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(g) In trǎho (traxi, tractum), věho (vexi, vectum), the h re- 641 presents a fricative guttural, which becomes partially assimilated in the perfect and supine, and is weakened in the present.
(b) s is changed, between vowels (according to the general 642 law, § 193. 3), to r; e.g. ges-, gero (gessi, gestum); haus-, haurio (hausi, haustum); hæs-, hæreo (hæsi, hæsum); quæs-, quæro (quæsivi, quæsitum); quès-, queror (questus); us-, ūro (ussi, ustum).
Of these haurio, hæreo properly belong to the vowel verbs.
(i) A few verbs have 11 in present stem, but not in perfect; 643 the supine appears however to show the effect of 11 (cf. § 705).
col- (?), percello (perculi, perculsum); põl- (?), pello (pepuli, pulsum); töl-, tollo (tetŭli); vello retains 11 in perfect (velli, vulsum); sallo, salt, is a byform of sălio (salsum).
(a) Most of these verbs have the stem ending in ā-, and preserve it in all tenses; e.g.
Fla-, flare, (flāvi, flātum); fa-, fāri, (fatus); in which a is radical. In na-, nāre (nāvi, nātum), the a is constant, but the derivative nǎto shows that ǎ is radical. In strā-, sternĕre (stravi, strātum); tlā-, tollĕre (tetuli, latum for tlātum); the present-stem is consonantal.
Derivative verbs with a- stems are very numerous; e. g. amā-, ǎmāre; crea-, creare; nuntiā-, nuntiare; leva-, levare, &c.; all have perfects in -āvi, ātum.
(b) Verbs with stems ending in ă-; e.g.
dă-, dăre, (dědi, dătum), but dās has ā.
In all other verbs of this class, the final a- combines with the initial vowel of the suffixes in tenses formed from the present stem, so as to exhibit ā; e.g.
Stă-, stāre (stěti, stătum, but sometimes statum) where ǎ is radical. crăpă-, crepare; căbă-, cubare; dŏmă-, domāre; frică-, fricare; mică-, micāre; enĕcă-, enecāre, (but necã- usually in simple verb); -plică- and -plica- (cf. §§ 677, 688), plicare; secă-, secăre; sõnǎ-, sonäre (also sonĕre); tonă-, tonāre; větă-, vetāre; all which have perfects in -ui, and most of them usually supines in -Itum.
Also lăvă-, lavāre (and lavĕre); jŭvă-, juvåre; which vocalise and contract the radical v with -ui of the perfect; and contract or omit it in the supine (cf. §§ 669, 688).
(c) In some verbs derivative stems in a are found besides other 646 derivative stems in e or i; e. g.
Artāre, old artīre; bullāre, later bullire; densāre, old densēre; fulgurāre, old fulgurīre; impetrāre, impetrīre, especially in sacrificial language; singultāre, old singultīre; tintinnāre, tintinnīre.
2. Of verbs with stems ending in o, the only traces are nō-, which has the inchoative suffix in the present tense, noscere (nõvi, nōtum), where the root has ŏ, comp. nota (subst.), notāre, cognitum, &c.; pō- (pōtum), the frequentative pōtā-, potāre being otherwise alone in use.
3. Verbs with stems ending in u:
(a) Most have stems in u, which however becomes short 648 before the initial vowel of the suffixes; e.g. acu-, acuere, acuis, acuisti, acŭas, acŭēbam, acŭěrem, &c. The supine has u. (See list in § 690.)
Plu- is apparently contracted for plův- (plŏv-), (cf. § 684). And the same may be the case with all: comp. fluo, fiŭv-ius.
(b) ruo has rǎ- in supine of compounds (but rūta (n. pl.) according to Varro: see § 691). pu- is found only in adj. putus and frequentative pǎtāre.
(c) A few verbs have u vocal in supine, but consonantal usually 649 (see § 94. 2), in present and perfect.
loqv-, loqvi (locutum); seqv-, sèqvi (secūtum); solv-, solvere (solvi, solütüm); volv-, volvĕre (volvi, võlutum).
