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2. From verbs with -e stems, preserving the vowel: habessit (subj.), prohibessis, prohibessit (subj.), prohibessit, prohibessint (ind.), cohibessit (subj., Lucr. 3. 444), licessit (subj.).

3. From verbs with -i stems: ambissit, ambissint (Pl. Amph. 69. 71. ex conj.).

4. In verbs with consonant or -1 stems, and some with -e 620 stems, the -so, -sim is attached immediately to the final stem consonant:

(a) -e stems: ausim (subj.), noxit (subj.), sponsis (subj.), auxitis (subj.), jusso, jussis, jussit (ind.), jussim (subj.).

Also passive jussitur (Cat.).

(b) -I stems: faxo (ind.), faxis, faxit (ind. subj.), faxim, faximus (subj.), faxitis (ind. subj.) frequently, faxint (subj.), effexis, defexis (ind.), capsis (ind.), capsit (subj.), capsimus (ind.); accepso, occepso, recepso (ind.); incepsit, occepsit; injexit (ind.), objexim, objexis (subj.); adspexit (subj.), respexis (ind.); rapsit (ind.), surrepsit (subj.); excussit (subj.).

Passive: faxitur (ap. Liv.); and perhaps nanxitur (Fest.).

(c) Consonant stems: axim, adaxint (subj.), transaxim, axit; incensit; excessis (subj.); clepsit (ind.); occisit (ind.); dixis (subj.), induxis, adduxit (subj.); comessis (subj.); afflixint (subj.); amissis (ind. subj.); empsim (subj.), adempsit (ind.), surrempsit; parsis (subj.); rupsit (ind.); serpsit; exstinxit (subj.); taxis (subj.); adussit (ind.).

Of all these forms faxo, faxis, ausim, ausis, almost alone are 621 found after the time of Terence, who himself has only excessis, appellassis besides. But the following other instances occur: cohibessit (Lucr.); the phrase, di faxint (Cic.); recepso (Catull.); a few infinitives in Lucil.; jusso (Verg., Sil.); and one or two instances in the antiquarians Varro and Fronto. The style of the laws, &c. in Livy and Cicero does not of course belong to the age of their (real or feigned) recorders.

These forms are apparently to be explained as a future indica- 622 tive, subjunctive, and infinitive, formed by the suffix s as in the Greek future to the stem, a short I or sometimes e of the stem being omitted; e.g. leva-, levaso; prohibe-, prohibeso; sponde-, spond-so, sponso; faci, fac-so; dic-, dixo. The double s in the forms from a- and (a few) e- verbs is either a mode of marking the place of the accent, or due to a mistaken etymology, as if the form were analogous to amasse from amavisse, &c. Possibly both causes may have combined. Moreover a single s between two vowels was in the præ-Augustan language rare (cf. § 191, 193).

The subjunctive is formed by the regular suffix I; the infinitive by -ĕre, as in the present infinitive.

The use of these forms is analogous to that of the forms in 623 -ero, -erim, but is confined to those classes of sentences in which those forms differ least from a future indicative, or present subjunctive; viz. (1) the indicative in the protasis (not the apodosis) of a sentence; (except faxo, which might be either a simple or completed future): (2) the subjunctive in modest affirmations, wishes, prohibitions, purpose, and in dependent sentences for the future, never for the perfect indicative (as the form in -erim frequently is). In all these classes the English language ordinarily uses an incomplete tense (present or future). The infinitives in -sere might be taken as either simple or completed futures.

(The ordinary explanation of these forms, viz. that e.g. levasso 624 ' is for leva-v-eso (= levavero) has much in its favour; but it meets with great difficulties in such forms as cap-so, rap-so, prohibesso, &c.; and it does not really account for the double s. For levaveso would become leva-eso, levaso, levaro; or if it became levav-so, as is assumed, it would be contracted into levauso or levuso (levauro, levuro) not levasso. Comp. § 94.)

The verbs arcesso, capesso, facesso, lacesso, are probably (Key, 625 Lat. Gr. p. 88) similar formations from arcio (i.e. adcio), capio, facio, lacio, and have been treated as verb stems, and thus received new inflexions of tense and mood. Incesso is probably from incedo; petesso from peto (pet- or peti-) is also found.

