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Es in pres. ind. is always long in Plaut., Terence.

When est came after a vowel or m, the e was omitted both in 721 speaking and writing (nata st, natum st, oratio st). So e.g. in Cicero, and (according to L. Müller) always both in scenic and dactylic

The same was not únfrequently the case with es after a vowel, and perhaps after m also; e.g. nacta’s, ugnum's. In the comic writers a short final syllable in s also coalesces with est; e. g. factust, opust, similist, for factus est, opus est, similis est; occasionally with es; e.g. nactu's, simili's, for nactus es, similis es. (Ritschl.)

An old form for the fut. indic. was escit, escunt; (apparently an 722 inchoative form). It is found once in Lucretius.

The form for the pres. subj. slem, &c. (8 590) is frequent in Plautus, Terence, and early inscriptions; Cicero speaks of it as used in his time (Orat. 47, $157). Fuam, &c. is also frequent in Plautus and other scenic poets, except Terence, who like Vergil uses it once only. The compounds occasionally have -sies, -siet, -sient.

The perf. and tenses formed from it are in Plautus occasionally 723 fivit, fuverit, &c.

Like sum are inflected its compounds, viz. absum (perf. abfui or 724 aful), adsum or assum (perf. adfui or affui), desum (de-est, de-eram, &c. pronounced dēst, dēram, &c.), 'insum, intersum, obsum, præBum (3rd pers. sing. præst), prosum (pröd- before a vowel; e.g. prod-es, prod-ero), subsum, supersum.

Of these adsum and præsum alone have a present participle absens, præsens.

Possum, I can, compounded of põte sum, usually retains the 725 t before a vowel (e.g. pot-es, pot-est, potestis, pot-ero, poteram), but assimilates it before s (e.g. possåmus, possunt, &c.). The imperf. subj. is pos-sem, inf. posse (in Plaut. potessem, potesse), perf

. ind. potui (probably for potīvi, the perfect of an active form of potior: comp. posivi, posui). It has no participle, potens being used merely as an adjective, powerful. Possiem, possies, &c. later possim, posbīs, &c. are frequent in Plautus and Terence.

The full forms, potis sum, es, est, eram, ero, sim, &c. are found in præ-Augustan poets; especially potis est in Terence, Lucretius, and once in Vergil; pote fuisset once in Ter. Potis and pote are also used as direct predicates without the verb.

Potestur, possitur, poteratur, are quoted as used occasionally with passive infinitive in early writers (Pacuvius, Cæl., Ant. &c.).




2. dās 3. dět

3. dant



Nolo (Ma-volo Indicative Mood.

Volo, (Ne-volo), for mag-volo),
Present Tense. give. be willing. be unwilling. prefer.
Sing. I. do



non vis māvis vult

non vult māvult Plur. I. dămus võlůmus nolūmus mālūmus 2. dătis


non vultis māvultis

mālunt Future Sing. 1. dăbo

võlam (not used) (not used)
2. dăbis


māles Imperf. Sing. 1. dăbam võlēbam nölēbam mālēbam Perf. Sing. 1. dědi


Subjunctive Mood.
Pres. Sing. 1. dem


ur. I. dēmus

mus nõlīmus Imperf. Sing. 1. dărem vellem


mallem Imperative. Pres. Sing. 2. da

noli Plur. 2. dăte

nolite Future Sing. 2. dăto

nolīto Plur. 2. dătote

nolitāte 3. danto

Present. dăre


Future. dătūrum esse
Present. dans

volens nolens (not used)
Gerund. dandum volendum
Gerundive, dandus

Perfect, dătus


Of these verbs Do alone has a passive voice. The forms der and demur are not actually found anywhere.

For the subjunctive forms duim, &c. see $ 589.

In præ-Augustan language the 3rd pers. sing. and 2nd pers. plural was 728 volt, voltis. In conversational language si vis, si vultis became sīs, sultis.