4. Verbs with stems ending in e:
(a) Few verbs have the stem ending in ẽ, and these are monosyllables, where e is radical; e.g.
dele- (compound), delēre; flē-, flēre; nē-, nēre; -plē, -plēre. All these have perfect and supine in -ēvi, -ētum.
Other verbs with ē (-ēvi, -ētum) have consonantal present stems; crē-, crescère; also crē-, cernère; -ŏlē-, -olescère (also aboleo, abolēvi, abolitum; and adolesco, adultum); qviē-, qviescère; svē-, svescère; sprē-, spernère.
(b) In most verbs with stems in -e, the e is short, as may be 651 inferred from the perfect being in -ui (for -eui), and supine in -Itum
(old -ětum, cf. § 234. 1), which in some verbs was reduced to -tum. Contraction with the initial vowel of suffixes gives ē in most forms of the present stem; e.g. monēre, monēs, monēmus, monēbam, monebo, monērem, monētur (monět, as amăt, audit). In the imperative (2nd pers. sing. act.) of verbs with short penult, it is in early Latin not uncommonly used as short; e. g. těně (§ 233.4); e.g.
mòně-, monēre (monui, monitum), and many others; see §§ 677-681.
căvě-, căvēre (căvi for căvui, căvitum contracted to cautum), and others; see § 669.
(c) Many verbs have e (probably ĕ) in present stem, but drop 652 it entirely and show consonantal stems in the other parts of the verb. (If the vowel had not been dropped, and a perfect in -si or supine in -sum had been formed, there would have been a tendency in the s to become r. Where -si, -sum follows a vowel now, a consonant has been omitted, § 193. 3).
morde-, mordere (momordi, morsum), and others, in § 666.
vide-, videre (vīdi, visum); sĕde-, sedere (sēdi, sessum); prande-, prandĕre (prandi, pransum).
arde-, ardere (arsi, arsum); and many others in §§ 672-676.
(d) Some have a present stem in -e, besides another (older or 653 poetic) consonantal stem; e.g.
fervĕre, fervĕre; fulgere, fulgĕre; ölēre, emit scent, ölĕre; scătēre, scătĕre; strīdēre, strīdĕre; tergere, tergĕre; tuēri, -tui; ciēre, -cire.
5. Verbs with stems ending in i:
(a) Some verbs with radical i, and many derivatives have I, and retain it through all the tenses;
sci-, scire; ci-, -cīre (also ciēre); i-, īre; qui-, quire. In these the i is radical.
audi-, audire; dormi-, dormire; and many other derivatives.
In all these the perfect is in -īvi, and, in the derivative verbs and scio, the supine is in -itum. For the others see § 696.
(b) Some verbs have I in present stem, but drop it and show 655 a consonantal stem in other parts; e.g.
amici-, amicire (amicui, amictum); farcī-, farcire (farsi, fartum); fulci-, fulcire (fulsi, fultum); hausi-, haurire (hausi, haustum); mētī- (for mentī-), mētiri (mensum); ordi-, ordīri (orsum); -pĕri-, ǎperire (ăpěrui, ǎpertum); reperire (repperi, repertum),
and other compounds (Chap. xxx.); sæpi-, sæpire (sæpsi, sæptum); sanci-, sancire (sanxi, sanctum, rarely sancītum); sarci- (sarsi, sartum); senti-, sentire (sensi, sensum); věnī-, věnīre (vēni, ventum); vinci-, vincire (vinxi, vinctum). Sepěli-, sepelire has perfect sepelivi, supine sepultum.
Ŏri-, Ŏrīri (orsum); pòti-, potīri show in some tenses a present stem either in Ì or consonantal. (See Chap. xxx.)