1 Not removed, I think, either by G. Hermann (Dissertatio de Madvigii interpretatione, Lips. 1844), or Curtius (de verbi latini fut. exact., Dresden, 1844); or Key (Lat. Gr. § 566, 1209 f.); or Schleicher (Vergl. Gr. p. 830, ed. 2); or Lübbert (ubi supr.). My view agrees partly with Madvig's (p. 64, 65), and partly with Corssen's (Ausspr. II. 37 sq. ed. 1. See also 1. 319, ed. 2). A somewhat different view is given by Merguet (Die Entwickelung der Lat. Formenbildung, 1870, p. 224). Pott decidedly rejects the view that these forms are from the perfect, not the present, stem (Etym. Forsch. 11. Th. 4 (1870), pp. 269, 272).



A VERB often exhibits a different stem in the present tense from 626 that which appears to be presumed in the perfect or in the supine. The changes, which belong strictly to the formation of the perfect or supine themselves, or follow from that formation according to the laws of Roman pronunciation, will be found in Chapters XXIII.


Verbs may be divided into consonant verbs and vowel verbs according as the present stem ends in a consonant or in vowel.

(In the following enumeration the different instances will be classified according to the last letter of the verb stem; and sometimes the perfect and supine added in illustration.)


i. Consonant verbs.

Most consonant verbs exhibit in the present stem no altera- 627 tion of the regular stem of the verb; e.g. reg-, reg-o; cæd-, cæd-o, &c.

2. Other consonant verbs exhibit such alteration;

(a) The stem is reduplicated to form the present tense; e.g. gen- (gěno old form), gigno for gl-gěno (gěn-ui, gèn-Ĭtum); stă-, sisto (stěti, stătum); să-, sĕro for sěso (sēvi, sătum).

(b) The radical vowel is lengthened; e.g.

duc-, dūco; dic-, (cf. dic-are, causidic-us), dico; fid-, fido; nub(cf. pronŭbus), nubo. (Probably Key is right in supposing the radical vowel to be always short, and a long vowel (e.g. scribo, ludo, &c.) to be due to the formation of the present stem).



(c) n is suffixed to the stem of the verb; e.g. to stems end- 630 ing in

M. tem-, tem-no.

R. cer-, cer-no; sper-, sper-no; star-, ster-no. In these verbs the perfect and supine have the r transposed; crē-, sprē-, strā-.

A. dă-, dă-no (old form of do).

I. lI-, li-no; qui-, nequi-nont (old form for nequeunt); I-, 631 Ŏbinunt (old form for obeunt); si-, si-no; and its compound pōno for posino (old perf. posīvi, sup. positum).

Conquin-isco (con

So apparently früniscor from frugv-, fruor. quexi) may be for conquic-n-isc-o, or may have vowel stem conquin-isc-o and belong here; see § 635.

Festus speaks also of ferinunt, solinunt for ferunt, sɔlent.

(d) A nasal is inserted before the final stem consonant; e. g. to 632 stems ending in

P or B. cub-, cumbo (also cuba-); rup-, rumpo.

C or QV. liqv-, lingvo; vic-, vinco; năc-, nanc-isc-or (nactus or nanctus).

G. frag-, frango; pag-, pango (old pǎgo); půg-, pungo (in the compounds the stem contains n in all tenses); rig-, ringor; tåg-, tango (old tǎgo). In some verbs the nasal is retained in the perfect and dropped only in the supine stem: fig-, fingo (finxi, fictum); mig-, mingo (minxi, mictum, also minctum); pig-, pingo (pinxi, pictum); strig-, stringo (strinxi, strictum). In other verbs the nasal is constant in the verb stem; e.g. jungo, junxi, junctum (from júg-, comp. júgum). So ninguit from nigv- (nix).

D. fid-, findo (fidi, fissum); fud-, fundo (füdi, füsum); scid-, scindo (scidi, scissum); tùd-, tundo (tŭtŭdi, túsum, or tunsum). Perhaps also frendo (frendi, frēsum) may have fred- for stem (but cf. § 168. 3).

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In metior, mensus (properly a vowel verb) the n appears to 633 have been dropped in the present stem.

In piso, a collateral form of pinso, the n is dropped in present and supine stems.

(e) sc- (isc) is suffixed to verbal stems, especially to vowel stems 634 in -e, and gives often the special meaning of beginning or becoming. This inchoative form sometimes exists alone, sometimes is used besides the ordinary stem, sometimes is found in a compound, but not in the simple verb. The perfect and supine, if any, are the same as those of the ordinary stem (real or assumed). A very few stems carry the suffix -sc- throughout all the tenses.

