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větă-, vět-u-i (in Pers. once vět-ā-vi).

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lǎtě-, (Pr. also lătesc-), lǎt-u-i; obmūtě-, (Pr. obmutesc-), obmůt-u-i; nĭtě-, (Pr. also nitesc-), nĭt-u-i; innōtě-, (Pr. innōtesc-), innōt-u-i; športě-, Ŏport-u-it; pœnitě-, pœnit-u-it; pătě-, (Pr. also pătesc-), păt-u-i; pûtě-, (Pr. also putesc-), pūt-u-i.

D. candě-, (Pr. also candesc-), cand-u-i; crúdě-, (Pr. crudesc-), crúd-u-i; mădě-, (Pr. also mădesc-), măd-u-i; půdě-, pud-u-it; sordě-, (Pr. also sordesc-), sord-u-i; obsurdě-, (Pr. obsurdesc-), obsurd-u-i.

Nasals, Liquids, &c. N. -căn-, -căn-u-i (but căn-, cěcini); găn-, 679 (Pr. gign-), gĕn-u-i.

sǎnǎ-, son-u-i; tănă-, tõn-u-i.

ēmĭně-, emin-u-1; mõně-, mõn-u-i; sẽne- (Pr. usually senesc-), sĕn-u-i; těně-, těn-u-i; ēvāně- (Pr. ēvānesc-), ēvān-u-i.

L. ǎl-, ǎl-u-i; cõl-, cõl-u-i; consŭl-, consŭl-u-i; mõl-, mõl-u-i; Ŏl-, (also člě-), ŏl-u-i; võl-, (Pr. inf. velle), võl-u-i.

călě-, (Pr. also călesc-), căl-u-i; calle-, (Pr. also callesc-), call-u-i; coale-, (Pr. coalesc- intrans.; comp. ǎio trans.), coăl-u-i; dõlě-, döl-u-i; pallě-, (Pr. also pallesc-), pall-u-i; sílě-, (Pr. also silesc-), sil-u-i; stůdě-, stŭd-u-i; vălě-, (Pr. also vǎlesc-), văl-u-i.

ēvilě-, (Pr. ēvīlesc-), ēvil-u-i.

săli-, săl-u-i (rarely sălii).

R. sĕr-, sĕr-u-i.

ārě-, (Pr. also āresc-), ar-u-i; cărě-, căr-u-i; clārě-, (Pr. also claresc-), clar-u-i; crebre-, (Pr. crebresc-), crēbr-u-i; dūrě-, (Pr. düresc-), dür-u-i; filōrě-, (Pr. also fiōresc-), flōr-u-i; horrě-, (Pr. also horresc-), horr-u-i; mātüre-, (Pr. mãtùresc-), mātür-u-i; měrě-, měr-u-i; nigre-, (Pr. also nigresc-), nigr-u-i; pārě-, pār-u-i; terrě-, terr-u-i.

ǎpěrī-, ǎpĕr-u-1; õpĕrī-, õpĕr-u-i; sărî-, săr-u-i. (also sǎrīvi). S. deps-, deps-u-i: nex-, nex-u-i; põs-, (Pr. pōn-), pòs-u-i; tex-,

tex-u-i.

cense-, cens-u-i; tors-, (Pr. torrě-), torr-u-i

Semivorvels. ferv- (also fervĕ- and ferve-sc-), ferb-u-i (also

fervi).

iv. (b) Perfect stem formed by suffixing ▾ (consonant).

680

681

The consonantal v is suffixed to vowel stems only (except pasco?), and the preceding vowel is always long.

All regular verbs with stems in ā- or ï- (unless otherwise mentioned) have their perfect stem formed in this way. So also

Labials. cùpi-, (Pr. cùpi-, except once cupīret), cupï-v-i; săpi-, (Pr. săpi-), sapī-v-i.

Dentals. pěti-, (Pr. pět-), peti-v-i; rùdī-, (Pr. rùd-), rudī-v-i.

Sibilant. arcessi-, (Pr. arcess-), arcessi-v-i; căpessi-, (Pr. capess-), capessī-v-i; făcessi-, (Pr. facess-), facessi-v-i; incessi-, (Pr. incess-), incessī-v-i; lăcessi-, (Pr. lacess-), lacessi-v-i; posi-, (Pr. pōn-), pozī-v-i (always in Plaut., Ter., also in Cato, Catull.: for posui see § 680); quæsi-, (Pr. quær-), quæsī-v-i.

păs-, (Pr. pasc-, for pas-sc-), pā-v-i (cf. § 93. 2). Monosyllabic vowel verbs: (also oleo, quiesco).