(c) Some verbs have the stem ending in 1, which fell away 656 before i or ĕr; and as final in imperative, was changed to (or if e was the original, remained) & (§ 234. 2). The i is generally dropped in the supine stem.
căpi-, căpĕre (cēpi, captum); cœpi-, cœpère (cœpi, cœptum); făci-, făcĕre (feci, factum); födí-, födĕre (fōdi, fossum); fügi-, fügĕre (fügi, fut. part. fügitürus); grădi-, inf. grădi (gressum); jăcă-, jăcere (jeci, jactum); -lici-, -licère (-lexi, -lectum); mŏri-, inf. mòrī (also mòrīrī, fut, mŏriturus); pări-, părĕre (pepěri, partum, old pres. part. părens); pătă-, inf. pătī (passum); quăti-, quǎtere (-quassi, quassum); răpi-, răpĕre (răpui, raptum); -spici-, -spicère (-spexi, spectum).
Two have I in other tenses than those derived from the present; cupă-, cùpère (cùpīvi, căpîtum; in Lucr. also cupīvit); săpi-, săpĕre (sapīvi, rěsipui and rěsĭpīvi).
(d) A few verbs have consonant stems in present, but I stems 657 in other parts; pět-, pětĕre (pětīvi, pētītum); růd-, růdĕre (růdīvi); quæs-, querere (quæsivi, quæsitum); arcesso, capesso, facesso, lacesso, incesso, all have inf. -ĕre, perf. -īvi, sup. -ītum; trī-, tērĕre, (trīvi, trītum). So evěno is found for evěnio.
TENSES FORMED FROM THE PERFECT STEM.
THE suffixes for the tenses formed from the perfect stem; i.e. 658 for the perfect, completed future, and pluperfect in indicative, and perfect and pluperfect in subjunctive, are the same in all verbs; viz.
Comp. Future -ĕr-; Pluperf. Ind. -ĕr-ā; Perf. subj. -ĕr-i; Pluperf. subj. -iss-e. The perfect indicative has a suffix -is which
however is not found in the 3rd pers. sing. and the first pers. plural; in which the same personal suffixes as in the present indicative are used. This suffix -is in the first pers. sing. loses its s; in the third pers. plural, being followed by a vowel, changes to -er.
The perfect infinitive is formed by the suffix is-se. This is 659 apparently composed of the suffix is- just mentioned, and -se for -èse as in the present infinitive. (Comp. esse from sum, §§ 611, 612.)
The great resemblance of these suffixes to the parts of the verb 660 sum, which are used to form the same tenses in the passive voice, suggests (and the suggestion has been generally adopted) that they are identical in origin.
This theory would give a complete explanation of the pluperfect and the completed future indicative, with the exception that the 3rd pers. plural of the latter has ĕrint instead of ĕrunt, perhaps in order to avoid confusion with the the 3rd pers. plur. perfect indicative.
The perfect subjunctive would be explained by assuming as the suffix an older form of sim; viz. -ěsim, or with the usual change, -ĕrim.
The perfect indicative and infinitive and pluperfect subjunctive seem to require the assumption of a long i being suffixed to the perfect stem before the respective parts of the verb sum were added1. Thus audivissem, audivisse would stand for aud-iv-i-essem, audivi-esse, rexissem, &c. for rex-i-ssem, &c.
In the perfect indicative the 2nd pers. sing. e.g. audivisti would stand for aud-iv-i-esti (the personal suffix -ti being lost in the simple verb sum es), 2nd pers. plu. e. g. audivistis for aud-iv-i-estis; 3rd pers. plur. e. g. audiverunt for aud-iv-i-ĕsunt. The 3rd pers. sing. may have the simple personal suffixes, or may have been reduced from a fuller form; e.g. au-divi-est, audivist, audivit. -It is sometimes found long. The first person singular, e. g. audivi, may then be for aud-iv-I-esum, audīvism, audivim. And the Ist person plural may have had a similar pedigree.
It must however be observed that the resemblance to the parts of the verb es-, on which this theory rests, is in some degree deceptive, for it consists largely in personal and modal suffixes, which even on another hypothesis might be expected to be the same. And the rest of the suffixes is, as has been seen, in some tenses but poorly eked out by the simple stem ĕs.
The perfect stem when formed by a suffixed v (§ 681), is fre- 651 quently modified by the omission of the v in all tenses and persons
1 The same view is taken and certain Sanskrit forms compared by Corssen, Ausspr. 1. 614 sqq. ed. 2.