For non vis, non vult Plautus has frequently něvis, něvult; on the other hand, for nolis, nolit, nolint, nollem he has sometimes the full forms non velis, &c. (In Martial 1x. 7 nonvis occurs.)

Also in Plautus frequently māvolo (once also in Terence), māvölet, mavělim, mavelis, mavelit, mavellem.

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ěděre or esse ferre

ferri Itūrus esse factum iri

ēsūrus esse lātūrus esse lātum iri iens


fèrens G. èuntis


lātūrus eundum -di -do făciendus ědendus

fèrendus -eundus (in comp.) factus

lātus Ambio is the only compound of eo, which is inflected regularly like a verb of the fourth conjug.

Futurus sim, fore, futurus esse, frequently supply the place of parts of 10, 731 Fierem, fieri, in Plautus and Terence often have the stem i long.

Of the compounds with prepositions the following forms occur: confit, confieret, confierent, confieri; defit, defiunt (Gell.), defiet, defiat, defieri; ecfieri; infit, interfiat, interfieri; superfit, superfiat, superfieri.


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In the passive we find estur for editur (3 pres. ind.), and essētur (once in Varr.) for ěděrētur (3 pers. imperf. subj.). The contracted forms are also found from comědo, and some (exest, exesse, exesset) from exědo.

Quěo, něquěo, are declined like eo, but have no imperative, par- 733 ticiple, or gerund. (Nequeuntis is quoted once from Sallust.) Only the present indic. and subj. are at all frequent.

Quis and quit (pres. act.) are only used after non, as non quis (for nequis), nonquit (for nequit). With the passive infinitive there are a few instances in early writers of passive forms, nequita est, nequitur. Cf. § 725.



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The following verbs are used as deponents. Sometimes they, 734 especially the past participle, are used in a passive as well as an active sense. Instances of this are here mentioned. Sometimes the deponent use is exceptional, and the active form with corresponding passive usual. Such deponents have here the name of the authors, who use them, simply appended. A few rare words are omitted. Compounds also are usually omitted.

Adjūtari (Pac., Afran.; adjūtare Plaut., Ter.); ădulari (adulāre Lucr., Cic. poet.); æmulāri; altercāri (altercāre Ter.); alucināri; ampullāri; ancillāri (old); āpisci (pass. once, Plaut.; so ădeptus Sall., Ovid, &c.; indipiscère Plaut.); ăprīcāri; ăqüari; arbitrāri (pass., Plaut., Cic. once; arbitrāre Plaut.); architectāri; argumentäri; argūtāri; aspernāri; assentiri (also pass., and assentire frequent in Cic., also Ov., Tac.); assentāri; auctionāri; aucủpāri (aucupāre scenic poets); augúrāri (augūrāre, Plaut. &c., Verg.; auguratus pass., Cic., Liv.); auspīcāri (auspicāre early writers; auspicātus pass., Ter., Cic., Liv.); auxiliāri; bacchări; baubāri; bellāri (Verg.); blandīri (eblandītus pass. Cic.); călumniāri; calvi; căvillāri; causārl; circůlāri; comissāri; comitāri (passive Lucr., Ov., Plin.; pass. part. frequently Cic., Liv. &c.; comitāre Ov.); commentāri (pass. part. Cic.); comminisci (pass. part. Ovid); communicāri (Liv.); compěrīri (Ter., Sall.); expěrīri (pass. part. Cic., Liv. frequently, Tac.); contiānāri; conflictāri (rarely as pass.; conflictāre Ter.); conāri; consiliari; conspicāri (pass.Sall.); contechnāri; contemplari (contemplare Plaut. often); conviciāri; convīvāri; crimināri (pass. Cic.; criminare Plaut.); cunctāri (pass. part. impers.