To Consonant stems: ǎl- (ălĕre), ǎl-esc-ere; dic-, di-sc-ĕre (for 635 dic-sc-ĕre), didici; frun-, frun-isc-i (frünitum); gěm- (gemère), ingem-isc-ère (ingěmui); herc- (or erc-), herc-isc-ĕre (herctum); mãn- (perf. mềmini), commin-isc-i (commentum); pặc-, păc-iso-1 (pactum); păs-, pasc-ĕre (for pas-sc-ere, comp. πат-éομαι); trěm(treměre), contrěm-isc-ère (contrěmui); perg- (pergère), experg

isc-i (experrectum); věd- (comp. ěděre), ve-sc-i (for ved-sc-i); vigv- (vīvěre), revīv-isc-ère (revixi); ulc-, ulc-isc-i (ultum). For escit, see § 722.

Poscere (poposci); compesc-ere (compescui; comp. pasco) retain sc throughout; miscere (for mig-sc-ere; comp. μíy-vvμi) appears to contain the same suffix, but with an -e stem.

So perhaps conquiniscere, conquexi (see § 672).

To Vowel stems: A. īrā-, ira-sc-i (irātum); lǎbā-, laba-sc-ere 635 (also lābāre); nā-, na-sc-i (nātum); vespērā-, vespera-sc-ĕre (vesperaverat, Gell.); větěrā- (inveterāre, tran.), vetera-sc-ère, also invetera-sc-ĕre (intrans., inveterâv-, tran. and intran.).

O. no-, no-sc-ĕre (nōvi).

E. ǎcě- (ăcere), ǎce-sc-ĕre (ăcui), and many others from -e 637 stems, with perfect in -ui; see $$ 677-680.

ægre- (ægrēre, rare), ægre-sc-ère; albě- (albēre, rare), albescère; arde- (ardere), exarde-sc-ère (exarsi); auge- (augere), auge-sc-ĕre (intrans.); calve- (calvēre rare), calve-sc-ĕre; cāne- (cānēre), cane-sc-ère; fronde- (frondere), fronde-sc-ère; refrige-, refrigescère (refrixi); flavě- (flavēre), flāve-sc-ĕre; hærě- (hærĕre), inhære-scĕre (inhæsi); hěbě- (hěbēre), hěbe-sc-ĕre; hume- (hümēre), humesc-ĕre; lactě- (lactere), lacte-sc-ere; livě- (livēre, rare), live-scĕre (rare); luce- (lucere), illuce-sc ĕre (illuxit); māce- (mācēre, rare), mãce-sc-ère; mücě- (mucēre), muce-sc-ĕre; splendě- (splendēre), splende-sc-ĕre; turgě- (turgère), turge-sc-ĕre.

crē-, cre-sc-ĕre (crēvi); quiē-, quie-sc-ère (quiēvi); suē-, sue-sc-ère, mansuescere, &c. (suēvi).

I. dormi- (dormire), obdormi-sc-ère (obdormīvi); oblivi- (comp. 6,8 livēre, intrans.), oblīvi-sc-i; sci- (scire), sci-sc-ĕre (scīvi).

ǎpi-sc-i (aptum); cùpi- (cůpère), concupi-sc-ĕre (concupivi); făti- (?), făti-sc-ère and fati-sc-i (fessum); făci- (făcère), proficisc-i (profectum); gli-, gli-sc-ĕre; hi- (comp. hi-are), hi-sc-ĕre; nanci- (nanciam, old fut.), nanci-sc-i (nactum); săpi- (săpĕre), resipi-sc-ĕre (resipui and resipivi).

For a number of inchoatives formed directly from noun stems see in Book III. (§ 978).

(f. 1) The guttural is omitted in some stems which probably €39 ended in -gv; e.g. conīgv-, conīveo (conīvi or conixi); flugv-, fluo (fluxi, adj. fluxus, subst. fluctus); frugv-, fruor (fructus); strugv-, struo (struxi, structum); vigv-, vīvo (vixi, victum).

Of these coniveo properly belongs to the vowel verbs.

(f.2) Other stems vary between -gv and -g; e.g. stingvo, stingo; 640 tingvo, tingo; ungvo, ungo; ningvit, ningit. Similarly urgveo, urgeo.

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