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rěvertor, return, perf. reverti, reversum, reverti (inf.), rever

sus, having returned. prævertor, attend to first, is entirely deponent: præverto, be

beforehand with, is very rare.

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vid-ě.

video, see

vidi

visum vidēre videor, visum, vidēri, very common in sense of seem.

vleo, plait (twigs, &c.)

vietum vière vi-ěpart. viētus (Ter. Lucr., but viětus, Hor.), shrivelled.

vinc-iVicvisvigtulc

vincio, bind

vins

vinctum vincire vinco, conquer

vici

victum vincere viso, visit visi

visère vivo, live

vixd

victum vivěre ulciscor, avenge one

ultum ulcisci
self on, avenge
ungo,
anoint

(ungěre
und
unctum

ungvěre
Võlui

velle So its compounds nolo, malo; see Ch. xxvIII.

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ungy

volo, will

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vòmo, vomit

vòmui vomitum voměre vomvõveo, vow

Võvi

võtum Võvēre VÕy-8urgeo, push, press ursi

urgēre urg-ěūro, burn

ussi

ustum ūrěre üsCombüro, combussi, combustum, combūrère, is a compound of com

with an older form buro, seen in bustum, tomb. Other compounds (exūro, &c.) follow the usual form.

ut

ûtor, avail oneself,

ūsum

üti

make use

739

The following verbs also have no perfect or supine.
(1) e- verbs:
ægreo, be sick

frondeo, be in leaf mūceo, be mouldy albeo, be white

hěbeo, be blunt polleo, be powerful ăveo, be greedy hūmeo, be wet renīdeo, shine calveo, be bald

lacteo, be a suckling, scăteo, bubble forth

have milk cāneo, be hoary līveo, be bluish pale splendeo, be bright flāveo, be yellow măceo, be lean squāleo, be rough foteo, stink mæreo, grieve

tābeo, waste away (2) i- verbs: cæcutio, be blind prūrio, itch for ineptio, be silly

desideratives dementio, rave singultio, sob coenatůrio, have

appetite glocio, cluck

emptůrio, wish to buy
partério, be in labour

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BOOK III.

WORD-FORMATION.

BOOK III'.

WORD-FORMATION.

CHAPTER I.

ELEMENTS OF WORD-FORMATION.

740

7+1

Words are formed either directly from roots or from other words. The elements of formation are four: reduplication, internal change, addition of sufixes, combination of two or more words into one. Two or more of these modes of formation may be called into use in forming a word; and especially, almost all words, whatever other change the root may have undergone, exhibit some suffix or other.

i. Reduplication is the repetition of the root syllable, either to express repeated action or simply to give additional emphasis to the root. In Latin there appear but few instances of reduplication. The following are probably such:

1. Reduplication of a closed syllable:

bar-bar-us, foreign (from Bápßapos); car-cer (n.), a prison, a barrier (for the vowel cf. § 204. 2); cin-cin-nus, a curl (comp. kikuvvos); cur-cůl-io, a weevil (for the change of liquid cf. § 185. 2); fur-tur (m.), bran; gur-gul-io, the windpipe (cf. § 852); marmor (n.), marble; mur-mur (n.), a murmur (comp. popuúpelv); quisquis, whosoever ; tin-tin-näre, to tinkle (cf. § 646); tur-tur (m. f.), a dove; il-tu-are, to bowl, wail (comp. ó-ol-účewv). Similarly perper-am (adv.), badly (8 526).

2. Reduplication of an open syllable; or rather, of the initial consonant, with a vowel appended:

bi-běre, to drink; ci-cāda, a grasshopper; ci-cătres (f.), a scar; c-cer (n.), chickpease; ci-conia, a stork; ci-cúr, tame; ci-cüta, bemlock; cocus (qvoqvus), a cook; cũ-cūlus, a cuckoo (comp. KókKU5); că-cůmis (m.), a cucumber; ců-curbita, a gourd; jā-Jūnus, fasting;

1 In this book much use has been made of the lists in Leo Meyer's Vergleich. Gram. (1861–1865) especially the second volume. Cor. responding Greek words have been usually taken from Curtius (see above, p. 24 n.).

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