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Tac.); despicāri (pass. part. Plaut., Ter.); dīgladiārı; dignāri (dignare Att., Cic. poet. į pass. part. Cic., Verg.); domināri; elucubrāri (rare); èpůlari; expergisci; exěcrāri (pass. part. Cic.); fábricări (Plaut., Corn., Cic., Tac.; pass. Quintil.; part. pass. Ov., Liv., Suet., Tac.; fabricare Hor., Ov., Sen. &c.); fābúlārt; fămúlārt; fătēri (pass. Cic.?); confitēri (part. pass. Cíc., Sen., Quint., &c.); profitēri (part. pass. Ov., Sen.); fătisci (Lucr.); feněrāri (part. pass. Plaut., Ter., Scævol. ; fenerare Ter., Sen., Plin., &c.); fēriāri; fluctuāri (Liv., Sen.; fluctuare Plaut., Corn., Cic., Verg.); fāri (effatus pass. Cic., Liv.); frümentāri; frunisci (old); frui; frustrări (pass. Sall., pass. part. Vell.; frustrāre once Plaut.,); fruticāri (Cic.; fruticare Col., Plin.); fungi (perfunctum pass. Cic.); fürāri; gesticůlāri; gloriari; grădi; græcāri; grassāri; grātificări; grātäri; grātålāri; grăvāri; hăriðlāri; hēluāri; hortāri?; hospitāri; jăcúlari; imagināri; îmitāri (pass. part. Cic. poet., Ov., Quint.); infitiari; injūriāri; insidiāri; interprětari (pass. part. Cic., Liv., &c.); jöcāri; irasci; jurgāri (Hor., Jurgare Ter., Cic.); Jůvěnāri; lābi; lætāri; lamentāri; largiri; latrocināri; lenocināri; libīdināri; 11cēri; licitāri; lignāri; ldqvi; lucrāri; luctāri (luctare Enn., Plaut., Ter.); lūdif Icāri (ludificare and pass. Plaut. often); luxúriari (usually luxuriare); māchināri (part. pass. Sall.); manducări (old); mātěriāri; mědēri; mědicāri (medicare more common); měditāri (pass. part. Plaut., Cic., Liv., Tac.); mendicari (Plaut.; oftener mendicare); mentiri (pass. part. Ov., Quint., Plin.; ementītus pass. Cic.); mercāri (pass. part. Prop., Plin.); měrēri, to deserve (frequent; rarely to earn; měrēre just the reverse: of the compounds emerere, commerere are more frequent than the deponent forms); mētīri (part. pass. Cat., Cic.); mētāri (part. pass. Hor., Liv.); minitāri (minitare Plaut. rarely); mināri (interminatus pass. Hor.); mirāri; misèrāri; misèrēri (miserēre Lucr.; cf. ch. xxx.); modërări (pass. part. Cic., Sall.); mòdůlāri (pass. part. Ov., Suet., &c.); mochāri; mölīri; mörigěrāri; mðri; mörāri (morare Plaut. rarely); münerāri (also munerāre); murmărāri (rare; commurmurari Cic.); mūtuāri (pass. part. Plin.); nancisci (fut., nanciam Gracchus); nasci; naucủlari (Mart. once); negotiari; nictari (Plin., nictare Plaut.); nidůlāri (Plin. once); nīti (enisum est impers. Sall.); nixāri (Lucr.); nūgāri; nundināri; nutricāri (also nutricare); nutriri (Verg. once; usually nutrire); oblīvisci (pass. part. Verg., Prop.); obsidiari; õdõrāri; ominări (abominatus pass. Hor., Liv.); Opěrári; opināri (opinare Enn., Pacuv.; pass. part. Cic.); opitálari; opperiri; opsonäri (Plaut., opsonare usually); ordiri (exorsus pass. Plaut., Cic., Verg.); oriri; oscitāri (also oscitare); oscülāri; otlari; pābålāri; păcisci (pass. part. Cic., Liv.); pālāri; palpāri (Plaut., Hor., also palpare); pandiculāri; părăsītāri; partiri (par

1 In form frequentative : the simple verb in the 3rd pers. (höritur) is quoted from Ennius.

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