A. să-, (Pr. sĕr-), sē-v-i; strā-, (Pr. stern-), strā-v-i.

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U. fu- (§ 719), fü-v-i (Plaut. but usually fui); comp. plu(§ 648), plūvi (also plui).

E. crē-, (Pr. cer-n-), crê-v-i; crē-, (Pr. cre-sc-), crẽ-v-i; flē-, filē-v-i; dēlē-, delē-v-i; nē-, nē-v-1; -õlē- (e. g. abole-sc-o, adole-sc-o, obsole-sc-o), -ölē-v-i; -plē-, -plë-v-i; quiē-, (Pr. quiesc-), quië-v-i; sprē-, (Pr. sper-n-), sprē-v-i; svē- (Pr. sve-sc-), svē-v-i.

I. ci-, (Pr. ciē-, also cï-), cī-v-i; 1-, (Pr. ind. 1st pers. eo), I-v-i; li-, (Pr. lin-), l-v-i and lē-v-i; qui-, (Pr. ind. 1st pers. queo), qui-v-i; sci-, (Pr. sci-sc-; besides the regular ī verb, scio), scī-v-i; sï-, (Pr. sin-), sī-v-; trī-, (Pr. tĕr-), trī-v-i (cf. § 678).

V. Perfect stem, same as present stem.

This is frequent (1) in the compounds of verbs of which the simple has a reduplicated perfect (see Chap. xxx.); (2) by the dropping of v, in perfects, in -īvi, -ēvi, -āvi (see §§ 661, 662); (3) regularly in verbs with -u stems, which with other, chiefly consonantal, stems are here named:

Labials. bib-, bibi; lamb-, lambi.

Gutturals. ic-, ici.

langv-e, langvi (cf. § 669); conigvě-, (Pr. cōnīve-), conīvi (also conixi).

Dentals. T. vert-, vert-i.

D. -cand-, -cand-i; cũd-, cũd-i; -fend-, -fend-i; fid-, (Pr. find-), fid-1 (probably for fèfid-1); mand-, mand-i; pand-, pandi; prehend-, prehend-1; scand-, scand-i; scid-, (Pr. scind-), scid-i (scicid-i old); sīd-, sīdi-; retund-, retundi.

prand-e-, prand-i; strīd-e-, strīd-i.

682

683

Liquids and Sibilants.

L. psall-, psall-i; vòl-, (Pr. vell-), vell-i (rarely vulsi).

R. verr-, verr-i.

compĕr-i-, compĕr-i; repĕri-, rěppĕr-i (both probably compounds of a perfect pěpěri).

S. pins-, (also pīs-), pins-i; vīs-, vīs-1.

Vowels.

U, vowel and consonant.

ăcu-, acu-i; argu-, argu-i; bātū-, batū-i; exù-, exu-i; fu-, fu-i (in Plautus sometimes fű-vi); grū-, gru-i; imbū-, imbu-i; indu-, indu-i; lũ-, lu-i; mětů-, mětu-i; minū-, minu-i; plù-, plu-i, also plūvi; nú-, nu-i; spù-, spu-i; stătū-, stătu-i; sternů-, sternu-i; sù-, su-i; tribù-, tribu-i.

solv-, solv-i; volv-, volv-i.

ferve-, ferv-i (also ferbui).

I. ǎdi-, (Pr. ind. 1st pers. sing. adeo), ǎdi-i; so usually the compounds of eo; inqui-, (Pr. ind. inquam), inquii; săli-, sal-i-i (rare, usually sălui).

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Among those verbs which have no perfect active in use 685 the following non-derivative verbs may be mentioned.

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Liquids. fer-, (Pr. inf. ferre: perfect in use, tüli); für-; gavid-, (Pr. gāud-e-, gavīsus sum).

Vowels. E. vi-e-.

Lai-, (Pr. ind. aio); fï-, (Pr. ind. fio).

CHAPTER XXIV.

OF THE SUPINE STEM.

THE supine stem has a common base with the stem of the past 686 and the future participles, and that of some verbal substantives, to which class the supines themselves belong; e. g. supine, ama-t-u-; past part. ama-t-o-; fut. part. amā-t-üro-; subst. denoting agent, amā-t-ōr-; denoting action ama-t-iōn-. This common base, which will be here spoken of as the supine stem, is -t- suffixed to the stem of the verb. When the verb-stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is, it long, generally retained; if short, almost always changed, (except in monosyllables), to i (§ 241), or omitted altogether. A few verbs which have a consonant stem, have -It- instead of -t in the supine, as if from a vowel stem. When the verb-stem ends in a consonant, or loses its final vowel, the -t is, when following certain consonants, changed to -s. A few other instances of this softening admit of special explanation.

