperative. Present, Future.
Subjunctive. Present, Imperfect.

Also the following verbal forms:
Present Infinitive;
Present Participle, (none in Passive);
Gerunds and Gerundive,

2. The perfect stem is sometimes identical with the verb-stem 596 and with the present stem, but usually is considerably modified. From this perfect stem are formed all the tenses denoting completed action; viz. in the Active voice,

Indicative. Perfect, Completed Future, Pluperfect.

Perfect, Pluperfect.
Also the perfect Infinitive.

3. The supine stem is always a modification of the verbal stem, 597 and from it are formed certain verbal nouns, of which the forms called the supines, and the passive past participle, and future participle active are generally treated in connection with the verb.

The past participle passive is used with certain tenses of the verb to form the perfect and pluperfect passive both in the indicative and subjunctive.

In accordance with the order of discussion which has been thus far followed, the inflexions of the derivative tenses, being nearer to the end of the word ($ 555), will be discussed before the formation of the stem to which they are appended.




Present. The present indicative is formed simply by suffixing 598 the inflexions of number and person. The present subjunctive has the mood inflexion as well.

Future. The future indicative is in consonant, in 1- verbs and 599 in u- verbs a modified form of the present subjunctive. The first person singular is the same: the other persons have long ē where the present subjunctive has ā; e. g. fut. reges, reget; pres. subj. regas, regat. In the 3rd pers. sing. act. the final syllable was short in the ordinary language ($ 152. 7).

Cato the Censor is said (Quint. 1. 7.23) to have written dice, facie, 600 for dicam, faciam, and so in other verbs. Probably this statement refers only to the future indic. not to the present subjunctive.

This ē probably arises from suffixing i (compare the Greek 601 optative) to the present subjunctive of these verbs; e.g. reg-ā-mus, reg-ā-i-mus, regê-mus; just as amemus, pres. subj. was formed ($ 593). But this formation would not do for a- and e- verbs; because in a- verbs such a form (e.g. amēmus) is already used for the pres. subj.;

and in e- verbs, it (e.g. monēmus) would be ideritical with the present indicative.

Accordingly in a- and verbs there is a different mode of 602 forming the future indicative; viz. by suffixing ib- to the present stem, with the final vowel of which it is contracted; e.g. ama-, ama-ib-, amāb-; ist pers. plu. amab-imus, mon-e, mone-ib-, monēb-; ist pers. plur. monēbimus.

A similar future (besides the ordinary form in -am, -es, -et), is fo3 not unfrequently formed from i- stems in early writers (Plautus, Terence, &c.); e.g. aperībo, adgredībor (comp. adgredīri for adgredi), largibere, opperībor, scībo, &c. But of these forms none are found so late as the first century B.C., except Ibo, quībo, nequībo, which are the only forms in use at any time (with a few doubtful exceptions). Lenibo is also found in Propertius. Veniet (fron vēn-eo) for vēnībit is found however in the lex Thoria (642 A.U.C.), and in Gaius; exiet in Seneca.

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The verb do has a short penultimate dåbo. Its compound reddo 604 (which usually has reddam), has reddibo (i.e. red dabo) in Plaut.: who has also exugebo, as if from an e- stem exuge-.

The verb sum and compounds have apparently merely a different 605 form of the present for the future; viz. er-o, ist pers. plur. er-imus (compare pres. sėmus for ěs-ům-us). Most philologers consider ero, &c. to be for esio, the i being similar to that of the present subj.

Imperfect. The imperfect indicative has in all stems a long a 606 (except in 3rd sing. act. $S 152. 7:574) preceding the personal inHexions, and in all stems but one (that of és-, be) b prefixed to this long a. Moreover in all stems but dă- the vowel preceding bā is long.

The long a, which is always found, serves to distinguish the imperfect from the future where the forms are otherwise similar; e.g. amabāmus (for amabaimus), amabimus; monebamus, monebimus; Ibāmus, ibimus; dăbāmus, dăbimus; črāmus, erimus. It is apparently a sign of past time, and as such is found in the pluperfect also.

In consonant stems the suffix is mēbā-, and this is usually found 607 also in verbs with i stems; e.g. reg-ēbā-mus, audi-ēbā-mus. But this long e is not found in eo, queo, and their compounds, and is not unfrequently absent in the earlier language (Plautus, Ter., Varr., &c.); e.g. scībam, nescībam, āībam, &c., gestībat, grundibat, insaníbat, mollībat, præsagībat, servības, stabilībat, venībat. So also, apparently for metrical reasons, in the dactylic poets (Catull.,: Lucr., Verg., Ovid, Sil., Stat.); e.g. audībant, lenībat, sævībat, redimībat, molībar, ferībant, &c.

Probably the suffix was originally the same as the future suffix 6-8 of a- and e- verbs with ā added, i.e. -Ib-a-. The form -ēbā-, seen in consonant and most 1- verbs, is difficult to explain. It is generally supposed to have been erroneously borrowed from the e- stems.

Imperfect subjunctive. This tense had the suffix -ěr (for ès). 639 which with the modal suffix ē made -ěrē. The first vowel coalesced with a preceding a, e, or i; e.g. reg-ěr_ēmus, tribu-er-ēmus, amār-ēmus, mon-ēr-ēm-us, aud-ir-ēmus, and caused the omission of a preceding i; e.g. capi-, capěrem.