The verbs here will be classified according as they do or do not exhibit a vowel before the supine suffix, and, subordinately to that, according to the final vowel or consonant of the verb stem.

N.B. The supine itself will be here named whenever either supine, past participle, or verbal substantive in -tu exists: otherwise such other form from the same base, as does exist.

i. Verbs with a vowel preceding the supine suffix. 687

A. I. Verbs having a in supine stem; na- (for gěnă? Pr. inf. nasci), nātum; strā-, (Pr. stern-), strā-tum; tlā-, (Pr. toll-), la-tum; ǎmā-, ǎmā-tum; and all other verbs with derivative ā stems.

frică-, frică-tum (also fric-tum); mică-, -mică-tum; něcă-, něcā-tum (but cf. § 700); sěcă-, secaturus (once).

2. Verbs having -ǎ in supine stem; dă-, dă-tum; ră-, (Pr. inf. 688 rēri: for the vowel, cf. § 668), rătum; să-, (Pr. sĕr-), să-tum; stǎ-, (Pr. inf. stare; also sistěre), stă-tum (but in some compounds stā-turus).

3.

Verbs having -1 (for -ǎ) in supine stem; crěpă-, crepi-tum; căbă-, (Pr. also cumb-), cubi-tum; dŏmă-, dŏmi-tum; -plică-, -plicitum (also plică-tum); sõnă-, sõnĭ-tum (sonā-turus, once); tōnă-, tōnĭ-tum (intonā-tus, once); větă-, věti-tum.

In jŭvă-, jū-tum (rarely juvā-turus); lăvă- (also lǎv-), lau-tum; the I is absorbed by the v preceding.

O. no-, (Pr. nosc-), nō-tum; pō-, (whence pōtare frequentative) 689 pō-tùs; cogno- (cf. § 647), (so also agno-), cogni-tum.

U. I. Verbs having u in supine stem; ăcu-, ăcu-tum; argu-, 699 argu-tum; dilu-, dilü-tum; exu-, exu-tum; glū- (Pr. glūtā-, frequentative) glu-tus, adj.; imbu-, imbu-tum; indu-, indu-tum; metu-, metu-tum (Lucr. once); minu-, minū-tum; -nũ-, nũ-tum (abnuiturus in Sall.); spü-, spü-tum; stătū-, stătu-tum; sũ-, sũ-tum ; tribū-, tribū-tum; tū- (Pr. tue- usually), tu-tum.

löqv-, locü-tum; seqv-, sĕcu-tum; solv-, solů-tum; volv-, volutum.

fru- (for frugv-) has rarely fruitūrus (usually, fruc-tum).

2. Verbs having -ŭ in supine stem; rù-, ră-tum, (but rūtum 691 according to Varr.; fut. part. is rui-tūrus); pù-, (whence pŭtāre frequentative), pù-tus (adj.); clŭ-, (almost always clue-), -clutum (inclǎtus).

E. I. Verbs having -ē in supine stem; crē-, (Pr cern-, also 692 Pr. cresc-), crētum; delē-, delē-tum; fē-, (Pr. fētā-, frequentative), fē-tus (adj.); flē-, flē-tum; nē-, nē-tum (Ulp.); -olē- (Pr. obs-, exolesc-), -Ŏlē-tum; -plē-, plē-tum; quiē-, quiē-tum; svē-, (Pr. svesc-), svētum; sprē-, (Pr. spern-), sprē-tum.

2.

Verbs having -ě in supine stem; věgě-, věgě-tus (adj.); 693 viě-, viě-tum (Hor., but vie-tum Ter. Lucr.).

3. Verbs having 1 (for -ě) in supine stem; ǎbole-, ǎbõli-tum; căli-, căli-turus; cări-, cără-turus; dõli-, dõli-turus; exercě-, exercitum; hăbě- (and compounds dēbě-, præbě-), hăbi-tum; jăcě-, jăcăturus; licě-, lici-tum; lůbě-, lŭbĭ-tum; měrě-, měrĭ-tum; misèrě-, misĕri-tum (rarely misertum); mõně-, monĭ-tum; nòcě-, nŏcă-tum; pārē-, parĭ-turus; pigě-, pigi-tum; plăcě-, plăcĭ-tum; půdě-, půdĬtum; sõlě-, soli-tum; tăcě-, tăcă-tus (adj.); terrě-, terri-tum; vălě-, vali-turus; věrě-, věrĭ-tum. Sorbě- has subst. sorbi-tio.

căvě-, căvi-tum (old: usually cau-tum); făvě-, fau-tum (for favi- 694 tum; cf. făvitor Plaut.). So also fövě-, fō-tum; mõvě-, mō-tum; vŎvě-, vōtum.

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