In sum, ēdo, volo, fěro, and their compounds, the vowel dropped out; e.g. ist pers. plur. es-sem-us (for es-es-ēmus, or ědés-émus); vel-lēm-us (for völ-ěr-em-us); fer-rem-us (for tër-ěrēm-us). Do has dărēmus.


The suffix -ěr (és) is probably from sum. So that reg- with the 610 imperfect of sum, is reg-eram; hence reg-era-i-m, regerem.

The imperative tense suffixes have been already discussed (SS 581-586).

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The present infinitive active has the suffix -ěrě (for -ěsě, SS 183, 611 193. 3),

which the first e coalesces with a preceding ā, e, or i; e.g. reg-ễre, tribu-ễre; amāre, mon-ễre, aud-ire. Cắpăre as cắpěrem, $ 609.

In sum, ēdo, volo, fěro, and their compounds, the first vowel e 612 was dropped out, as in the imperfect subj. Hence the infinitives are esse (for eđese), velle (for volere), ferre (for ferere). The infinitive is generally considered to be the dative case of a verbal noun with stem ending in s- or si-; e. g. dicer-e for daikas-ai, viver-e compared with Sanskrit jivas-ai. The final e (=ai) would be originally long.

The present infinitive passive has the suffix i appended to the 613 stem in verbs, whose stem ends in a consonant or in i or in u; e.g. reg-i, tribu-ī, cap-i (but fieri from stem fi-; ferri from fěr-). In other vowel verbs i takes the place of the final e of the active infinitive; e.g. aud-ir-i, mon-ēr-ī, am-ār-ī. So also dă-rī from do.

A further suffix -ěr is found appended to these forms (e. g. figier, 614 amārier, &c.), in old legal inscriptions (not after the S. C. de repetundis, 631 U.C.); and frequently in Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Cicero (in poetry), and not uncommonly in Vergil and Horace, only occasionally in later poets. But the shorter form is more common even in the first named poets. In inscriptions it occurs first in the S. C. de repetundis (darei, beside abducier, avocarier).

The forms in -ier (-ārier, -ērier, -īrier) are probably the original 615 forms, and arose by the addition of the ordinary passive suffix r in the form -ěr to the active infinitive, whose final ē took the form of i before er. The final r was then dropped on account of its ill sound after another r ($ 185), and ie contracted to i. Thus amārē-ěr, amari-er, amari.

If the same course had been followed in consonant, and in -1verbs, then owing to the penultimate vowel of the active infinitive being short (e.g. ducěre), the syllable ěr would have recurred (e.g. ducerier). The Romans therefore preferred to omit the first

$ 28); i.e. to append -ier immediately to the final consonant of the stem; (e.g. duc-ier, capier). The only instance of the retention of at least some part of the first er is in fer-rier for fererier. Analogy afterwards reduced ducier, &c. to duci.

Present Participle. The suffix is -enti, nom. sing. -ens; e.g. 616 reg-ens, tribu-ens, audi-ens. But in the verb eo and its compounds, an older form of the suffix, viz.. -unti, is retained; but the nom. sing. is usually -iens. The form nequeuntes (from nequeo) occurs


In -a and -e verbs the suffix coalesces with the final stem vowel; e. g. amans, monens.

Gerund and Gerundive. The suffix is -endo-, which as a sub- 617 stantive is called a gerund, as an adjective, gerundive; e.g. regendum, tribuendum, audiendum; amandum, monendum.

An older form in -undo (probably for an earlier condo), is com- 618 mon in inscriptions to the end of the 7th century, u.c.; in Plautus, Terence, and Sallust; and, after i, and in the words gerundus and ferundus, frequently in the MSS. of Cæsar, Cicero, and Livy. Some law phrases always (or at least usually), retained the form; e.g. rerum repetundarum; familiæ erciscundæ, finibus regundis, de jure dicundo. But after u or v the suffix is found only in the form -endo (cf. § 213. 4. a.c).

Old Futures in -so, -sim? In the older language, of Plautus and ancient laws and formu- 619 laries, a future indicative in -30 (-880), subjunctive in -sim (-ssim), infinitive in -sère (-ssère), and pass. indic. in -sìtur (-ssitur) is found. Instances of the indicative and subjunctive active of this formation are very frequent. (In some instances it is not clear to which mood the word belongs.)

From verbs with -a stems: amasso (ind.), amassis, amassint (subj.), appellassis (subj.), celassis (subj.), conassit (ind.), occoeptassit (ind.), reconciliasso (ind.), creassit (subj.), curassis, curassint (subj.), accurassis (ind.), decollassit (ind.), indicasso (ind.), indicassis (subj.), invitassitis (ind.), exoculassitis (ind.), fortunassint (subj.), irritassis (ind.), 'locassim (subj.), locassint (ind.), mactassint (subj.), mulcassitis (ind.), servassit, servassint (subj.), peccasso, peccassis, peccassit (ind.), and many others.

Passive: turbassitur (ap. Cic.), mercassitur (Lex. Thor.).

Infin. Act.: averruncassere (Pacuv.), reconciliassere, impetrassere (four times), oppugnassere (Plaut.), depoculassere (or depeculassere), Zima deargentassere, depeculassere (or despeculassere) (Lucil.).

1 The fullest discussions of these forms are by Madvig (Opusc. II. p. 64 soll.), Lübbert (Gram. Stud. Breslau, 1867), and Neue (11. 421 sqq.).


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